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Letter from Otto Ringling, October 26, 1907
Otto Ringling (1858–1911) was the son of a German immigrant who, with his brothers Albert, Alfred, Charles, John, August, and Henry, created the Ringling Bros. circus empire in the late 19th century. The brothers bought the competing Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1907. They ran the circuses separately at first, but merged them in 1919 to create the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, which came to be known as “the Greatest Show on Earth.” This letter, written by Otto to his brothers in October 1907, details how the assets ...
Contributed by
Illinois State University's Special Collections, Milner Library
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody
William Fredrick “Buffalo Bill” Cody (1846–1917) was at different times a trapper, miner, Pony Express rider, scout, wagon master, stagecoach driver, legislator, and Civil War soldier. He earned his nickname, Buffalo Bill, because of his skill in supplying the Kansas Pacific Railroad with buffalo meat for its workers; in 18 months, he killed more than 4,000 buffalos. In 1883, he started the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Omaha, Nebraska, using cowboys and Native Americans to portray scenes from the West. The show recreated daring rescues, heroic ...
Contributed by
The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art
Church of the Ascension (St. Theodosius) (1903-10), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Perm' Church of the Ascension in the name of St. Feodosii was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city's merchant community gave substantial donations for church construction. The donor for ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Representatives of the First Iranian Parliament
This photograph shows the representatives of the first Iranian Majles (parliament) in front of the military academy, which served as the first parliament building. In the 1870s–early 20th century, leading political figures in Iran concluded that the only way to save country from government corruption and foreign manipulation was to make a written code of laws, an attitude that laid the foundation for the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–7. The movement for a constitution bore fruit during the reign of Muẓaffar ad-Dīn Shah of the Qajar dynasty, who ...
Contributed by
National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Map of the Dominican Republic
The division of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola into the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic and French-speaking Haiti goes back to the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, under which Spain transferred the western third of what was then the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo to France. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777, the French and Spanish empires defined precisely the border between their respective territories on the island. Part of the present-day border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic still follows the line negotiated in 1777, but adjustments to the border ...
Contributed by
Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Costa Rica - from Official and Other Sources
This 1903 map of Costa Rica was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau issued handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas.  The map shows physical features, such as rivers, lakes and mountains, international and provincial borders, and the routes of steamship lines from the port ...
Contributed by
Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Cuba
This detailed map of Cuba was published by the Rand McNally Company of Chicago in 1904. It shows provinces, principal cities and towns, and the 18 railroads then in operation in the country. The six provinces are indicated by different colors. A large inset map in the upper right shows the port and city of Havana; the key at the bottom of the main map indicates points of interest in Havana. Smaller inset maps depict Port Matanzas; Cardenas and Santa Clara Bays; the Port of Cienfuegos; and the Port of ...
Contributed by
Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
El Salvador - from Official and Other Sources
This 1903 map of El Salvador was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau issued handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows the capital city of San Salvador; the capitals of departments and other important cities; international and departmental borders; submarine cables, telegraph ...
Contributed by
Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
British Guiana
This map, prepared and printed in 1908 at the office of the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, United Kingdom, provides a relatively detailed view of the geography of British Guiana (present-day Guyana), one of only two British colonies on the mainland of South and Central America (the other being British Honduras). A note indicates that the portion of the map north of 5° North latitude is from a map prepared by the government surveyor of British Guiana, while the remainder of the map “has been compiled from various sources and is less ...
Contributed by
Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17
At approximately 10:35 in the morning on December 17, 1903, Orville Wright made the first powered, controlled, and sustained flight of a heavier-than-air machine. The flight lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet (37 meters). Orville and his brother Wilbur made three more flights that day, the longest of which covered 852 feet (260 meters) in 59 seconds. With this telegram, sent from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in the late afternoon of the same day, Orville informed their father of the achievement. The text reads: “Success four flights this ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Bird's Eye View of Cumberland, Maryland 1906
This panoramic map shows Cumberland, Maryland, as it appeared in 1906. Located on the Potomac River in the western part of the state, Cumberland was an important transportation hub early in the nation’s history. It was the western terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, built between 1828 and 1850 to link the Ohio River with Chesapeake Bay. It was the starting point of the National Road (also known as the Cumberland Road), on which construction began in 1811, and which ran westward to Vandalia, Illinois. Cumberland later became ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Study for Woolworth Building, New York
On April 24, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson pressed a button in Washington, DC, that first illuminated the more than 5,000 windows in the 60-story Woolworth Building, the tallest building in the world at that time. Located on Broadway in lower Manhattan, New York City, the building was a triumph of American construction technology and architectural prowess. Known as "the Cathedral of Commerce," it was clad in gleaming architectural terra-cotta, with a gilded roof ascending to 793 feet (233 meters). Shown here is a sketch elevation of the building by ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
At the Universal Peace Congress in Stockholm
The Universal Peace Congresses were international meetings to promote peace that took place in different European capitals in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The congresses established liberal pacifism as a distinct system of thought in European politics and a serious force in international relations for several decades. Religious peace groups, labor organizations, government officials, authors, and other notables attended these congresses, whose attendance grew until World War I, when they were discontinued because of conflicting loyalties among the delegates. The first notable peace congress was held in London ...
Contributed by
United Nations Office at Geneva Library
A Dream Play
August Strindberg (1849–1912) was one of Sweden’s most important writers. From the 1870s until his death, he was a dominant figure in Swedish literary circles. Internationally, he is known for his plays. Strindberg grew up in Stockholm and studied at Uppsala University. From 1874 to 1882 he worked at the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm. It was there that he acquired much of his considerable knowledge of cultural history and literature. His breakthrough came in 1879 with publication of the novel The Red Room. Strindberg traveled extensively ...
Contributed by
National Library of Sweden
Views of Great Tibet
These handwritten notes accompany a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society on August 2, 1904. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. The notes were written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Lhasa from the East
“Lhasa from the East” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the background and nearly in the center of this photograph is the "iron mountain" Ch'agpori (also seen as Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill in other sources) with the Man-ba Ta-ts'an (also seen as Man-bo-datsang or Vaidurya Ta-tsan), where Tibetan medicine was taught. On the right in the photograph is the hill Marpori with ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Sera Monastery
This general view of Sera monastery from the south is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The monastery consists of very high buildings, with three gilded temples. The 1899 edition of The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism by L.A. Waddell states that it is called "Ser-ra, or the 'Merciful Hail.' It is said to have been so named out of rivalry to its neighbour, 'The rice-heap' (De-pung), as hail ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Tibetan Manor
“Tibetan Manor” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the center of the photograph is a Tibetan manor, located near the Ch’agla pass. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Tibetan Women
“Tibetan Women” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photograph shows two Tibetan women of the lower class, walking barefoot, carrying loads on their backs. W.W. Rockhill, in his 1890 edition of Tibet, states: "Tibetan women are robust and the men weak, and one may frequently see women performing in the place of their husbands the socage services which the people owe. As a consequence (of the superior ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries