777 results in English
Great Trading Routes of the Sahara
This 1889 map of trans-Saharan trading routes by French explorer Edouard Blanc reflects the growing priority that Europeans gave to land-based trade during the late 19th-century imperial “scramble for Africa.” In articles about his work, Blanc stressed the importance of identifying “natural” geographic routes that would connect French colonial possessions in west Africa, such as Senegal, to Algeria in north Africa, and link the Mediterranean coast to Sudan and central Africa. Blanc based his maps not only on his own travels but also on nearly a century of reports from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guide to Kiev and Its Environs, Including an Address Section, Map and Phototype Views of Kiev
This 1890 guidebook provides comprehensive information for visitors to Kiev. It includes a history of the city and details of places of interest, such as Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the cathedrals and other churches, historical monuments, public gardens and wooded areas, public and administrative buildings, and bridges over the Dnieper River. Included is useful information for travelers, such as timetables for trains, steamships, and other passenger transport and a directory for hotels, restaurants, doctors, banks, stores, baths, libraries, clubs, and city and church authorities. The guide anticipates by 24 years Baedeker’s ...
Guide to the Great Siberian Railway
The 8,000-kilometer Trans-Siberian Railway linking Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains with the Pacific port of Vladivostok is the world’s longest railroad. Construction began in 1891 and was completed in 1916. By 1900, much of the line was finished and open for traffic. In that year, the Russian Ministry of Ways of Communication issued, in identical English and Russian editions, this illustrated guide to the railway. It includes a history of Siberia, an account of the construction, and a detailed listing of the towns and cities along the route.
Ringling Bros. Lion Tableau Wagon
Parades to celebrate the arrival of the circus to town in America featured highly decorated wagons carrying the circus band and artists along main thoroughfares to the big top circus tent, attracting patrons along the way. This “Lion Tableau” wagon was built by Sebastian Wagon Works of New York City in approximately 1880 for the Adam Forepaugh Circus.  A telescoping platform holding the figure of Saint George fighting a dragon was removed around 1889 and the lower portion was converted into a bandwagon. The wagon was purchased by the Ringling ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Isabel, Brazilian Princess
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II and, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1889, the heir to the Brazilian throne. It was taken by Joaquim José ...
Paranaguá
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Porto de Don Pedro II Station, Kilometer 2200
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Alexandra Station, Kilometer 15
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Morretes Station, Kilometer 40.900
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Bridge over River Ribeirão, Kilometer 14.053. 2 Spans of 20 Meters
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Bom Jardim River Bridge, Kilometer 48.660. 1 Span of 30 Meters
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Volta Grande Embankment, Kilometer 50
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paraná Province. Sanga Funda Tunnel, Kilometer 53.607
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Kilometer 58.609, Marumbí Hill
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Boa Vista Tunnel, Kilometer 58.299
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Araucaria angustifolia, a Paraná or Brazilian Pine
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paraná Railway
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Book of Effects of Drugs
This work is a lithographic print of a manuscript containing a treatise on pharmacology. It was produced in Kabul, in the Royal Printing House, by Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad and Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān. Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad was an officer and commander from the Muhammadzai clan in the Pashtun tribal confederacy that ruled Afghanistan in the Barakzai period (1826–1973) after the fall of the Durrani Dynasty in 1842. Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān served as the chief editor of the printing press in Kabul, where his activities included publishing ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collected Poems of Aisha Durrani
This work is a lithographic print, published in Kabul, of the collected poems of 'Āyisha Durrānī, an Afghan poetess from the Durrani family, who was active in the second half of the 19th century. The poems include qasidas (a lyric form) and ghazals (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), and are arranged alphabetically according to qāfiya (the effect of rhyme). The collection was compiled during the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emīr of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The Durrani family led a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Argentine Railways, 1899
Intensive railroad development took place in Argentina between 1880 and 1916, a period of rapid economic growth and national consolidation. The railroads made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of their technical expertise and their ability to raise large sums on the London market to finance the construction. This 1899 map, issued by the Buenos Ayres and Pacific Railway Company, of London ...
Map of Bolivia
This 1894 map of Bolivia highlights the country’s main geographic features, including the Andes Mountains in the west and the lowlands in the east. The map shows major towns and cities, the capitals of departments, departmental borders, completed and projected railroads, highways, and navigable rivers. Mines for copper, gold, silver, and tin are indicated, reflecting Bolivia’s role as a major mineral producer. Neighboring parts of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, and Peru are shown. Territory in the northeastern part of the country, near the border with Brazil, is identified ...
Map of the Republic of Colombia
This 1891 map of Colombia depicts the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. It shows national and departmental borders, the capitals of departments, other cities, villages, railroads (completed and projected), and highways. Present-day Panama, which did not become independent until 1903, is still shown as a department of Colombia. The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, from Colón to Panama City, is indicated, but the Panama Canal has not yet been built. The eastern part of the country is shown as thinly settled and not well mapped ...
Map of the Republic of Costa Rica
This 1891 map of Costa Rica shows the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. The key, in the upper-right-hand corner, is in Spanish and English. Indicated on the map are the national capital, San José; provincial capitals; principal cities; minor cities; and railroads (in operation, under construction, projected, and “contracted for and soon to be built”). The highest mountains, volcanoes, and craters are indicated by the numbered key, and their heights given (inaccurately) in both feet and meters. The country’s seven provinces—Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia ...
Military Map, Island of Puerto Rico
This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, seized the island from Spain. Hostilities began on May 12 with a blockade and bombardment of the city of San Juan by the U.S. Navy. This was followed with the landing off the coast of Guánica on July 12 of a force of 1,300 U.S. soldiers. In the peace treaty that was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, the United States formally ...
Map of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, 1893
This 1893 map of the República Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Republic of Uruguay), as the country is officially called, shows railroad lines (both in operation and under construction), telegraph lines, and submarine cables; and provinces and provincial boundaries. Relief is shown by hachures. The map provides navigational information relating to the Rio de la Plata, including water depths in meters and the location and visibility of lighthouses. Originally part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata that also included Argentina, Paraguay, and parts of Bolivia, Brazil, and ...
Uruguay
This map of Uruguay was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau published handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows international borders with Brazil and Argentina, major cities and towns, provinces and provincial borders, railroads, undersea telegraph cables, navigable rivers, and the route ...
The Sublime Pearl in the Sacrament of the Eucharist
This manuscript volume contains two drafts of a work on the Eucharistic sacrament (Arabic, sirr al-‘Afkharistiya). The sacrament is revered in many Christian churches, including the Coptic Orthodox Church, as the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Jesus Christ. It is the central event of every mass in the Orthodox tradition and in many Western denominations. The volume contains two versions of the same essay. Authorship is ascribed to Iryan Moftah (1826–86), even though his name does not appear anywhere in the notebook ...
Titusville, Pennsylvania, 1896
This panoramic map shows Titusville, Pennsylvania, as it appeared in 1896. Located in western Pennsylvania, Titusville is known as the place where the modern oil industry began. In 1859, the recently formed Seneca Oil Company hired retired railroad conductor Edwin L. Drake to investigate suspected oil deposits near Titusville. Drake used an old steam engine to drill a well that began the first large-scale commercial extraction of petroleum. By the early 1860s, western Pennsylvania had been transformed by the oil boom. The numbered index at the bottom of the map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bird's-Eye View of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
The Chicago world’s fair, or the World’s Columbian Exposition as it was officially called, was held in 1893 to mark the 400th anniversary, the previous year, of Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. The fair marked Chicago’s coming of age as a national and world city, a mere 60 years after the city’s founding and just 22 years after the great Chicago fire of 1871. This map, produced by the Chicago-based Rand McNally and Company, shows the design of the exposition, which was mainly the work ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop
This 1897 photograph shows Wilbur Wright (1867–1912) at work in the bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, which he ran with his brother Orville (1871–1948). After starting a printing business and a weekly newspaper, in 1892 the brothers opened the shop to rent, sell, and eventually manufacture bicycles. Neither brother had education beyond high school, but they became fascinated by the possibilities of human flight and read and studied all they could about aerodynamics. Having concluded that all published tables on air pressures on curved surfaces were wrong, they ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maps of Shazhou in Jiangyin County
The land on which Shazhou, Jiangyin County, Jiangsu Province (present-day Zhangjiagang) is located was formed by alluvial deposits of the Yangtze River over a period of thousands of years. As the land grew and changed, local people made paintings of the area, which they petitioned the authorities to acquire. Measurements of the narrow strip of land formed by the river deposits differed, and those seeking to obtain land often conspired with officials, resulting in lawsuits and disorder. Two officials, Wu Heng and Xie Cunbin, together with the magistrate of Jiangyin ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Indian Celebrities: Sir Robert Egerton, Lieutenant Governor of Punjab
This small photograph of Sir Robert Egerton (1827–1912), lieutenant governor of Punjab, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Egerton was an aide to the previous lieutenant governor of Punjab, Sir Robert Henry Davies (1824–1902), before being appointed to the same position in 1877. During the British Raj of 1858–1947, prominent British administrators and military men were often considered as “Indian” celebrities. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: General Dunham Massy
This portrait of General Dunham Massy (1838–1906) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Massy is shown standing next to his spiked pith helmet. As a lieutenant colonel, Massy successfully led a cavalry brigade at the Battle of Charasia in October 1879, but he subsequently was removed from cavalry command because of poor leadership in another engagement, the Battle of Killa Kazi, in December of the same year. He overcame this dismissal and by 1886 had risen to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Sir Donald Stewart
This three-quarter-view portrait of Sir Donald Stewart (1824–1900) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Stewart commanded the Kandahar Field Force (also known as the Quetta Army) in October 1878 and, after arduous marching across harsh terrain and several cavalry battles against Afghan forces, successfully occupied Kandahar in January 1879. He was promoted to commander in chief in India in April 1881 and to field marshal in 1894. He is shown here in the uniform of a lieutenant ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Babu Khan
This photograph of Babu Khan, probably a tribal Pashtun leader judging from his typical Afghan longi (turban), is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. During the British Raj of 1858–1947, prominent British administrators and military men, as well as Indian princely rulers and tribal chiefs, were often considered as “Indian” celebrities. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Amir Abd al-Raḥmān
This photograph of the Afghan amir, Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901), is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Abd al-Raḥmān Khān was known as the “Iron Amir” because of his skill and forcefulness in suppressing rebellions against his authority. He is credited with creating a centralized state in the aftermath of the war, based on a cabinet called the Supreme Council, a general assembly called the Loya Jirgah, and the army. His achievements included the introduction of some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Mustanfi Habibulah Khan
This photograph of Mustanfi Habibullah Khan is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mustanfi (also seen as mostufi and mustaofi, the latter being the Arabic origin of the title) was a title approximating to state treasurer, the most powerful position in the government of Afghanistan after that of Amir Yakub Khan. Mustanfis were not elected, but subject to the ruler’s approval. They had full authority over all financial affairs, including hiring and dismissal of government personnel. Habibullah Khan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Alfred Lyall
This photograph of Sir Alfred Lyall (1835–1911) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lyall was an administrator in the Indian Civil Service, a poet and Tennyson scholar, and the author of several works on the expansion of British power in India. He served as the foreign secretary to the government of India during the war and helped broker the 1880 peace treaty with the Afghan ruler, Amir Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901). The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Ashley Eden, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal
This portrait of Sir Ashley Eden (1831–87), lieutenant governor of Bengal, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Eden became the first civilian governor of Burma after his success as a special envoy to the Himalayan hill state of Sikkim in 1861. He was appointed lieutenant governor of Bengal in 1877 and promoted major public works in the state, such as hospitals, schools, canals, and railroads. Eden’s efforts were praised by both Europeans and Bengalis. The Second ...
Contributed by Library of Congress