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Antietam, Maryland. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand: Another View
At the outset of the U.S. Civil War, Mathew Brady dispatched a team of photographers to document the conflict. Among them was a Scottish-born immigrant named Alexander Gardner, the photographer who took this photo of Lincoln at Antietam as well as other famous wartime shots. The man to Lincoln's right is Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, whom Lincoln had as head of a personal security detail during the war. Gardner titled another shot of Pinkerton and his brother William at Antietam “The Secret Service ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Fortress of Brum in Pernambuco
This 19th-century plan, made by a captain in the Brazilian Army’s inspectorate of fortresses, shows the fortress at Brum, which was constructed by the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 17th century.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
German Lutheran Church (1861-64), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Lutheran Church in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is a city of many ethnic groups and faiths. In 1861, the small Lutheran community, primarily of German origin, was given permission to construct a house of worship on St. Catherine Street ...
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Library of Congress
Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
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Library of Congress
Southwest Asia
This map of Southwest Asia dating from about 1866 shows the possessions of the European powers in this region. The map extends from Libya, Egypt, and Sudan in the west to Mongolia, China (Tibet), and Burma in the east. Colored lines are used to indicate territories controlled by Britain, France, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire and to delineate what the map calls the kingdom of the imam of Oman. The names of provincial capitals are underlined. British territories in India are divided into six parts: Bengal, the Northwest Provinces, Panjab ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Johnson’s Turkey in Asia, Persia, Arabia, etc.
This map of the Middle East and Central and South Asia extending from the Nile Valley to the boundary of Afghanistan with British India is from Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas, published in New York in 1864. The map shows national capitals, provincial capitals, principal towns, and railroads. The Suez Canal, under construction at this time, is shown as proposed. The map provides a detailed overview of the towns and cities along the Nile in Egypt, Nubia (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan), and Sennar (present-day Sudan), and of ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map of Persia (present-day Iran), the Arabian Peninsula, and neighboring countries originally appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas. It extends from a part of Egypt (the Nile Delta) in the west to Afghanistan in the east and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th century America. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Personal Narrative of a Year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–63)
William Gifford Palgrave (1826–88) was a famous English traveler to Arabia who inspired a generation of European explorers and missionaries. He became fluent in Arabic while serving as a Jesuit missionary in Syria. In 1862 he undertook a year-long journey through the Arabian Peninsula with the stated aim of studying the “moral, political, and intellectual conditions of living Arabia.” He was also working as a secret agent for the French emperor, Napoleon III (1808–73). Palgrave disguised himself as a Syrian doctor and was accompanied by his assistant, Barakāt ...
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Library of Congress
Map of the Amur Country with Evidence of Surveys, Routes and Schedules, Produceed from 1850 to 1860
This map depicts the southern part of the Russian Far East, including the Amur River region and Sakhalin Island. It shows the routes of the expeditions undertaken by the Russian government in this region in 1850-60, each marked by a different color identified in the legend at the lower left. In this period, Russia conducted rigorous and extensive explorations of the Far East to create maps, gain knowledge about mineral deposits, and demarcate the border with China. The expedition led by Gennadii Nevelskoi made some of the most important discoveries ...
Contributed by
National Library of Russia
Emperor Alexander II with the Children: Sergei and Maria
This photograph, taken in 1860 or 1861, shows Tsar Alexander II (1818−81, ruled 1855−81), with two of his eight children: Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (born 1853) and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (born 1857). Alexander is seated in a chair, three-quarters to his left, wearing a military uniform. The grand duchess is leaning on her father’s right knee, facing forward; the grand duke is sitting on his father’s left leg.  Alexander was most respected for his emancipation of the serfs in 1861, and his domestic reforms included ...
Contributed by
Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library
Alphabet of the Five Parts of the World
This abecedarium, published in Paris in 1863, is made up of color lithographs, purportedly illustrating the people of the different countries of the world. Each letter is associated with a country, which is represented by individuals in traditional dress, usually a couple, who are supposed to reflect the place and its population. These representations, somewhat romantic, are more theatrical than anthropologically accurate. Many are very approximate, sometimes even unrealistic or inaccurate. For the letter Q, for example, “Quebec” is represented by a woman in oriental dress, and a minaret and ...
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National Library of France
Khmer Alphabet
On April 27, 1858, Alexandre Henri Mouhot, aged 31, sailed from London to Bangkok with the aim of exploring the remote interior regions of mainland Southeast Asia. He was particularly interested in ornithology and conchology, but he also had a passion for philology, photography, and foreign languages. Born in 1826 in Montbeliard, France, Mouhot became a Greek scholar, and at the age of 18 went to teach Greek and French at the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg, where he quickly picked up Russian and Polish. At the same time he ...
Contributed by
The British Library
National Exposition 1866: Throne Room
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1866, Rio de Janeiro hosted the National Exposition, which took place in a palace that today houses the National Archives. The Exposition was visited by 52,824 persons ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
National Exposition 1866: Agricultural Products
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1866, Rio de Janeiro hosted the National Exposition, which took place in a palace that today houses the National Archives. The Exposition was visited by 52,824 persons ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Map of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay; Map of Chili
S. Augustus Mitchell was born in Connecticut in 1790 and became a teacher. He found the materials available in early 19th-century America for teaching geography inadequate and, after moving to Philadelphia in 1829 or 1830, formed a company that soon was producing improved maps, atlases, tourist guides, and geography textbooks. Mitchell issued the first edition of his New Universal Atlas in 1846. His son, S. Augustus Mitchell, Jr., took over the firm in about 1860. He published Mitchell’s New General Atlas from which these maps of five South American ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
The Battery at a Fort in Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Fort of San Marcelo, also known as the Sea Fort, is located on a slab of land in the Bay of All Saints off the coast of Bahia ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Field of Santana
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This field, photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific in 1862, has at various times been known as the Field of Santana, Republic ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro: a View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil