119 results in English
Book of Effects of Drugs
This work is a lithographic print of a manuscript containing a treatise on pharmacology. It was produced in Kabul, in the Royal Printing House, by Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad and Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān. Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad was an officer and commander from the Muhammadzai clan in the Pashtun tribal confederacy that ruled Afghanistan in the Barakzai period (1826–1973) after the fall of the Durrani Dynasty in 1842. Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān served as the chief editor of the printing press in Kabul, where his activities included publishing ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Argentine Railways, 1899
Intensive railroad development took place in Argentina between 1880 and 1916, a period of rapid economic growth and national consolidation. The railroads made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of their technical expertise and their ability to raise large sums on the London market to finance the construction. This 1899 map, issued by the Buenos Ayres and Pacific Railway Company, of London ...
Military Map, Island of Puerto Rico
This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, seized the island from Spain. Hostilities began on May 12 with a blockade and bombardment of the city of San Juan by the U.S. Navy. This was followed with the landing off the coast of Guánica on July 12 of a force of 1,300 U.S. soldiers. In the peace treaty that was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, the United States formally ...
Uruguay
This map of Uruguay was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau published handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows international borders with Brazil and Argentina, major cities and towns, provinces and provincial borders, railroads, undersea telegraph cables, navigable rivers, and the route ...
Titusville, Pennsylvania, 1896
This panoramic map shows Titusville, Pennsylvania, as it appeared in 1896. Located in western Pennsylvania, Titusville is known as the place where the modern oil industry began. In 1859, the recently formed Seneca Oil Company hired retired railroad conductor Edwin L. Drake to investigate suspected oil deposits near Titusville. Drake used an old steam engine to drill a well that began the first large-scale commercial extraction of petroleum. By the early 1860s, western Pennsylvania had been transformed by the oil boom. The numbered index at the bottom of the map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop
This 1897 photograph shows Wilbur Wright (1867–1912) at work in the bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, which he ran with his brother Orville (1871–1948). After starting a printing business and a weekly newspaper, in 1892 the brothers opened the shop to rent, sell, and eventually manufacture bicycles. Neither brother had education beyond high school, but they became fascinated by the possibilities of human flight and read and studied all they could about aerodynamics. Having concluded that all published tables on air pressures on curved surfaces were wrong, they ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Design of the Medal and Token Commemorating the Construction of the Monument to Nicholas I in Kiev, Kiev Province, 1895
This ink and watercolor document contains designs for the medal and the token issued to commemorate the construction of the monument to Tsar Nicholas I (1796−1855, reigned 1825−55) in Kiev. The designs are by the academician in architecture Vladimir Nikolaev (1847−1911), who also designed the pedestal for the monument. Nikolaev was the municipal and eparchial (diocesan) architect of Kiev at the time and designed many churches and mansions in the city. The statue of Nicholas was by the sculptor Matvei Afanas’evich Chizhov (1838−1916). The monument ...
Garden Party at the British Club of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
In the early 20th century, the British Club was the center of the social life of the British expatriate community in Gran Canaria, one of the islands in the Canary Islands archipelago. Located next to the Metropole Hotel in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, and close to the English (Protestant) Church, it was a place for leisure and recreation as well as for business meetings for its members. This photograph from the 1890s shows elegantly dressed men and women dancing at a garden party at the club. In the background to ...
Map of the Alaskan Gold Fields
Beginning in the mid-19th century, gold was discovered in a succession of strikes along the western coast of the United States in an ascending arc from California to Alaska. The great California Gold Rush of 1849 was followed by many other “rushes” in succeeding decades, culminating in the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897 and the Nome Gold Rush of 1899, both in Alaska. This map was published in 1897, soon after gold was discovered in Bonanza Creek alongside the Klondike River, itself a tributary of the mighty Yukon River. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season
Founded in Montreal in 1893, the professional troupe of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français (French Opera Theater) moved to the Théâtre Français (French Theater), a renovated and electrified auditorium, one year later. The new venue was located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine Street and Saint-Dominique Street. In a context in which Quebec still had very few local professional artists and where theatrical and musical repertoire was primarily Anglophone, comedies, dramas, and operettas of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français delighted the French-speaking Montrealers. Consisting of singers and actors from ...
New York Police Parade, June 1st, 1899
The film shows members of "New York's Finest" parading at a crowded Union Square. Seen are members of the Bicycle Squad, mounted horses, and two regimental marching bands. At the time of filming, the New York City Police Department was still recovering from the corruption scandals of the early 1890's that had severely tarnished the reputation of the department. A State-Senate-appointed group known as the Lexow Committee investigated the department and issued a scathing report that detailed serious criminal activity within the department. In 1895, public opinion was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Report Map on the Hydrogeographic Work of Expeditions to the Eastern Ocean and by Squadron Ships in the Eastern Ocean for 1898 and Preceeding Years
Hydrographic maps mainly serve the needs of navigators and mariners. Other uses include fishing, oceanography, and underwater prospecting. Hydrographic mapping was highly developed in 19th-century Russia, where it was carried out by the Ministry of Marine to create and constantly update navigational charts. This map is from a larger work entitled Sobranie otchetnykh kart gidrograficheskikh rabot (Collection of Report Maps of Hydrogeographic Work and Maps Indicating Shipwrecks for 1898 in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Caspian Sea, White Sea, Baltic Sea, and Parts of the Eastern Ocean and ...
Funafuti; Or Three Months on a Coral Island: An Unscientific Account of a Scientific Expedition
Funafuti is a coral atoll that is part of Tuvalu, a sovereign nation located in the west-central Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. This book is an account of a scientific expedition in 1897 to Funafuti, which at the time was part of the British protectorate of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. The author, Janet William Edgeworth David, the wife of Professor T. W. E. David of Sydney University in Australia, accompanied her husband on the expedition. The object of the expedition was to take deep borings of coral ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Harbor and Admiralty, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Algiers's harbor, which had been redesigned and greatly expanded by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Babel-Oued from Casbah, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Babel-Oued (Bab El Oued), a neighborhood of Algiers, as seen from the fortified citadel, or Casbah. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Government Place, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the 1905 catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Government Place in Algiers around 1899. This square was considered the heart of the city. According to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), it was “the noisiest place in the town, crowded with natives at all hours.” The white building is the Djemâa el-Djedid mosque, which Baedeker described as "curiously incongruous" for its mix of Byzantine, Italian, Andalusian, and Turkish architectural styles. Other buildings ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Interior of Notre Dame d'Afrique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Cathedral of Notre Dame d’Afrique, which was established in 1872 under Cardinal Charles Lavigerie (the initiator of the Missionary Order of Our Lady of Africa, or “White Fathers”) and designed by the French architect Fromageau. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean described the cathedral as “a pilgrimage-church for sick persons and mariners…. From the terrace in front of the church, where the blessing of the sea by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Museum: Entrance Hall, I, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the entrance hall and courtyard of a museum in Algiers--most likely the Musée National des Antiquités Algeriennes, opened in 1897, and described by Baedeker’s The Mediterranean (1911) as “containing the finest collection of the kind in Algeria.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Place de la Republique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Place de la république (Republic plaza) in the capital city of Algiers, circa 1899. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean spoke admiringly of “the spacious Place de la République, with the gardens of Square Bresson, adorned with bamboos and magnolias, the Théâtre Municipal, and the most showy cafés.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Great Mosque in the Marine Street, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Great Mosque (al-Djemaa al-Kabir), which Baedeker’s The Mediterranean described in 1911 as “the oldest and largest mosque in the town, founded in 1018 for believers in the Malekite ritual…. Both the mosque and its minaret, originally built by the Abdel-wadite Abû Tâkhfîn in 1322-3, have now been modernized. The entrance is by a portico in the Rue de la Marine, erected in 1837.” The Detroit Photographic ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Private Drawing Room, I, Kasr-el-Said, Tunisia
This photochrome print is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It shows a private drawing room in the Kassar-Said Palace in Tunis. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) described the palace as “a château of the bey” to which admittance by tourists was not allowed. “Here, in 1881, was concluded the Bardo Treaty, which ended the independence of Tunisia.” Tunisia came under the control of the Ottoman Empire in 1574. Bey was originally the title of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bedchamber of the Late Bey of Tunis, Kasr-el-Said, Tunisia
This photochrome print, from circa 1899, is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It shows the chamber of the bey of Tunis in the Kassar-Said Palace in Tunis. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) described the palace as “a château of the bey” to which admittance by tourists was not allowed. Muhammad III as-Sadiq (1813–82) ruled Tunisia from September 1859 until his death in October 1882. He was succeeded by Ali Muddat ibn al-Husayn (1817–1902 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sousse, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the seaside town of Sousse, Tunisia, which, according to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), followed Tunis and Sfax as the third most important seaport in Tunisia. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View from Paris Hotel, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the rooftops of the city of Tunis as seen from the Paris Hotel. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mosque of St. Catherine, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Mosque of Youssef Sahib at-Taba'a (sometimes called the Halfouine Mosque), in Place Halfouine, Tunis. Construction of the mosque began in 1812 but was not completed until 1970. It is described by Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) as being “founded on blocks of stone from Carthage.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Souc-el-Trouk, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Souc-el-Trouk, or bazaar, in the city of Tunis. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sadiky Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Sadiky Hospital in the city of Tunis. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process permitted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Procession, Kairwan, Tunisia
This photochrome print of a procession in Kairwan, Tunisia, is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. Kairwan was once the political and religious center of Tunisia and was considered the country's holiest city. In his 1908 book Tunis, Kairouan & Carthage: Described and Illustrated by Forty-Eight Paintings, the British artist and author Graham Petrie (1859–1940) declared that "it is the absolute duty of every visitor to Tunis to make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Kairouan," which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Timbuctoo the Mysterious
This book is an English translation of Tombouctou la mystérieuse, published in Paris in 1897. The author, Felix Dubois (1862–1945), was a French journalist who in 1895 traveled from Paris to Dakar, Senegal, and from there down the River Niger in what was then called French Sudan. He visited the town of Jenne, which he called the “jewel of the valley of the Niger” and from there proceeded to the ancient city of Timbuktu. Citing an old Sudanese chronicle that called Timbuktu “the meeting-place of all who travel by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tourist's House, Spitzbergen, Norway
This photochrome print is part of “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. The photo depicts a tourist house on Spitsbergen Island, part of the Svalvard Archipelago, located within the Arctic Circle, some 550 kilometers north of the Norwegian mainland. There were no tourist accommodations on Spitsbergen until around 1896, when the Vesteraalens Steamship Company constructed a tourist house along the coast of Advent Bay to accommodate an influx of visitors. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Persia (Iran), Afghanistan and Baluchistan
This map of Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (the western part of present-day Pakistan) was produced for The Century Atlas of the World, published by the Century Company of New York in 1897. The atlas was the last volume in a ten-volume set that included The Century Dictionary (volumes 1-8) and The Century Cyclopedia of Names (volume 9). In keeping with the encyclopedic style of the series, the map includes notes about the size and political organization of the countries depicted. Persia is described as an independent country ruled ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan
Chicago-based Rand McNally became a major publisher of atlases, maps, globes, and travel guides in the United States in the second half of the 19th century. This map of Persia (as Iran was known until 1935), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan is from the 1898 edition of Rand, McNally & Cos. Indexed Atlas of the World, Containing Large Scale Maps of Every Country and Civil Division upon the Face of the Globe, Together with Historical, Statistical and Descriptive Matter Relative to Each. The atlas contains two volumes, one with maps of the United ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lourdes, Transporting the Sick, II
The brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (1864-1948) are credited with the development of the Cinématographe (1895), an elegant and technically simple projection device that revolutionized the early motion picture industry. In contrast to Thomas Edison’s Kinetograph, which was heavy and difficult to move, the Cinématographe was a light, portable device that brought the camera (weighing just over seven kilograms) out of doors. The Lumières sent crews around the world to record a wide array of scenes and images. These films were shown to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lourdes, Procession, II
The brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (1864-1948) are credited with the development of the Cinématographe (1895), an elegant and technically simple projection device that revolutionized the early motion picture industry. In contrast to Thomas Edison’s Kinetograph, which was heavy and difficult to move, the Cinématographe was a light, portable device that brought the camera (weighing just over seven kilograms) out of doors. The Lumières sent crews around the world to record a wide array of scenes and images. These films were shown to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lourdes, Procession, III
The brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (1864-1948) are credited with the development of the Cinématographe (1895), an elegant and technically simple projection device that revolutionized the early motion picture industry. In contrast to Thomas Edison’s Kinetograph, which was heavy and difficult to move, the Cinématographe was a light, portable device that brought the camera (weighing just over seven kilograms) out of doors. The Lumières sent crews around the world to record a wide array of scenes and images. These films were shown to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Immigration Handbook for Scandinavian Settlers in Canada, with Comprehensive Descriptions of Manitoba, the Northwest Territories and British Columbia
This immigration handbook was published by the Canadian Department of Interior in 1889 for the express purpose of recruiting settlers from Sweden. It includes an introduction to Canada and Canadian society, an immigration procedures handbook, and a topographical description of Manitoba, the Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Special attention is paid to already-existing Scandinavian settlements.
Map of Indochina
This map of Indochina, published under the auspices of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Colonies, was compiled by Pierre-Paul Cupet (1859-1907), Jean-Baptiste Friquegnon (1858-1934), and Joseph de Malglaive (1862-1914), all officers in the French Army and members of the Pavie Mission. Auguste Pavie (1847-1925) was a French naval officer, explorer, and colonial administrator who, between 1879 and 1895, led a series of expeditions in Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and southern China. These expeditions undertook cartographic surveys and ethnographic studies, producing a large body of maps, photographs, and written documentation ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of the Annuciation (1560-84), Southwest Panorama with Vychegda River, Sol'vychegodsk, Russia
This southwest view of the Cathedral of the Annunciation at Sol'vychegodsk (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1996 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located near the confluence of the Vychegda and Northern Dvina rivers, Sol’vychegodsk (Salt of the Vychegda) is in an area of many salt springs. In the 16th century it became the center of vast trading operations owned by the Stroganovs, whose wealth was based on salt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lourdes, Procession, I
The brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (1864-1948) are credited with the development of the Cinématographe (1895), an elegant and technically simple projection device that revolutionized the early motion picture industry. In contrast to Thomas Edison’s Kinetograph, which was heavy and difficult to move, the Cinématographe was a light, portable device that brought the camera (weighing just over seven kilograms) out of doors. The Lumières sent crews around the world to record a wide array of scenes and images. These films were shown to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lourdes, Leaving the Church of the Rosary
The brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (1864-1948) are credited with the development of the Cinématographe (1895), an elegant and technically simple projection device that revolutionized the early motion picture industry. In contrast to Thomas Edison’s Kinetograph, which was heavy and difficult to move, the Cinématographe was a light, portable device that brought the camera (weighing just over seven kilograms) out of doors. The Lumières sent crews around the world to record a wide array of scenes and images. These films were shown to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lourdes, Transporting the Sick, I
The brothers Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (1862-1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (1864-1948) are credited with the development of the Cinématographe (1895), an elegant and technically simple projection device that revolutionized the early motion picture industry. In contrast to Thomas Edison’s Kinetograph, which was heavy and difficult to move, the Cinématographe was a light, portable device that brought the camera (weighing just over seven kilograms) out of doors. The Lumières sent crews around the world to record a wide array of scenes and images. These films were shown to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
After Great Hurricane of 1896
This image shows the devastation caused by the Great Hurricane of 1896 that struck the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida. With its 2,200-kilometer coastline, Florida is the U.S. state most vulnerable to these storms. More than 450 recorded tropical storms and hurricanes have reached its shores since European exploration began. The hurricane of September 1896 destroyed most of the residential area of the town of Cedar Key on the upper west coast of the Florida peninsula, killing dozens of residents and destroying most of Cedar Key’s ...