208 results in English
Guide to the Great Siberian Railway
The 8,000-kilometer Trans-Siberian Railway linking Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains with the Pacific port of Vladivostok is the world’s longest railroad. Construction began in 1891 and was completed in 1916. By 1900, much of the line was finished and open for traffic. In that year, the Russian Ministry of Ways of Communication issued, in identical English and Russian editions, this illustrated guide to the railway. It includes a history of Siberia, an account of the construction, and a detailed listing of the towns and cities along the route.
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Book of Effects of Drugs
This work is a lithographic print of a manuscript containing a treatise on pharmacology. It was produced in Kabul, in the Royal Printing House, by Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad and Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān. Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad was an officer and commander from the Muhammadzai clan in the Pashtun tribal confederacy that ruled Afghanistan in the Barakzai period (1826–1973) after the fall of the Durrani Dynasty in 1842. Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān served as the chief editor of the printing press in Kabul, where his activities included publishing ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Argentine Railways, 1899
Intensive railroad development took place in Argentina between 1880 and 1916, a period of rapid economic growth and national consolidation. The railroads made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of their technical expertise and their ability to raise large sums on the London market to finance the construction. This 1899 map, issued by the Buenos Ayres and Pacific Railway Company, of London ...
Map of Bolivia
This 1894 map of Bolivia highlights the country’s main geographic features, including the Andes Mountains in the west and the lowlands in the east. The map shows major towns and cities, the capitals of departments, departmental borders, completed and projected railroads, highways, and navigable rivers. Mines for copper, gold, silver, and tin are indicated, reflecting Bolivia’s role as a major mineral producer. Neighboring parts of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, and Peru are shown. Territory in the northeastern part of the country, near the border with Brazil, is identified ...
Map of the Republic of Colombia
This 1891 map of Colombia depicts the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. It shows national and departmental borders, the capitals of departments, other cities, villages, railroads (completed and projected), and highways. Present-day Panama, which did not become independent until 1903, is still shown as a department of Colombia. The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, from Colón to Panama City, is indicated, but the Panama Canal has not yet been built. The eastern part of the country is shown as thinly settled and not well mapped ...
Map of the Republic of Costa Rica
This 1891 map of Costa Rica shows the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. The key, in the upper-right-hand corner, is in Spanish and English. Indicated on the map are the national capital, San José; provincial capitals; principal cities; minor cities; and railroads (in operation, under construction, projected, and “contracted for and soon to be built”). The highest mountains, volcanoes, and craters are indicated by the numbered key, and their heights given (inaccurately) in both feet and meters. The country’s seven provinces—Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia ...
Military Map, Island of Puerto Rico
This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, seized the island from Spain. Hostilities began on May 12 with a blockade and bombardment of the city of San Juan by the U.S. Navy. This was followed with the landing off the coast of Guánica on July 12 of a force of 1,300 U.S. soldiers. In the peace treaty that was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, the United States formally ...
Map of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, 1893
This 1893 map of the República Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Republic of Uruguay), as the country is officially called, shows railroad lines (both in operation and under construction), telegraph lines, and submarine cables; and provinces and provincial boundaries. Relief is shown by hachures. The map provides navigational information relating to the Rio de la Plata, including water depths in meters and the location and visibility of lighthouses. Originally part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata that also included Argentina, Paraguay, and parts of Bolivia, Brazil, and ...
Uruguay
This map of Uruguay was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau published handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows international borders with Brazil and Argentina, major cities and towns, provinces and provincial borders, railroads, undersea telegraph cables, navigable rivers, and the route ...
Titusville, Pennsylvania, 1896
This panoramic map shows Titusville, Pennsylvania, as it appeared in 1896. Located in western Pennsylvania, Titusville is known as the place where the modern oil industry began. In 1859, the recently formed Seneca Oil Company hired retired railroad conductor Edwin L. Drake to investigate suspected oil deposits near Titusville. Drake used an old steam engine to drill a well that began the first large-scale commercial extraction of petroleum. By the early 1860s, western Pennsylvania had been transformed by the oil boom. The numbered index at the bottom of the map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bird's-Eye View of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
The Chicago world’s fair, or the World’s Columbian Exposition as it was officially called, was held in 1893 to mark the 400th anniversary, the previous year, of Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. The fair marked Chicago’s coming of age as a national and world city, a mere 60 years after the city’s founding and just 22 years after the great Chicago fire of 1871. This map, produced by the Chicago-based Rand McNally and Company, shows the design of the exposition, which was mainly the work ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop
This 1897 photograph shows Wilbur Wright (1867–1912) at work in the bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, which he ran with his brother Orville (1871–1948). After starting a printing business and a weekly newspaper, in 1892 the brothers opened the shop to rent, sell, and eventually manufacture bicycles. Neither brother had education beyond high school, but they became fascinated by the possibilities of human flight and read and studied all they could about aerodynamics. Having concluded that all published tables on air pressures on curved surfaces were wrong, they ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Letter from Alfred Nobel to Bertha von Suttner, Creating the Nobel Peace Prize
Alfred Nobel (1833–96) was a Swedish-born engineer and entrepreneur best known for inventing dynamite. At age 43, Nobel placed an advertisement in a newspaper stating: "Wealthy, highly-educated elderly gentleman seeks lady of mature age, versed in languages, as secretary and supervisor of household." An Austrian woman, Countess Bertha Kinsky, applied for and won the position. The countess worked for Nobel only briefly before returning to Austria to marry Count Arthur von Suttner. Bertha von Suttner became one of the most prominent international peace activists of the late 19th–early ...
An Offering for Kings
Tuḥfat al-mulūk (An offering for kings) is a collection of dicta that was written by order of ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (also seen as Abdur Rahman Khan), who ruled Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The work consists of an introduction and 40 miniature “chapters,” with each chapter containing a moral precept on improving religious, political, and social life. Chapter One states: “Four things lead to the preservation of the kingdom: the protecting of religion and concern for its well-being, a trustworthy vizier, the safe-guarding of resolve, [and] the safe-guarding of confidence ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Collected Works of Mullah Rahmat Badakhshani
Divan-i Mullah Rahmat Badakhshani (The collected works of Mullah Rahmat Badakhshani) is a divan of Khwaja Rahmat Ullah Badakhshani, a late-19th-century poet from Badakhshan, Afghanistan. The book’s main section includes several forms of ghazal (lyric) poetry. They include ghazal-e char dar char (ghazals in four by four), ghazal-e ka tama-e huruf ash hech nuqta nadara (ghazal poems where the words have no diacritical marks), and ghazal-e laf-o nashr-e muratab (a form in which the subject of the poem appears in the first lines and is then described in detail ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Basis for Judges
Asās al-Quz̤āt (The basis for judges) is a lithographic book on Islamic jurisprudence, published in the late 19th century by the royal publishing house in Kabul. It was intended as a source for judges charged with applying the law on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence. The fine quality of the book and the binding reflect the importance given to law books in Afghanistan and other Islamic countries. Lithographic printing was invented in Europe in the late 18th century and spread widely on the Indian subcontinent from the early 19th ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rules of Conduct for the Ciniselli Circus
This placard contains the rules of conduct for the Ciniselli Circus in Saint Petersburg set by the management. Issued on January 10, 1891, the rules were published in two languages: French and German. The choice of languages, combined with circus programs of the period, demonstrates that nearly all the performers in the circus came from abroad. The 18 points regulated the lives of circus personnel. Performers and staff were required to attend all rehearsals and to take care of their equipment and costumes; everyone was required to be ready at ...
Liberty Act by Scipione Ciniselli
This black and white lithograph of 1900 depicts Scipione Ciniselli, director of the Ciniselli Circus (now the Bolshoi Saint Petersburg State Circus), and his twelve liberty horses in the final act of the performance. The term "liberty horse act" refers to an act in which the horses are directed with verbal commands and are not mounted or held by reins; the horses are "at liberty." Scipione was the son of Gaetano Ciniselli, who founded the circus in 1877. Following Gaetano’s death in 1881, leadership of the circus passed first ...
Poems of Abundant Benefit with Chronograms by Sardār Ghulām Muḥammad Khān, Known as Ṭarzī Ṣāḥib Afghān, Together with his Chronograms
This work is a collection of poems in the qaṣīda (ode) form by Ghulām Muḥammad Khān (1830–1900), a prominent Pashto Afghan intellectual of the 19th century. Known by his pen name Ṭarzī (the Stylist), he was a member of the important Bārakzay tribe of Kandahār. In 1882 Ghulām Muḥammad Khān fell into disgrace with the Afghan ruler Amir ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān (reigned 1880−1901) and was expelled from Afghanistan along with his family. He spent three years in Karachi, before immigrating to Damascus, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Design of the Medal and Token Commemorating the Construction of the Monument to Nicholas I in Kiev, Kiev Province, 1895
This ink and watercolor document contains designs for the medal and the token issued to commemorate the construction of the monument to Tsar Nicholas I (1796−1855, reigned 1825−55) in Kiev. The designs are by the academician in architecture Vladimir Nikolaev (1847−1911), who also designed the pedestal for the monument. Nikolaev was the municipal and eparchial (diocesan) architect of Kiev at the time and designed many churches and mansions in the city. The statue of Nicholas was by the sculptor Matvei Afanas’evich Chizhov (1838−1916). The monument ...
Family of Emperor Alexander III
This photograph of the family of Tsar Alexander III (1845−94) was taken about a year before his death from nephritis. Also shown in the photo are Empress Maria Fedorovna (1866−1928), Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich (1868−1918), Grand Duke George Alexandrovich (1871−99), Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna (1875−1960), Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (1882−1918), and Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich (1878−1918). Empress Maria Fedorovna, also called Princess Dagmar, fled Russia in 1919 with other members of the Romanov family aboard the British battleship HMS Marlborough. She settled and ...
From a Father to his Son: Letters on Education, Schooling, and the Arts
Min wālid ilā waladihi: wa-hiyya rasā'il fī al-tarbiyya wa-al-ta‛līm wa-al-ādāb (From a father to his son: Letters on education, schooling, and the arts) is a collection of the letters that the author wrote to his son, Jamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Ḥāfiz ‛Awwaḍ, during the latter's student years at the American University in Beirut. The book was published in Cairo in 1923. The first six letters are mostly devoted to the expression of the father's love for his son and to general themes of education and schooling. The ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Syrian Voyage in Central and South America
Father Henri Lammens was born into a Catholic family in Ghent, Belgium, in 1862. At the age of 15 he joined the Jesuits and later settled permanently in Lebanon. He mastered Latin and Greek and taught Arabic in Beirut. His first work was an Arabic dictionary, Farā'id al-lugha (The pearls of language), dating from 1889. He also served as editor for the Jesuit newspaper of Beirut, al-Bashīr (The evangelist). He wrote many works, most notably on the history of Arabia in the pre-Islamic era, as well as on ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Revealing the Secrets of Enlightenment
Kashf al-asrār li-tanwīr al-afkār (Revealing the secrets of enlightenment) is a handbook for inductees into the Yashruti branch of the Shadhiliyah Sufi order. The secrets referred to in the title have to do with the meaning of prayer and other spiritual matters rather than with hidden rituals. The author, Muṣṭafá ibn Muḥyī al-Dīn Naja (1853−1932), was born in Beirut and spent most of his life there. He received his Sufi training from the shaykh of the time, ‘Ali Nur al-Din al-Yashruti. As the supreme religious authority in Lebanon, Naja ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Excellence in the Rhetorical Arts
Al-Khawāṭir al-ḥisān fī al-ma‘ānī wa-al-bayān (Excellence in the rhetorical arts) is an introduction for students to the elements of Arabic composition. The work emphasizes the correct choice of words and the importance of the sentence as the basic building block of written composition and formal speech. The author, Jabr Dumit (1858−1930), was a teacher at the Syrian Evangelical College in Beirut. In this primer of grammar and usage he introduces students to the various kinds of sentences (declarative, interrogative, and so forth), giving examples of grammatical construction and ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Portrait of Benito Pérez Galdós
This portrait of the writer Benito Pérez Galdós was produced by the Valencian painter Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida in 1894. Born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria on January 10, 1843, Galdós became a major Spanish literary figure, the author of more than 80 titles that included novels, historical novels, and plays. His work encompasses many different features and trends, including a realism that recalls certain novels of the Spanish Golden Age as well as the influence of 19th-century Russian and French writers. Other major themes in Galdós’s fiction ...
Garden Party at the British Club of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
In the early 20th century, the British Club was the center of the social life of the British expatriate community in Gran Canaria, one of the islands in the Canary Islands archipelago. Located next to the Metropole Hotel in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, and close to the English (Protestant) Church, it was a place for leisure and recreation as well as for business meetings for its members. This photograph from the 1890s shows elegantly dressed men and women dancing at a garden party at the club. In the background to ...
The Route of the Alaska Excursion Steamers
In the years after the Alaska Purchase in 1867, Americans had only a dim appreciation of the value and splendors of their new northern territory. This attitude changed slowly, and it was not fully overcome until the Klondike Gold Rush of 1898 radically altered perceptions of the region’s value. Even earlier, however, certain developments started to shift American views of Alaska. In particular, John Muir’s accounts of his travels to Alaska, beginning in the 1870s, gave Americans an initial feeling for the rare majesty of the Alaskan wilderness ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Alaskan Gold Fields
Beginning in the mid-19th century, gold was discovered in a succession of strikes along the western coast of the United States in an ascending arc from California to Alaska. The great California Gold Rush of 1849 was followed by many other “rushes” in succeeding decades, culminating in the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897 and the Nome Gold Rush of 1899, both in Alaska. This map was published in 1897, soon after gold was discovered in Bonanza Creek alongside the Klondike River, itself a tributary of the mighty Yukon River. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map Showing Routes of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company
This foldable tourist brochure, published by Rand McNally and Company in 1891, shows the main routes and schedules of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company. One side of the large sheet is a map showing the company’s routes from San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and other ports. An inset map on the right shows the routes from Seattle and Victoria, British Columbia, through the Inside Passage to Juneau, Sitka, and Glacier Bay in Alaska. A table in the upper right gives distances in nautical miles from San Francisco ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season
Founded in Montreal in 1893, the professional troupe of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français (French Opera Theater) moved to the Théâtre Français (French Theater), a renovated and electrified auditorium, one year later. The new venue was located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine Street and Saint-Dominique Street. In a context in which Quebec still had very few local professional artists and where theatrical and musical repertoire was primarily Anglophone, comedies, dramas, and operettas of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français delighted the French-speaking Montrealers. Consisting of singers and actors from ...
Il Tiberio, Number 1, 15 November 1896
Il Tiberio was a manuscript magazine produced in Barcelona at the end of the 19th century. It contained articles, reviews of artistic and other cultural and political matters, and original drawings. Contributors included such writers and artists as Marià Pidelaserra, Gaietà Cornet, Ramon and Juli Borrell, Emili Fontbona, Filibert Montagut, Josep Victor Solà Andreu, Joan Comellas i Viñals, and Ramon Riera Moliner. They were all members of a group that had formed in the classrooms of Acadèmia Borrell and the tavern El Rovell de l’Ou, located on Hospital Street ...
L'Atlàntida, Volume 1, Number 1, 15 May 1896
L’Atlàntida (Atlantis) is a literary magazine in Catalan. It began publishing almost 20 years after the appearance of the great Catalan epic poem of the same name by Jacint Verdaguer, who won special honors at the Jocs Florals for the work and by it consolidated La Renaixença, the Catalan renaissance of the 19th century. The magazine reflects the evolution from Renaixença to Modernism. Between 1896 and 1900, when publication ceased, 169 issues appeared. The magazine was published on the 1st and 15th of each month rather than strictly fortnightly ...
Luz, Volume 1, Number 1, 15 November 1897
The literary and art magazine Luz (Light), published in 18 issues between mid-November 1897 and late December 1898, expressed the innovative force of the modernists, mainly in its graphic design. It was a slim and refined publication, in a long format (365mm x 155mm) that clearly showed the wish for change with respect to inherited culture. It was the first magazine of the modernist movement to incorporate a variety of text fonts and daringly bold compositions. It is considered the forerunner of the representative magazines Quatre Gats (1899), Pèl & ...
Tango of the Car
“Tango del automóvil” (Tango of the car) is a 7-inch (17.78-centimeter) diameter disc, recorded on one side. On the back is the inscription "Reproduced in Hanover," where a large collection of Spanish master records by the Gramophone Company Limited was gathered. In his unpublished work The Gramophone Company Limited: His Master’s Voice: The Spanish Catalogue (Including Portuguese Recordings), Alan Kelly lists this disc as catalog number 2084 in the “Male solo voice records” category. According to Kelly, the recording was made by Charles Scheuplein, a professional associated with ...
Buddhist Texts, Including the Legend of Phra Malai, with Illustrations of The Ten Birth Tales
The legend of Phra Malai, a Buddhist monk of the Theravada tradition said to have attained supernatural powers through his accumulated merit and meditation, is the main text in this 19th-century Thai samut khoi (folding book) held in the Thai, Lao, and Cambodian Collections of the British Library. Phra Malai figures prominently in Thai art, religious treatises, and rituals associated with the afterlife, and the story is one of the most popular subjects of 19th-century illustrated Thai manuscripts. The earliest surviving examples of Phra Malai manuscripts date back to the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Saga of Gösta Berling
Selma Lagerlöf (1858−1940) was one of Sweden’s most important writers. In 1909 she became the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, and in 1914 the first woman elected to the Swedish Academy. Her writings were placed in a local setting, but she used them and her national and international prominence to champion much larger issues, including women's suffrage in Sweden and international peace initiatives. In 1890 Lagerlöf entered a novel competition, sponsored by the magazine Idun, by submitting five chapters of Gösta Berlings ...
Draft Proposal of the “Rikken Seiyukai (Association of Friends of Constitutional Government) Bylaws”
Itō Hirobumi (1841−1909) had mulled over the formation of a new party in Japan, to be composed mainly of his supporters from among the government bureaucrats, with support from the urban commercial-industrial interests. At the same time, the Constitutional Party led by Hoshi Tōru, in collaboration with powerful figures from the clan-dominated government, were exploring ways to accede to power. Both those groups joined forces to form the Rikken Seiyūkai (Association of Friends of Constitutional Government) on September 15, 1900. It is said that more than 1,400 people ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Copy of “Rikken Seiyukai (Association of Friends of Constitutional Government) Bylaws”
Itō Hirobumi (1841−1909) had mulled over the formation of a new party in Japan, to be composed mainly of his supporters from among the government bureaucrats, with support from the urban commercial-industrial interests. At the same time, the Constitutional Party led by Hoshi Tōru, in collaboration with powerful figures from the clan-dominated government, were exploring ways to accede to power. Both those groups joined forces to form the Rikken Seiyūkai (Association of Friends of Constitutional Government) on September 15, 1900. It is said that more than 1,400 people ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
At the Foot of Mount Sinai
On January 13, 1898, Georges Clemenceau, politician, journalist, and cofounder and owner of the newspaper L’Aurore (The dawn), published in his newspaper the famous manifesto J’accuse (I accuse) by Émile Zola, defending Captain Alfred Dreyfus against charges of treason and espionage motivated by anti-Semitism. Only three months later, Clemenceau published Au Pied du Sinaï (At the foot of Mount Sinai). The work includes a collection of portraits of Jewish people from Galicia that might easily be characterized as anti-Semitic. Clemenceau was, however, a staunch defender of Dreyfus and ...