49 results in English
Fortress of Brum in Pernambuco
This 19th-century plan, made by a captain in the Brazilian Army’s inspectorate of fortresses, shows the fortress at Brum, which was constructed by the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 17th century.
Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Johnson’s Turkey in Asia, Persia, Arabia, etc.
This map of the Middle East and Central and South Asia extending from the Nile Valley to the boundary of Afghanistan with British India is from Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas, published in New York in 1864. The map shows national capitals, provincial capitals, principal towns, and railroads. The Suez Canal, under construction at this time, is shown as proposed. The map provides a detailed overview of the towns and cities along the Nile in Egypt, Nubia (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan), and Sennar (present-day Sudan), and of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map of Persia (present-day Iran), the Arabian Peninsula, and neighboring countries originally appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas. It extends from a part of Egypt (the Nile Delta) in the west to Afghanistan in the east and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th century America. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Personal Narrative of a Year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–63)
William Gifford Palgrave (1826–88) was a famous English traveler to Arabia who inspired a generation of European explorers and missionaries. He became fluent in Arabic while serving as a Jesuit missionary in Syria. In 1862 he undertook a year-long journey through the Arabian Peninsula with the stated aim of studying the “moral, political, and intellectual conditions of living Arabia.” He was also working as a secret agent for the French emperor, Napoleon III (1808–73). Palgrave disguised himself as a Syrian doctor and was accompanied by his assistant, Barakāt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Journey through the Atmosphere on an Airship
Al-riḥla al-jawwīya fī al-markaba al-hawā'iya (A journey through the atmosphere on an airship) is an Arabic translation by Yusuf Ilyan Sarkis (1856−1932 or 1933) of Cinq Semaines en Ballon (Five weeks in a balloon), a novel by the French author Jules Verne originally published in 1863. Shown here is a second edition of this work, produced by the Jesuit print shop in Beirut in 1884 (the first edition having been published in 1875). The novel tells the story of an explorer, Dr. Samuel Ferguson, who, accompanied by a ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Alphabet of the Five Parts of the World
This abecedarium, published in Paris in 1863, is made up of color lithographs, purportedly illustrating the people of the different countries of the world. Each letter is associated with a country, which is represented by individuals in traditional dress, usually a couple, who are supposed to reflect the place and its population. These representations, somewhat romantic, are more theatrical than anthropologically accurate. Many are very approximate, sometimes even unrealistic or inaccurate. For the letter Q, for example, “Quebec” is represented by a woman in oriental dress, and a minaret and ...
Unidentified African American Soldier in Union Uniform with Wife and Two Daughters
In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order Number 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This photograph shows an unidentified African American soldier in a Union uniform, with his wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. The image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that this soldier belonged to one of the seven United States Colored Troop regiments raised in Maryland. The photograph is from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Actors Backstage Sugoroku
Actors Backstage Sugoroku is an e-sugoroku (picture board game) that depicts the backstage area of a Kabuki theater (playhouse). Published in 1863, towards the end of the Edo period, it contains pictures by Utagawa Kunisada II (also seen as Utagawa Toyokuni IV, 1823−80). This is a type of sugoroku called tobi-sugoroku (flying sugoroku), in which the squares are not lined up in order and the player moves around the board by jumping from square to square, depending on the roll of the die. From the furi-hajime (start) at the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
The Battery at a Fort in Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Fort of San Marcelo, also known as the Sea Fort, is located on a slab of land in the Bay of All Saints off the coast of Bahia ...
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Field of Santana
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This field, photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific in 1862, has at various times been known as the Field of Santana, Republic ...
Rio de Janeiro: a View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Sugar Loaf
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Dom Pedro I Square
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Statue of Dom Pedro I
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Public Promenade: View 1
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Passeio Publico, which was built in 1779 and opened to the public in 1793, is the oldest park in Brazil and one of the oldest in the Americas ...
Botanical Garden: Avenue of Imperial Palms
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro was founded in 1808 by King John VI of Portugal and opened to the public in 1822. It remains one of the ...
Aqueduct of Saint Teresa: House Under the Arches
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Carioca Aqueduct, also called the Arcos da Lapa or simply, the Arches, was built in the early 18th century to carry fresh water from the Carioca River to ...
Santa Teresa: A View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This view of the area surrounding the Church of Our Lady of Lapa was photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific. The church ...
Rio de Janeiro: General View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Gloria Neighborhood
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
From Tobol'sk to Obdorsk
This album of 32 original watercolors by the Tobol'sk artist M.S. Znamenskii is from the library of Tsar Nicholas II. The album was obtained for him in 1894 for 800 rubles following the death of the artist. Znamenskii painted the watercolors over a number of years and collected them in a birch-bark covered binding under the title "From Tobol'sk to Obdorsk." The subjects include scenes from Tobol'sk, Berezov, Obdorsk (present-day Salekhard), and other localities in Tobol’sk Province; the different ethnic groups living in this region ...
Contributed by Russian State Library
Parade at the Palace Square on the Occasion of the Wedding of Princess Isabel and the Count d'Eu
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the parade celebrating the marriage of Princess Isabel, the daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Thereza Christina Maria, with the Count of Eu on October, 15, 1864.
Journey to Ethiopia, Eastern Sudan, and Nigritia
Pierre Trémaux (1818-95) was a French architect, traveler, photographer, and amateur scientist who, in 1847-48, voyaged up the Nile to Nubia, Ethiopia, and eastern Sudan. Trémaux described the geology, flora and fauna, architectural monuments, and people of these countries in several works published in France in the 1850s and early 1860s. Some scholars consider his descriptions and sketches of Lower Nubia to be especially valuable, since much of this area now is covered by Lake Nubia, the extension into Sudan of Lake Nasser, created when the Aswan High Dam was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Emancipation Proclamation
Initially, the Civil War between the North and the South was fought by the North to prevent the secession of the South and preserve the Union. Ending slavery was not a goal. That changed on September 22, 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln issued his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which stated that slaves in those states or parts of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, would be free. One hundred days later Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious areas “are ...
Warrior Asahina Kobayashi
The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e (“Pictures of the floating [or sorrowful] world”) developed in the city of Edo (now Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1600-1868), a relatively peaceful era during which the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan and made Edo the seat of power. The Ukiyo-e tradition of woodblock printing and painting continued into the 20th century. This 1862 print is a half-length portrait of an actor, wearing a robe with a bird motif, in the role of Asahina. The print is from the series The 36 Stars of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Record of Songs and Dances Performed by Professional Female Entertainers
Gyobanggayo is a collection of 19th-century songs and dances by the gisaeng (the Korean equivalent of geisha). Gyobang were the facilities that trained and controlled gisaeng, who belonged to the provincial government office during the Joseon Dynasty, and gayo meant songs. The book includes not only ariettas, lyrics, poems, and folksongs (all collected using Hangul, the Korean alphabet) but also colored manuscripts of dances with detailed movements for the gisaeng. It has a distinct historical value by providing insight into the cultural and social situations of the provinces at that ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Valley of the Platte River
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska, toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. Under the authorizing legislation, the railroad was not to have grades or curves exceeding the maximums on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the first U.S. railroad to cross the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collected Poems of Yizhizhai Studio
The author of this work, Ding Yan (1794–1875), was a native of Shanyang (part of present-day Huai’an, Jiangsu Province), an accomplished scholar, and a government official. After achieving the rank of ju ren, a successful candidate at the provincial level examination, but failing to acquire his jin shi (doctoral degree), he declined minor official appointments and returned to Shanyang, where he became active in local affairs. In 1842 he led the local civilian corps in defense of his city, confronted the British fleet that had entered the Yangtze ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Students Studying in the Netherlands at the End of the Edo Period
This photograph of Japanese students in the Netherlands was taken in 1865. After the arrival in Japan of Commodore Mathew C. Perry and the opening of Japanese ports to international trade, the acquisition of Western science and technology became an urgent priority for Japan. The shogunate government drew up a plan to dispatch students to Western countries. The government initially planned to purchase its first warship from the United States and send its first students there, but the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War forced it to drop those ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Max and Moritz: A Story of Naughty Boys in Seven Pranks
Max and Moritz, a picture story about two mischievous little boys, is one of the most popular German children’s books. The first edition came out in late October 1865 in a print run of 4,000 copies. The author, Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), had intended to have his tale published in Fliegende Blätter, then a successful satirical weekly paper, but publisher Kaspar Braun included the title in the children’s books catalog of the firm of Braun & Schneider. The comic story is told in rhyming verse, and divided into ...
Moroccan State Trumpeters, 1864
This original gouache painting of 1864 is by the celebrated British artist, Sir John Gilbert (1817–97). It originally was thought to depict Moroccan state trumpeters, but many of Gilbert’s paintings are indistinct in terms of time and place and their exact subjects difficult to determine. Gilbert never traveled beyond Europe, but like many Victorian painters he was attracted to exoticism and to tales from Arabia, such as the story of Aladdin, and this piece reflects this interest in the exotic. One of the most prolific painters of his ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
American on Horseback, 1862
This ink and color wood-block print by Utagawa Yoshikazu (active 1848–63) was published in Edo (Toyko) in 1862. It depicts an American naval officer in black coat and top hat on a rearing brown horse, a dog in the foreground and civilians nearby. Along the top edge is a caption in Japanese which reads Kita Amerika shû no uchi Gasshûkoku mata Kyôwa seiji shû (On the North American Continent, the United States, also called the Republic). It comes from a series known as Foreigners from the Five Nations. The ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Citizens Volunteer Hospital. Corner of Broad Street and Washington Avenue
This Civil War fundraising certificate contains views of the exterior and interior of the volunteer hospital opposite the Philadelphia, Wilmington, & Baltimore Railroad depot in Philadelphia. The hospital opened on September 5, 1862, and closed on August 11, 1865. During the American Civil War, the hospital provided care to the most seriously wounded before their reassignment to other hospitals. The exterior view shows civilians and a troop of Union soldiers standing in front of the hospital as a train arrives. The interior view shows rows of beds lining a central hallway. Women volunteers attend to bed-ridden soldiers and set a long table for a meal. The illustrations are framed by decorative motifs that include the seal of the city of Philadelphia; angels hovering above an able-bodied and an injured soldier in front of columns inscribed "The Glory of the Volunteer"; American flags; and floral elements. The work is by James Fuller Queen, a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer. Queen served in the militia in 1862–63 and created several lithographs with Civil War subjects, including contribution certificates for the city's relief institutions.
Independence Square Recruiting Camps
In September–October 1862, Independence Square in Philadelphia became Camp Independence, a Civil War recruitment camp. This trade card, produced by the Children’s Central Clothing Emporium, shows well-dressed children on the central promenade of the square. Tents manned by soldiers line the promenade, and a group of children carrying drums, flags, and a hoop are seen walking in the foreground, along with a mother and son. The work is by James Fuller Queen, a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer known for his attention to detail. Queen served in the ...
Bird’s-Eye View of Property on Alleghany Avenue, Philadelphia, 25th Ward
This print shows a bird's eye view of the grid plan of the city of Philadelphia, looking southeast from Frankford Road in northeast Philadelphia toward the Delaware River. The area depicted lies between Westmoreland Street and a few blocks south of Columbia Street, consisting mainly of the open land surrounding the Aramingo Canal, the Reading Railroad depot between Lehigh Avenue and Somerset Street, and the tracks of the Philadelphia, Trenton, and New York Railroad line. A few dwellings, churches, and other structures comprise the landscape, with a heavier concentration ...
Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon, of Philadelphia
This print is a lively scene from November 1863 containing a view of the two hospitals, refreshment stand, and other buildings of the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon located near the Navy Yard at Swanson and Washington Avenues in Philadelphia during the American Civil War. Situated at the transportation hub between the North and the South on land leased for free from the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad, the saloon was a volunteer relief agency that provided meals, hospital care, washing, sleeping, and writing facilities to military personnel, refugees, and freedmen. It ...
Great Central Fair Buildings, Philadelphia
The Great Central (or Sanitary) Fair took place in Philadelphia in June 1864. The purpose of the fair, which featured art, craft, and historical exhibits, was to raise funds for the United States Sanitary Commission. This was a private organization during the American Civil War, which operated under the authority of the federal government to provide relief to soldiers and assistance to the Union army in matters relating to health and hygiene. The commission played a major role in mobilizing civilian support for the Union cause and represented the largest ...
Buildings of the Great Central Fair, in Aid of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, Logan Square, Philadelphia, June 1864
The Great Central Fair took place in Philadelphia in June 1864. The purpose of the fair, which featured art, craft, and historical exhibits, was to raise funds for the United States Sanitary Commission. This was a private organization that operated during the American Civil War under the authority of the federal government to provide relief to soldiers and assistance to the Union army in matters relating to health and hygiene. This print is a bird's-eye view of the exhibition grounds at Logan Square that was printed and for sale ...