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Book of Effects of Drugs
This work is a lithographic print of a manuscript containing a treatise on pharmacology. It was produced in Kabul, in the Royal Printing House, by Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad and Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān. Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad was an officer and commander from the Muhammadzai clan in the Pashtun tribal confederacy that ruled Afghanistan in the Barakzai period (1826–1973) after the fall of the Durrani Dynasty in 1842. Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān served as the chief editor of the printing press in Kabul, where his activities included publishing ...
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Library of Congress
Argentine Railways, 1899
Intensive railroad development took place in Argentina between 1880 and 1916, a period of rapid economic growth and national consolidation. The railroads made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of their technical expertise and their ability to raise large sums on the London market to finance the construction. This 1899 map, issued by the Buenos Ayres and Pacific Railway Company, of London ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Military Map, Island of Puerto Rico
This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, seized the island from Spain. Hostilities began on May 12 with a blockade and bombardment of the city of San Juan by the U.S. Navy. This was followed with the landing off the coast of Guánica on July 12 of a force of 1,300 U.S. soldiers. In the peace treaty that was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, the United States formally ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Uruguay
This map of Uruguay was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau published handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows international borders with Brazil and Argentina, major cities and towns, provinces and provincial borders, railroads, undersea telegraph cables, navigable rivers, and the route ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Titusville, Pennsylvania, 1896
This panoramic map shows Titusville, Pennsylvania, as it appeared in 1896. Located in western Pennsylvania, Titusville is known as the place where the modern oil industry began. In 1859, the recently formed Seneca Oil Company hired retired railroad conductor Edwin L. Drake to investigate suspected oil deposits near Titusville. Drake used an old steam engine to drill a well that began the first large-scale commercial extraction of petroleum. By the early 1860s, western Pennsylvania had been transformed by the oil boom. The numbered index at the bottom of the map ...
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Library of Congress
Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop
This 1897 photograph shows Wilbur Wright (1867–1912) at work in the bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, which he ran with his brother Orville (1871–1948). After starting a printing business and a weekly newspaper, in 1892 the brothers opened the shop to rent, sell, and eventually manufacture bicycles. Neither brother had education beyond high school, but they became fascinated by the possibilities of human flight and read and studied all they could about aerodynamics. Having concluded that all published tables on air pressures on curved surfaces were wrong, they ...
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Library of Congress
French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season
Founded in Montreal in 1893, the professional troupe of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français (French Opera Theater) moved to the Théâtre Français (French Theater), a renovated and electrified auditorium, one year later. The new venue was located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine Street and Saint-Dominique Street. In a context in which Quebec still had very few local professional artists and where theatrical and musical repertoire was primarily Anglophone, comedies, dramas, and operettas of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français delighted the French-speaking Montrealers. Consisting of singers and actors from ...
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National Library and Archives of Quebec
New York Police Parade, June 1st, 1899
The film shows members of "New York's Finest" parading at a crowded Union Square. Seen are members of the Bicycle Squad, mounted horses, and two regimental marching bands. At the time of filming, the New York City Police Department was still recovering from the corruption scandals of the early 1890's that had severely tarnished the reputation of the department. A State-Senate-appointed group known as the Lexow Committee investigated the department and issued a scathing report that detailed serious criminal activity within the department. In 1895, public opinion was ...
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Library of Congress
Report Map on the Hydrogeographic Work of Expeditions to the Eastern Ocean and by Squadron Ships in the Eastern Ocean for 1898 and Preceeding Years
Hydrographic maps mainly serve the needs of navigators and mariners. Other uses include fishing, oceanography, and underwater prospecting. Hydrographic mapping was highly developed in 19th-century Russia, where it was carried out by the Ministry of Marine to create and constantly update navigational charts. This map is from a larger work entitled Sobranie otchetnykh kart gidrograficheskikh rabot (Collection of Report Maps of Hydrogeographic Work and Maps Indicating Shipwrecks for 1898 in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Caspian Sea, White Sea, Baltic Sea, and Parts of the Eastern Ocean and ...
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National Library of Russia
Funafuti; Or Three Months on a Coral Island: An Unscientific Account of a Scientific Expedition
Funafuti is a coral atoll that is part of Tuvalu, a sovereign nation located in the west-central Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. This book is an account of a scientific expedition in 1897 to Funafuti, which at the time was part of the British protectorate of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. The author, Janet William Edgeworth David, the wife of Professor T. W. E. David of Sydney University in Australia, accompanied her husband on the expedition. The object of the expedition was to take deep borings of coral ...
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Library of Congress
The Harbor and Admiralty, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Algiers's harbor, which had been redesigned and greatly expanded by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into ...
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Library of Congress
Babel-Oued from Casbah, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Babel-Oued (Bab El Oued), a neighborhood of Algiers, as seen from the fortified citadel, or Casbah. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
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Library of Congress
Government Place, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the 1905 catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Government Place in Algiers around 1899. This square was considered the heart of the city. According to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), it was “the noisiest place in the town, crowded with natives at all hours.” The white building is the Djemâa el-Djedid mosque, which Baedeker described as "curiously incongruous" for its mix of Byzantine, Italian, Andalusian, and Turkish architectural styles. Other buildings ...
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Library of Congress
Interior of Notre Dame d'Afrique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Cathedral of Notre Dame d’Afrique, which was established in 1872 under Cardinal Charles Lavigerie (the initiator of the Missionary Order of Our Lady of Africa, or “White Fathers”) and designed by the French architect Fromageau. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean described the cathedral as “a pilgrimage-church for sick persons and mariners…. From the terrace in front of the church, where the blessing of the sea by ...
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Library of Congress
Museum: Entrance Hall, I, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the entrance hall and courtyard of a museum in Algiers--most likely the Musée National des Antiquités Algeriennes, opened in 1897, and described by Baedeker’s The Mediterranean (1911) as “containing the finest collection of the kind in Algeria.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H ...
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Library of Congress
Place de la Republique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Place de la république (Republic plaza) in the capital city of Algiers, circa 1899. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean spoke admiringly of “the spacious Place de la République, with the gardens of Square Bresson, adorned with bamboos and magnolias, the Théâtre Municipal, and the most showy cafés.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher ...
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Library of Congress
Great Mosque in the Marine Street, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Great Mosque (al-Djemaa al-Kabir), which Baedeker’s The Mediterranean described in 1911 as “the oldest and largest mosque in the town, founded in 1018 for believers in the Malekite ritual…. Both the mosque and its minaret, originally built by the Abdel-wadite Abû Tâkhfîn in 1322-3, have now been modernized. The entrance is by a portico in the Rue de la Marine, erected in 1837.” The Detroit Photographic ...
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Library of Congress
Private Drawing Room, I, Kasr-el-Said, Tunisia
This photochrome print is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It shows a private drawing room in the Kassar-Said Palace in Tunis. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) described the palace as “a château of the bey” to which admittance by tourists was not allowed. “Here, in 1881, was concluded the Bardo Treaty, which ended the independence of Tunisia.” Tunisia came under the control of the Ottoman Empire in 1574. Bey was originally the title of the ...
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Library of Congress
Bedchamber of the Late Bey of Tunis, Kasr-el-Said, Tunisia
This photochrome print, from circa 1899, is part of “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It shows the chamber of the bey of Tunis in the Kassar-Said Palace in Tunis. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911) described the palace as “a château of the bey” to which admittance by tourists was not allowed. Muhammad III as-Sadiq (1813–82) ruled Tunisia from September 1859 until his death in October 1882. He was succeeded by Ali Muddat ibn al-Husayn (1817–1902 ...
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Library of Congress
Sousse, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the seaside town of Sousse, Tunisia, which, according to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), followed Tunis and Sfax as the third most important seaport in Tunisia. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights ...
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Library of Congress
General View from Paris Hotel, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the rooftops of the city of Tunis as seen from the Paris Hotel. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
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Library of Congress