288 results in English
Letter from Otto Ringling, October 26, 1907
Otto Ringling (1858–1911) was the son of a German immigrant who, with his brothers Albert, Alfred, Charles, John, August, and Henry, created the Ringling Bros. circus empire in the late 19th century. The brothers bought the competing Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1907. They ran the circuses separately at first, but merged them in 1919 to create the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, which came to be known as “the Greatest Show on Earth.” This letter, written by Otto to his brothers in October 1907, details how the assets ...
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody
William Fredrick “Buffalo Bill” Cody (1846–1917) was at different times a trapper, miner, Pony Express rider, scout, wagon master, stagecoach driver, legislator, and Civil War soldier. He earned his nickname, Buffalo Bill, because of his skill in supplying the Kansas Pacific Railroad with buffalo meat for its workers; in 18 months, he killed more than 4,000 buffalos. In 1883, he started the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Omaha, Nebraska, using cowboys and Native Americans to portray scenes from the West. The show recreated daring rescues, heroic ...
British Guiana
This map, prepared and printed in 1908 at the office of the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, United Kingdom, provides a relatively detailed view of the geography of British Guiana (present-day Guyana), one of only two British colonies on the mainland of South and Central America (the other being British Honduras). A note indicates that the portion of the map north of 5° North latitude is from a map prepared by the government surveyor of British Guiana, while the remainder of the map “has been compiled from various sources and is less ...
Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
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Offices for Shipping and Forwarding Companies of Elder
This photograph, taken in 1907, shows the interior of the offices of a British shipping and forwarding company in the port of La Luz, near the northeast tip of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). La Luz, also known as Las Palmas Port, was built between 1883 and 1903 by the British firm of Swanston and Company. Strategically located some 100 kilometers west of Morocco in the Atlantic Ocean, between the continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas, the Canary Islands was important as a coaling station for steamships transiting long ...
Design for the Proposed Centre Català, Montevideo. Building Plan
Gaietà Buïgas Monravà (1851-1919) was the designer of the monument to Christopher Columbus in Barcelona (erected 1882-88) and of such buildings as the Spa Vichy Català in Caldes de Malavella (1898) and the Banco Popular building in Montevideo (1904−7). Buïgas completed most of his work in South America, in Argentina (1903−4) and, especially, in Uruguay (1904−12), where he lived for nine years. Designs for 36 of the works that he made for these countries are preserved at the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Designs for buildings and monuments in ...
Legislature Building, Montevideo. Longitudinal Section
Gaietà Buïgas i Monravà (1851−1919) was the designer of the monument to Christopher Columbus in Barcelona (erected 1882−88) and of such buildings as the Villa Avelina, now the Hotel El Xalet, in Sitges (1882) and Spa Vichy Català in Caldes de Malavella (1898). Buïgas completed most of his work in South America, in Argentina (1903−4) and, especially, in Uruguay (1904−12), where he lived for nine years. Designs for 36 of the works that he made for these countries are preserved at the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Designs ...
Crown of Roses, Issue 30, January 1907
Klílā d-warde (Crown of roses) was a magazine issued in Mosul (present-day Iraq) between August 1904 and July 1908. It was published by the Dominican Fathers, in the neo-Aramaic language using an East Syriac script, which was common to the Chaldean Catholics of the region. It contained devotional articles, with occasional coverage of cultural topics. The magazine was produced by a small staff of clergy based in Mosul. The Dominican presence in the city goes back to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV sent a group of Italian friars to establish ...
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Mechanics and Crafts of the People of Annam
Henri J. Oger was a colonial administrator in French Indochina with a deep admiration for the people and culture of Vietnam, or Annam, as the French then called it. In 1908−9 he commissioned artists and wood carvers to visit the 36 streets of Hanoi and the surrounding countryside in order to document the material culture, methods of production, and cultural practices of the common people. The artists sketched 4,200 scenes and produced wood engravings from which prints were made. Oger assembled the prints to create the multivolume Technique ...
A Railway Maintenance Car
This photograph is a group portrait, taken at the railway maintenance car on the occasion of the completion of the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway. In the front row are the railway engineers; the third person on the right is Zhan Tianyou, the chief engineer in charge of construction of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou railroad line. Behind the engineers are the rail workers. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known ...
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A Railway Maintenance Car
This photograph is a group portrait taken at a railway maintenance car on the occasion of the completion of the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway. Seen standing on the left are the railway engineers; on the right are the rail workers. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement ...
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South Entrance of the Wuguitou Tunnel
This photograph shows the south entrance of the Wuguitou Tunnel, one of the four large tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On the right is a stone house cut from the rocks. Carved inscriptions can be seen on the cliffs. On the facade of the tunnel entrance is an inscription, partially reading, “Wuguitou Tunnel, in the 33rd year (1907) of Guangxu reign”; the remainder of the Chinese characters are illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album ...
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Overview of a Passing Train on the Number 34 Bridge at the North Entrance of the Wuguitou Tunnel
This photograph shows the north entrance of Wuguitou Tunnel, one of the four large tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The Chinese characters on the facade of the tunnel entrance read, “Wuguitou Tunnel.” The other two lines of text on the facade are illegible. A passing freight train is seen on the bridge tracks. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial ...
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The Number 35 Bridge at the South Entrance of the Shifosi Tunnel
This photograph shows a bridge leading to the south entrance of the Shifosi Tunnel, one of the four tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou ) railroad line. On the facade of the tunnel entrance is an inscription reading, “Shifosi Tunnel.” High mountains and the Great Wall of China are in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad ...
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The North Entrance of the Shifosi Tunnel
This photograph shows the north entrance of the Shifosi Tunnel, one of the four tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On the facade of the tunnel entrance is an inscription reading, “Shifosi Tunnel.” The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the ...
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A Panoramic View from the Safe Railway Switches at the Smaller Badaling
This photograph shows a distant view of railway switches along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, with the tracks climbing towards the Smaller Badaling. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
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The Number 37 Inclined Bridge on the North of Shifosi Tunnel
This photograph shows an inclined bridge located on the north side of the Shifosi Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of Shanghai ...
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The Number 37 Liulangying Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, situated at Liulangying. Liulangying, located in Yanqing County, is known for its cliff carvings. A railway maintenance car is seen here on the bridge. On the wall of the bridge are posters advertising a tobacco company. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built ...
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The Number 38 Bridge at the Entrance of Qinglongqiao Village
This photograph shows a small bridge with one arch on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, situated at the village of Qinglongqiao. Behind the bridge are high mountains. On the bridge are three railway workers and a maintenance car. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The ...
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Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows the front of the station at Qinglongqiao, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On the facade of the station is an inscription reading, "Qinglongqiao Station." The line of Chinese characters on the right reads “Autumn of the Wushen year  (1908) of Guangxu reign,” and on the left, “Inscription by Guan Xianjun.” The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly ...
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A Distant Southwest View of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a distant view of the train yard at Qinglongqiao Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. In the foreground is a construction site and railway workers. In the background are high mountains and the Great Wall of China. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese ...
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A Panoramic View from the West of the Number 39 Bridge of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a view of a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, seen from the west. The bridge was located at the train yard of Qinglongqiao. In the far background is a chain of mountains. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs ...
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A Panoramic View from the East Entrance of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a view seen from the east entrance of the Qinglongqiao train yard along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. High mountains are on the right and left and in the distant background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album ...
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Water Tower at the Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph shows a water tower (seen here on the left) at Qinglongqiao Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The train yard of the station is seen on the right. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken ...
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South View of Two Trains, Passing in the Two Directions, on the West Side of the Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph shows two trains traveling along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, on the west side of Qinglongqiao Station. The train in the foreground is a freight train. The second train is a passenger train, with the section directly following the locomotive carrying freight. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
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The Number 40 Bridge Outside of the South Entrance of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph depicts a bridge outside the south entrance of the Badaling Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. A railway maintenance car can be seen here with three rail workers. Under the bridge is a caravan of mules and several mule-drivers. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese ...
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The South Entrance of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph shows the south entrance of the Badaling Tunnel, one of the four tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. This was the longest tunnel, measuring a distance of around 1,092 meters. Above the tunnel is a sign that reads, “Badaling Tunnel.” The smaller Chinese characters on the two sides of the sign are illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Ventilation Building over the Badaling Tunnel Shaft
This photograph shows a round ventilation building located over the tunnel shaft of the Badaling Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
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A Panoramic West View of the Ventilation Building of the Badaling Tunnel Shaft
This photograph shows the round ventilation building located over the tunnel shaft of the Badaling Tunnel along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The Great Wall of China is in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between ...
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The North Entrance of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph shows the north entrance of the Badaling Tunnel, one of the four tunnels excavated along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Above the tunnel entrance is a sign that reads, “Badaling Tunnel.” The same text is found on a sign at the south entrance to the tunnel. The smaller Chinese characters on the two sides of the sign are illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway ...
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The Number 41 Bridge at the North Side of the Badaling Tunnel
This photograph shows a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated on the north side of the Badaling Tunnel. On the bridge are seven people, five of them in the railway maintenance car and two standing beside the tracks. Under the bridge are two camels and a camel driver. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China ...
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The Number 42 Bridge South of Chadaocheng
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated south of Chadaocheng. The Great Wall of China can be seen in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng ...
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The Number 43 Bridge West of Chadaocheng
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated west of Chadaocheng. The Great Wall of China is in the background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
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The Number 44 Longtan'gou Bridge
This photograph shows an arch bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at Longtan'gou. Workers in a railway maintenance car are on top of the bridge. Under the bridge is a dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album ...
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The Number 45 Xibozi Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at Xibozi. On the tracks is a railway maintenance car, with three people inside. Under the bridge is a caravan of mules, carrying heavy loads on their backs. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement ...
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The Railway Switches at the Xibozi Station Stockpile Processing Yard
This photograph shows railroad switches at the stockpile processing yard of Xibozi Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Railroad switches are connecting devices that allow switching from one line to another so that trains can turn in another direction safely and smoothly. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
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Xibozi Station
This photograph shows the incomplete construction of Xibozi Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Rail workers are gathered alongside the tracks. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
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The Number 46 Xiaohongshan'gou Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at Xiaohongshan'gou. Rail workers are seen here at work on the tracks and under the bridge. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 47 Paoshanghe Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at the Paoshanghe River. Under the bridge is the dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 48 Paoshanghe Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at the Paoshanghe River. Under the bridge is the dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Number 49 Paoshanghe Bridge
This photograph shows a bridge on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway, situated at the Paoshanghe River. Under the bridge is the dry riverbed. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Kangzhuang Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows a view of the station at Kangzhuang, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The inscription on the facade of the station reads,: “Kangzhuang Station, in the Wushen year  (1908) of Guangxu reign, inscription by Guan Xianjun.” The remainder of the inscription is illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first ...
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