130 results in English
Calculating Coptic Orthdox Easter
This manuscript deals with the calculation of Easter Sunday according to the Coptic calendar. Fixing this date each year governs much of the liturgical and devotional life of the Coptic Orthodox Church. The Coptic calendar begins in 284 AD, which is called Anno Martyrum (AM), or Year of the Martyrs. The first folio contains a table of the four seasons with their corresponding Coptic months and zodiacal signs. The following pages, some of which are torn or badly stained, provide instructions for calculating the movement of the moon and reconciling ...
Map of the Amur Country with Evidence of Surveys, Routes and Schedules, Produceed from 1850 to 1860
This map depicts the southern part of the Russian Far East, including the Amur River region and Sakhalin Island. It shows the routes of the expeditions undertaken by the Russian government in this region in 1850-60, each marked by a different color identified in the legend at the lower left. In this period, Russia conducted rigorous and extensive explorations of the Far East to create maps, gain knowledge about mineral deposits, and demarcate the border with China. The expedition led by Gennadii Nevelskoi made some of the most important discoveries ...
Arabia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula appeared in the 1856 edition of the world atlas that was first published by James Wyld (1790−1836) in 1824 and in successive editions by his son, James Wyld the younger (1812−87). Political divisions are indicated by colored lines and the scale is in English miles. Cities, towns, wells, and caravan routes to Mecca are shown. An annotation on the map reflects the limited state of European knowledge about geography of parts of the peninsula: “The interior of Arabia is probably a high ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Letter from Engku Temenggung Seri Maharaja (Daing Ibrahim), Ruler of Johor, to Napoleon III, Emperor of France
This beautiful royal Malay letter from the ruler of Johor, Temenggung Daing Ibrahim, to the Emperor of France, written in Singapore in 1857, is a triumph of style over substance. Its 13 golden lines pay effusive compliments to Napoleon III but convey little else. It is hard to know what either side hoped to gain from the despatch of such a magnificent missive, for in the mid-19th century French interests in Southeast Asia were primarily focused on Indochina, while Johor’s allegiance was firmly with the British. In the letter ...
Contributed by The British Library
Map of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay; Map of Chili
S. Augustus Mitchell was born in Connecticut in 1790 and became a teacher. He found the materials available in early 19th-century America for teaching geography inadequate and, after moving to Philadelphia in 1829 or 1830, formed a company that soon was producing improved maps, atlases, tourist guides, and geography textbooks. Mitchell issued the first edition of his New Universal Atlas in 1846. His son, S. Augustus Mitchell, Jr., took over the firm in about 1860. He published Mitchell’s New General Atlas from which these maps of five South American ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Voyage Down the Amoor: With a Land Journey through Siberia, and Incidental Notices of Manchooria, Kamschatka, and Japan
Perry McDonough Collins was appointed the American Commercial Agent to the Amur River in March 1856. He arrived at his post in Irkutsk in January 1857 after a 35-day overland journey from Moscow. On June 4, 1857, he began a trip down the Amur River, which forms the border between the Russian Far East and northeastern China. On July 10, he arrived at the mouth of the river, becoming the first American to sail its course. In March 1858 Collins sent a report to the U.S. Department of State ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Abosko-B'erneborg Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and the local costume of the inhabitants.
Arkhangelsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and the local costume of the inhabitants.
Astrakhan Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and the local costume of the inhabitants.
The Days of Mutiny
Ayām-i Ghadr (The days of mutiny) is a historical account of events related to the Indian Mutiny of 1857, an uprising of native soldiers (sepoys) against the army of the British East India Company, which marked an important step in India’s struggle for independence and freedom from British rule. The manuscript is a rare unpublished source on Indian history, and particularly on the Mutiny of 1857. It contains two paintings, at page 108 and page 175, which depict events described in the text.
Bulgarian Folk Songs
Naiden Gerov (1823–1900) was a renowned Bulgarian literary figure, whose accomplishments included composing the first poem in modern Bulgarian. His most important work was his Dictionary of the Bulgarian Language, which he worked on for many decades and which was published in five volumes between 1895 and 1904. Gerov’s lifelong interest in Bulgarian folklore is reflected in his monumental dictionary, in which he included many words from folk materials. Although he gathered much material, most of it was not published during his lifetime. This small anthology, Bulgarian Folk ...
Brief Anthropology, or the Science of Man
Naiden P. Stoianov (1830–76) was the author of several Bulgarian textbooks, but he is better known as one of the leaders of the uprising by the Bulgarians against Ottoman rule in April 1876. Also known as the Koprivshtitsa uprising after one of the towns in which the insurrection was centered, the April uprising was brutally crushed by the Ottomans. Stoianov died in prison after being tortured. He was a student of both Neofit Rilski and Naiden Gerov, leading writers and luminaries in the Bulgarian National Revival of the 19th ...
Avgustov Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and the local costume of the inhabitants.
Gajō icchō
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. These woodblock ukiyo-e prints are selections from the series Meisho Edo ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dutch, American, English
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan became increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs gave rise to anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese people, whose curiosity about the external world is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. Yokohama-e (pictures of Yokohama) depicting the commercial trading port that connected Japan to the West, as well as Western culture in general, became ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bessarabia Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. The province of Bessarabia depicted ...
Transbaikal Region
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.
Smith's New Map of London
By 1800, the population of London had reached one million, making it the world’s largest city. By the end of the 1900s, its population was approaching five million. The rapid growth of cities such as London created new challenges for mapmakers, including confused street names, the constant appearance of new streets and buildings, and the problem of aligning the trigonometric measurement of streets with actual measurement. Growth also created new demand for maps -- from businesses, insurance companies, government agencies, and tourists. This 1860 map by C. Smith & Son shows ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
American, French, Chinese
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan was increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs incited anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese populace, and their strong curiosity is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. Hiroshige II (circa 1826–69) was the pupil and adopted son of the great landscape master, Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858). In this 1860 print, Hiroshige II illustrates ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
America
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan was increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s, as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs incited anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese populace, and their strong curiosity is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. Hiroshige II (circa 1826–69) was the pupil and adopted son of the great landscape master, Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858), and produced this work in 1860. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Pilgrimage to My Motherland: An Account of a Journey Among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60
Robert Campbell (1829–84) was a Jamaican-born printer, journalist, and teacher who, along with Martin Robison Delany (1812–85), made up the Niger Valley Exploring Party of 1859–60, an expedition organized by free African Americans to explore the possibility of colonizing parts of West Africa with black immigrants from America. Campbell traveled first to England in early 1859. He sailed on to Lagos (present-day Nigeria) and traveled northwest to Abeokuta, where he met up with Delany, a journalist, political activist, and graduate of Harvard Medical School. Acting in their ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chernigov Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.
Land of Chukotka and Kamchatka Region
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.
Syriac Grammar
This manuscript, which has worm damage and is missing folios at the end, is a grammar of Syriac written in Garshuni (Arabic in Syriac letters). There is a table of contents, after which the text is written in two columns. The red ink has faded somewhat and is not as clear as the black ink. The section titles are given in both Syriac and Arabic. Syriac is an eastern dialect of Aramaic, which was spoken by Christians in the lands between the Roman Empire and the Arabian Sea from the ...
Ishinpō
Ishinpō, the Japanese encyclopedia of Chinese medicine, was compiled by Japanese author Tanba Yasunori (912–95) in the Heian period. It is a collected work of quotations from more than 200 works on traditional Chinese medicine dating from the Sui and Tang dynasties (581–907), comprising about 10,000 items. It preserves a large amount of medical lore from books that have since been lost. It is also the earliest medical work existing in Japan. Originally in 30 juan, it was issued in 982 and presented to the Japanese emperor ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Russian America
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. The territory depicted on this ...
Lublin Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Liublinskaia guberniia (Lublin Province) depicted ...
Radomsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Radomskaia guberniia (Radom Province) depicted ...
Mogilev Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Mogilevskaia guberniia (Mogilev Province) depicted ...
Tobolsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.
Irkutsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.
Warsaw Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Varshavskaia guberniia (Warsaw Province) depicted ...
Plotsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Plotskaia guberniia (Plotsk Province) depicted ...
Kingdom of Poland
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. The Kingdom of Poland depicted ...
Grodno Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Grodnenskaia guberniia (Grodno Province) depicted ...
Vilnius Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Vilenskaia guberniia (Vilnius Province) depicted ...
Kaunas Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Kovenskaia guberniia (Kaunas Province) depicted ...
Tavastia Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Tavastguzskaia guberniia (Tavastia Province) depicted ...
Vitebsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Vitebskaia guberniia (Vitebsk Province) depicted ...
Yakutsk Region
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants.
Saint Michel's Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. S. Mikhel'skaia guberniia (Sankt ...
Kuopio Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Kuopioskaia guberniia (Kuopio Province) depicted ...