67 results in English
Antietam, Maryland. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand: Another View
At the outset of the U.S. Civil War, Mathew Brady dispatched a team of photographers to document the conflict. Among them was a Scottish-born immigrant named Alexander Gardner, the photographer who took this photo of Lincoln at Antietam as well as other famous wartime shots. The man to Lincoln's right is Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, whom Lincoln had as head of a personal security detail during the war. Gardner titled another shot of Pinkerton and his brother William at Antietam “The Secret Service ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fortress of Brum in Pernambuco
This 19th-century plan, made by a captain in the Brazilian Army’s inspectorate of fortresses, shows the fortress at Brum, which was constructed by the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 17th century.
German Lutheran Church (1861-64), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Lutheran Church in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is a city of many ethnic groups and faiths. In 1861, the small Lutheran community, primarily of German origin, was given permission to construct a house of worship on St. Catherine Street ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Johnson’s Turkey in Asia, Persia, Arabia, etc.
This map of the Middle East and Central and South Asia extending from the Nile Valley to the boundary of Afghanistan with British India is from Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas, published in New York in 1864. The map shows national capitals, provincial capitals, principal towns, and railroads. The Suez Canal, under construction at this time, is shown as proposed. The map provides a detailed overview of the towns and cities along the Nile in Egypt, Nubia (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan), and Sennar (present-day Sudan), and of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map of Persia (present-day Iran), the Arabian Peninsula, and neighboring countries originally appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas. It extends from a part of Egypt (the Nile Delta) in the west to Afghanistan in the east and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th century America. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Personal Narrative of a Year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–63)
William Gifford Palgrave (1826–88) was a famous English traveler to Arabia who inspired a generation of European explorers and missionaries. He became fluent in Arabic while serving as a Jesuit missionary in Syria. In 1862 he undertook a year-long journey through the Arabian Peninsula with the stated aim of studying the “moral, political, and intellectual conditions of living Arabia.” He was also working as a secret agent for the French emperor, Napoleon III (1808–73). Palgrave disguised himself as a Syrian doctor and was accompanied by his assistant, Barakāt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Journey through the Atmosphere on an Airship
Al-riḥla al-jawwīya fī al-markaba al-hawā'iya (A journey through the atmosphere on an airship) is an Arabic translation by Yusuf Ilyan Sarkis (1856−1932 or 1933) of Cinq Semaines en Ballon (Five weeks in a balloon), a novel by the French author Jules Verne originally published in 1863. Shown here is a second edition of this work, produced by the Jesuit print shop in Beirut in 1884 (the first edition having been published in 1875). The novel tells the story of an explorer, Dr. Samuel Ferguson, who, accompanied by a ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Alphabet of the Five Parts of the World
This abecedarium, published in Paris in 1863, is made up of color lithographs, purportedly illustrating the people of the different countries of the world. Each letter is associated with a country, which is represented by individuals in traditional dress, usually a couple, who are supposed to reflect the place and its population. These representations, somewhat romantic, are more theatrical than anthropologically accurate. Many are very approximate, sometimes even unrealistic or inaccurate. For the letter Q, for example, “Quebec” is represented by a woman in oriental dress, and a minaret and ...
Unidentified African American Soldier in Union Uniform with Wife and Two Daughters
In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order Number 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This photograph shows an unidentified African American soldier in a Union uniform, with his wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. The image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that this soldier belonged to one of the seven United States Colored Troop regiments raised in Maryland. The photograph is from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Private Henry Augustus Moore of Company F, 15th Mississippi Infantry Regiment
This photograph shows a Confederate soldier during the American Civil War (1861−65). He is identified as Private Henry Augustus Moore of Company F, 15th Mississippi Infantry Regiment. Moore is wearing a grey coat with short, one-inch wide bars across the chest, a uniform based in part on regulations prescribed by the state of Mississippi. He holds a short artillery sword and a sign that reads “Jeff Davis and the South!” Jefferson Davis was a former senator from Mississippi who was inaugurated president of the Confederate States of America on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Actors Backstage Sugoroku
Actors Backstage Sugoroku is an e-sugoroku (picture board game) that depicts the backstage area of a Kabuki theater (playhouse). Published in 1863, towards the end of the Edo period, it contains pictures by Utagawa Kunisada II (also seen as Utagawa Toyokuni IV, 1823−80). This is a type of sugoroku called tobi-sugoroku (flying sugoroku), in which the squares are not lined up in order and the player moves around the board by jumping from square to square, depending on the roll of the die. From the furi-hajime (start) at the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
The Battery at a Fort in Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Fort of San Marcelo, also known as the Sea Fort, is located on a slab of land in the Bay of All Saints off the coast of Bahia ...
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Field of Santana
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This field, photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific in 1862, has at various times been known as the Field of Santana, Republic ...
Rio de Janeiro: a View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Sugar Loaf
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Dom Pedro I Square
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Statue of Dom Pedro I
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Public Promenade: View 1
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Passeio Publico, which was built in 1779 and opened to the public in 1793, is the oldest park in Brazil and one of the oldest in the Americas ...
Botanical Garden: Avenue of Imperial Palms
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro was founded in 1808 by King John VI of Portugal and opened to the public in 1822. It remains one of the ...
Aqueduct of Saint Teresa: House Under the Arches
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Carioca Aqueduct, also called the Arcos da Lapa or simply, the Arches, was built in the early 18th century to carry fresh water from the Carioca River to ...
Santa Teresa: A View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This view of the area surrounding the Church of Our Lady of Lapa was photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific. The church ...
Rio de Janeiro: General View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Gloria Neighborhood
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
From Tobol'sk to Obdorsk
This album of 32 original watercolors by the Tobol'sk artist M.S. Znamenskii is from the library of Tsar Nicholas II. The album was obtained for him in 1894 for 800 rubles following the death of the artist. Znamenskii painted the watercolors over a number of years and collected them in a birch-bark covered binding under the title "From Tobol'sk to Obdorsk." The subjects include scenes from Tobol'sk, Berezov, Obdorsk (present-day Salekhard), and other localities in Tobol’sk Province; the different ethnic groups living in this region ...
Contributed by Russian State Library
Parade at the Palace Square on the Occasion of the Wedding of Princess Isabel and the Count d'Eu
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the parade celebrating the marriage of Princess Isabel, the daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Thereza Christina Maria, with the Count of Eu on October, 15, 1864.
Journey to Ethiopia, Eastern Sudan, and Nigritia
Pierre Trémaux (1818-95) was a French architect, traveler, photographer, and amateur scientist who, in 1847-48, voyaged up the Nile to Nubia, Ethiopia, and eastern Sudan. Trémaux described the geology, flora and fauna, architectural monuments, and people of these countries in several works published in France in the 1850s and early 1860s. Some scholars consider his descriptions and sketches of Lower Nubia to be especially valuable, since much of this area now is covered by Lake Nubia, the extension into Sudan of Lake Nasser, created when the Aswan High Dam was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Letter Written in Cipher on Mourning Paper by Rose Greenhow
Rose O'Neal Greenhow was a spy for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. As a young woman in Washington, she befriended many influential politicians, including President James Buchanan and South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun, who played a role in shaping her dedication to the South. During the Civil War, Greenhow wrote ciphered (secret code) messages to the Confederates, providing information about Union military plans. Confederate President Jefferson Davis credited her with helping the South win the First Battle of Bull Run. Greenhow sent a message about Union ...
Emancipation Proclamation
Initially, the Civil War between the North and the South was fought by the North to prevent the secession of the South and preserve the Union. Ending slavery was not a goal. That changed on September 22, 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln issued his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which stated that slaves in those states or parts of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, would be free. One hundred days later Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious areas “are ...
Map of the Battles of Bull Run Near Manassas
This printed map by the Office of the Chief Engineer of the War Department details the fighting at the Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. Named for the creek or “run” in northern Virginia along which the fighting took place, Bull Run was the first major battle of the American Civil War. After halting several attacks ordered by Union commander General Irvin McDowell, the Confederates under General Pierre Beauregard launched a successful counterattack that drove the tired and inexperienced Union forces back toward Washington. The failure of the ...
Ordinance of Secession, 1861
This document is a one-page handwritten copy of the Ordinance of Secession passed on January 10, 1861, by the members of the Florida Convention of the People (commonly referred to as the Secession Convention). Pursuant to an act of the Florida legislature approved on November 30, 1860, Governor Madison S. Perry issued a proclamation calling an election on Saturday, December 22, 1860, for delegates to a convention to address the issue of whether Florida had a right to withdraw from the Union. The Secession Convention met in Tallahassee on January ...
Warrior Asahina Kobayashi
The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e (“Pictures of the floating [or sorrowful] world”) developed in the city of Edo (now Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1600-1868), a relatively peaceful era during which the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan and made Edo the seat of power. The Ukiyo-e tradition of woodblock printing and painting continued into the 20th century. This 1862 print is a half-length portrait of an actor, wearing a robe with a bird motif, in the role of Asahina. The print is from the series The 36 Stars of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Humorous Calendar for the New Year
Petko Rachov Slaveikov (1827–95) was one of the most renowned Bulgarian literary figures of the 19th century. He was a poet, publicist, translator, editor, dramatist, and folklorist. He believed fervently in the ideals of the National Revival movement and many of his works reflect his aspirations for the education of the Bulgarian people and for political and religious independence from the Ottoman Turks. Some of Slaveikov’s most popular works were his humorous calendars, which contained a variety of writing styles, including poems, amusing sketches, and horoscopes. These calendars ...
Bulgarian Folk Songs
Bulgarian Folk Songs is the most important National Revival-era compilation of Bulgarian folk material. Gathered and edited by Dimitrii Miladinov (1810–62) and his brother Konstantin (1830–62), the work contains folk songs, riddles, games, and proverbs from both the western and eastern parts of Bulgaria. The Miladinovs were born in Struga (in present-day Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) in what was then the Ottoman Empire. With its 665 songs, Bulgarian Folk Songs had a strong influence on Bulgarian literature and culture as well as on the development of Slavic ...
Record of Songs and Dances Performed by Professional Female Entertainers
Gyobanggayo is a collection of 19th-century songs and dances by the gisaeng (the Korean equivalent of geisha). Gyobang were the facilities that trained and controlled gisaeng, who belonged to the provincial government office during the Joseon Dynasty, and gayo meant songs. The book includes not only ariettas, lyrics, poems, and folksongs (all collected using Hangul, the Korean alphabet) but also colored manuscripts of dances with detailed movements for the gisaeng. It has a distinct historical value by providing insight into the cultural and social situations of the provinces at that ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
Picture of Flourishing America
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan became increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs gave rise to anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese people, whose curiosity about the external world is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. The sources of these depictions were not only eyewitness accounts, but also borrowed imagery from secondary material, such as engravings in Western journals ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Foreigners' Ship: Steamship
Commodore Matthew C. Perry entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to compel Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The Japanese people became increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The mixture of anxiety, curiosity, and awe at this influx of unfamiliar technology and customs is reflected in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. With the arrival of Perry, Yokohama-e (pictures of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Valley of the Platte River
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska, toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. Under the authorizing legislation, the railroad was not to have grades or curves exceeding the maximums on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the first U.S. railroad to cross the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Collected Poems of Yizhizhai Studio
The author of this work, Ding Yan (1794–1875), was a native of Shanyang (part of present-day Huai’an, Jiangsu Province), an accomplished scholar, and a government official. After achieving the rank of ju ren, a successful candidate at the provincial level examination, but failing to acquire his jin shi (doctoral degree), he declined minor official appointments and returned to Shanyang, where he became active in local affairs. In 1842 he led the local civilian corps in defense of his city, confronted the British fleet that had entered the Yangtze ...
Contributed by Library of Congress