2,932 results in English
Great Trading Routes of the Sahara
This 1889 map of trans-Saharan trading routes by French explorer Edouard Blanc reflects the growing priority that Europeans gave to land-based trade during the late 19th-century imperial “scramble for Africa.” In articles about his work, Blanc stressed the importance of identifying “natural” geographic routes that would connect French colonial possessions in west Africa, such as Senegal, to Algeria in north Africa, and link the Mediterranean coast to Sudan and central Africa. Blanc based his maps not only on his own travels but also on nearly a century of reports from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guide to Kiev and Its Environs, Including an Address Section, Map and Phototype Views of Kiev
This 1890 guidebook provides comprehensive information for visitors to Kiev. It includes a history of the city and details of places of interest, such as Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the cathedrals and other churches, historical monuments, public gardens and wooded areas, public and administrative buildings, and bridges over the Dnieper River. Included is useful information for travelers, such as timetables for trains, steamships, and other passenger transport and a directory for hotels, restaurants, doctors, banks, stores, baths, libraries, clubs, and city and church authorities. The guide anticipates by 24 years Baedeker’s ...
Vrubelʹ
Mikhail Vrubelʹ (1856–1910) was a Russian painter known for his unusual style, which synthesized elements of native Russian art with Western and Byzantine influences. Born in Omsk to a Polish father and a Russian mother, he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1874 to study law. He abandoned his legal studies and in 1880 entered the Academy of Fine Arts. In a career cut short by mental illness and blindness, Vrubelʹ produced a body of work that included church murals and mosaics, book illustrations, stage sets, watercolors, and oil paintings ...
A Collection of Songs of the Bukovina People
Bukovina is a region in southeastern Europe that is today partly in Ukraine and partly in Romania. Between 1775 and 1918 it was ruled by the Austrian Empire. It was annexed by Romania after World War I and divided between the Soviet Union and Romania after World War II. This book is a collection of song lyrics, gathered in the second half of the 19th century by the Bukovina journalist, anthropologist, and public figure Hryhoriĭ Kupchanko (1849–1902) for the Southwestern Department of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society. The selection ...
Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
Theater and Drama: A Collection of Critical Articles on Theater and Dramatic Literature
Mikola Kindratovich Voroniy (1871–1938) was a prominent Ukrainian poet, writer, actor, and director. This book is a collection of his most important articles on the art of the theater and dramatic literature. The topics covered include the work of actors and directors, dramatic literature as the most complex genre of literary and artistic expression, and the nature and role of the audience. The author draws general conclusions from his analysis and discusses the ways in which the theater might develop in the future. Voroniy received his university education in ...
Guide to the Great Siberian Railway
The 8,000-kilometer Trans-Siberian Railway linking Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains with the Pacific port of Vladivostok is the world’s longest railroad. Construction began in 1891 and was completed in 1916. By 1900, much of the line was finished and open for traffic. In that year, the Russian Ministry of Ways of Communication issued, in identical English and Russian editions, this illustrated guide to the railway. It includes a history of Siberia, an account of the construction, and a detailed listing of the towns and cities along the route.
Letter from Otto Ringling, October 26, 1907
Otto Ringling (1858–1911) was the son of a German immigrant who, with his brothers Albert, Alfred, Charles, John, August, and Henry, created the Ringling Bros. circus empire in the late 19th century. The brothers bought the competing Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1907. They ran the circuses separately at first, but merged them in 1919 to create the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, which came to be known as “the Greatest Show on Earth.” This letter, written by Otto to his brothers in October 1907, details how the assets ...
Ringling Bros. Lion Tableau Wagon
Parades to celebrate the arrival of the circus to town in America featured highly decorated wagons carrying the circus band and artists along main thoroughfares to the big top circus tent, attracting patrons along the way. This “Lion Tableau” wagon was built by Sebastian Wagon Works of New York City in approximately 1880 for the Adam Forepaugh Circus.  A telescoping platform holding the figure of Saint George fighting a dragon was removed around 1889 and the lower portion was converted into a bandwagon. The wagon was purchased by the Ringling ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Isabel, Brazilian Princess
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II and, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1889, the heir to the Brazilian throne. It was taken by Joaquim José ...
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody
William Fredrick “Buffalo Bill” Cody (1846–1917) was at different times a trapper, miner, Pony Express rider, scout, wagon master, stagecoach driver, legislator, and Civil War soldier. He earned his nickname, Buffalo Bill, because of his skill in supplying the Kansas Pacific Railroad with buffalo meat for its workers; in 18 months, he killed more than 4,000 buffalos. In 1883, he started the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Omaha, Nebraska, using cowboys and Native Americans to portray scenes from the West. The show recreated daring rescues, heroic ...
Paranaguá
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Porto de Don Pedro II Station, Kilometer 2200
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Alexandra Station, Kilometer 15
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Morretes Station, Kilometer 40.900
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Bridge over River Ribeirão, Kilometer 14.053. 2 Spans of 20 Meters
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Bom Jardim River Bridge, Kilometer 48.660. 1 Span of 30 Meters
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Volta Grande Embankment, Kilometer 50
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paraná Province. Sanga Funda Tunnel, Kilometer 53.607
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Kilometer 58.609, Marumbí Hill
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Boa Vista Tunnel, Kilometer 58.299
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Araucaria angustifolia, a Paraná or Brazilian Pine
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paraná Railway
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Church of the Ascension (St. Theodosius) (1903-10), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Perm' Church of the Ascension in the name of St. Feodosii was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city's merchant community gave substantial donations for church construction. The donor for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Snapshot from an Airplane: The Harbor of Copenhagen
This view of Copenhagen harbor is the earliest known Danish aerial photograph. The picture was taken by Holger Damgaard (1870–1945), the first full-time press photographer in Denmark. Damgaard worked for the Danish newspaper Politiken from 1908 until 1940, where he documented a wide variety of events, places, and persons. Aerial photography goes back to the 1850s, when the first photographs were taken from balloons. The first photograph taken from an airplane was made in 1909, when the American aviation pioneer Wilbur Wright flew over Rome, carrying a passenger who ...
Brochure for White Star Line’s Two Ships “Olympic” and “Titanic”
This Danish-language brochure, published in Copenhagen in 1911 or 1912, advertises two ships of the British-owned White Star Line, the Olympic and Titanic. Included are facts about the line and its fleet; information about tickets, timetables, and classes of service; and illustrations of the dining rooms, libraries, cabins, and decks. The brochure lists amenities available to second- and third-class passengers and shows the menus for the morning, midday, and evening meals offered on each of the seven days of the voyage across the Atlantic. The publication was aimed at people ...
Representatives of the First Iranian Parliament
This photograph shows the representatives of the first Iranian Majles (parliament) in front of the military academy, which served as the first parliament building. In the 1870s–early 20th century, leading political figures in Iran concluded that the only way to save country from government corruption and foreign manipulation was to make a written code of laws, an attitude that laid the foundation for the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–7. The movement for a constitution bore fruit during the reign of Muẓaffar ad-Dīn Shah of the Qajar dynasty, who ...
Book of Effects of Drugs
This work is a lithographic print of a manuscript containing a treatise on pharmacology. It was produced in Kabul, in the Royal Printing House, by Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad and Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān. Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad was an officer and commander from the Muhammadzai clan in the Pashtun tribal confederacy that ruled Afghanistan in the Barakzai period (1826–1973) after the fall of the Durrani Dynasty in 1842. Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān served as the chief editor of the printing press in Kabul, where his activities included publishing ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collected Poems of Aisha Durrani
This work is a lithographic print, published in Kabul, of the collected poems of 'Āyisha Durrānī, an Afghan poetess from the Durrani family, who was active in the second half of the 19th century. The poems include qasidas (a lyric form) and ghazals (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), and are arranged alphabetically according to qāfiya (the effect of rhyme). The collection was compiled during the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emīr of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The Durrani family led a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Argentine Railways
Between 1880 and 1915, the Argentine railroad network expanded from 1,388 miles (2,234 kilometers) to 22,251 miles (35,809 kilometers) in length, making it the longest on the continent of South America and the eighth longest in the world. Railroads played a key role in economic development and national consolidation and made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of ...
Argentine Railways, 1899
Intensive railroad development took place in Argentina between 1880 and 1916, a period of rapid economic growth and national consolidation. The railroads made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of their technical expertise and their ability to raise large sums on the London market to finance the construction. This 1899 map, issued by the Buenos Ayres and Pacific Railway Company, of London ...
Map of Bolivia
This 1894 map of Bolivia highlights the country’s main geographic features, including the Andes Mountains in the west and the lowlands in the east. The map shows major towns and cities, the capitals of departments, departmental borders, completed and projected railroads, highways, and navigable rivers. Mines for copper, gold, silver, and tin are indicated, reflecting Bolivia’s role as a major mineral producer. Neighboring parts of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, and Peru are shown. Territory in the northeastern part of the country, near the border with Brazil, is identified ...
Map of Bolivia, Showing Forest and Agriculture Areas, and Mineral Localities
This 1912 map shows the agricultural, forest, and mineral wealth of Bolivia. Mineral production is shown as located mainly in the western part of the country, in or near the Andes Mountains. The locations of mines producing antimony, bismuth, copper, gold, lead, silver, wolfram, and tin, Bolivia’s most important mineral product, are indicated. Tin was mined in the departments of Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, and Potosí. Production boomed in the late-19th century–early 20th century, as the extension of the rail line to Oruro made possible the export of ...
Map of the Republic of Colombia
This 1891 map of Colombia depicts the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. It shows national and departmental borders, the capitals of departments, other cities, villages, railroads (completed and projected), and highways. Present-day Panama, which did not become independent until 1903, is still shown as a department of Colombia. The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, from Colón to Panama City, is indicated, but the Panama Canal has not yet been built. The eastern part of the country is shown as thinly settled and not well mapped ...
Map of the Republic of Costa Rica
This 1891 map of Costa Rica shows the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. The key, in the upper-right-hand corner, is in Spanish and English. Indicated on the map are the national capital, San José; provincial capitals; principal cities; minor cities; and railroads (in operation, under construction, projected, and “contracted for and soon to be built”). The highest mountains, volcanoes, and craters are indicated by the numbered key, and their heights given (inaccurately) in both feet and meters. The country’s seven provinces—Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia ...
Map of the Dominican Republic
The division of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola into the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic and French-speaking Haiti goes back to the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, under which Spain transferred the western third of what was then the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo to France. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777, the French and Spanish empires defined precisely the border between their respective territories on the island. Part of the present-day border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic still follows the line negotiated in 1777, but adjustments to the border ...
Costa Rica
This map of Costa Rica was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau published handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows the routes of steamship lines from the ports of Limon, Puntarenas, and San Juan del Sur (Nicaragua); undersea telegraph cables; railroads; and ...
Costa Rica - from Official and Other Sources
This 1903 map of Costa Rica was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau issued handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas.  The map shows physical features, such as rivers, lakes and mountains, international and provincial borders, and the routes of steamship lines from the port ...
Cuba
This detailed map of Cuba was published by the Rand McNally Company of Chicago in 1904. It shows provinces, principal cities and towns, and the 18 railroads then in operation in the country. The six provinces are indicated by different colors. A large inset map in the upper right shows the port and city of Havana; the key at the bottom of the main map indicates points of interest in Havana. Smaller inset maps depict Port Matanzas; Cardenas and Santa Clara Bays; the Port of Cienfuegos; and the Port of ...