126 results in English
Sketch Map of British Guiana
Robert Hermann Schomburgk (1804–65) was a British naturalist and surveyor known for his pioneering surveys of British Guiana (present-day Guyana). Born and educated in Germany, he traveled to the West Indies in 1830 where he completed a survey of one of the Virgin Islands that was published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1835–39, under the direction of the Royal Geographical Society, he explored the Essequibo and Berbice Rivers in northern South America and completed a survey of British Guiana. Upon returning to Europe, he ...
Certificate Given by Kabul Prisoners in 1842 to Babu Khan
This photograph of a certificate given by prisoners held in Kabul is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The certificate, relating to an important episode in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42), apparently had remained in the possession of an unknown Afghan for some 40 years before being reproduced by a British photographer during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. In the document, the prisoners attest to the kindness shown them by Babu Khan, who was probably a tribal Pashtun leader ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map appeared in A New Universal Atlas, published in 1846 by Henry Schenck Tanner, an early American geographer and cartographer. This map shows the political and geographic features of the Arabian Peninsula, using the traditional divisions of Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. Also shown are the region of the Hedjaz with the cities of Mecca and Medina, and Al-Dahna (present-day Kuwait and southern Iraq). The key in the bottom right differentiates between capitals, important towns, and smaller towns by means of starred and shaded circles. The boundaries ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Asian-Eastern Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and Arabia
This map, published in Paris in 1842, shows the Asian provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and the Arabian Peninsula. The map appeared in Atlas universel de géographie ancienne et moderne (Universal atlas of ancient and modern geography) by the cartographer and engraver Pierre M. Lapie (1779–1850). Lapie was a member of the corps of topographical engineers in the French army, where he rose to the rank of colonel. He eventually became head of the topographical section in the Ministry of War. He was assisted by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Asian Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, Balochistan, and the Khanate of Bukhara, with Some of the Neighboring Countries
This 1848 map of the Middle East and parts of Central and South Asia is by the French cartographer and engraver Pierre M. Lapie (1779-1850), a colonel in the French army and head of the topographical section in the Ministry of War. Accurate and beautifully detailed, the map reflects the high quality of French cartography, and military cartography in particular. The territory covered includes the Nile Valley and the Nile delta, Cyprus and present-day Turkey, the countries of the eastern Mediterranean, Persia, Afghanistan, and Bukhara and other khanates in Central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Life in the Desert, or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa
Life in the Desert, or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa is an English translation of a work originally published in 1860 in France under the title Les Mystères du Désert. The author, Louis Du Couret (1812–67), was the son of a colonel in the French army. He traveled to the Middle East in 1836, where he served as a military officer under Muḥammad ʻAlī (1769–1849), pasha and wali (governor) of Egypt, and fought in the Battle of Nezib in Syria in 1839. He converted to Islam ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia
John Tallis and Company was a British mapmaking and publishing firm, founded by John Tallis (1817–76), which was active in London circa 1835−60. Tallis maps were known for their accurate information with numerous place-names and geographical details, as well as for the use of shaded areas to indicate topographical features. They are identifiable by the scrolling on the borders and the finely-drawn scenes inscribed on the margins of the maps, which John Tallis and his illustrators derived from travelogues and other written sources. John Rapkin (1815−76) was ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Newest Map of Arabia
This color map in German appeared as plate 80 in Grosser Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde (Large portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by the Bibliographic Institute of Joseph Meyer (1796−1856). The map shows the Arabian Peninsula as well as neighboring parts of Africa, including Egypt, present-day Sudan, and Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia). Colored lines are used to demarcate kingdoms and other political entities. El Bedaa, an old city in Qatar (now the Al Bida area of Doha), is shown. Three inset maps in the upper ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Highlands of Iran Including the States of Persia, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan
This hand-colored map of 1846 shows the Iranian Plateau, a geographical and geological formation encompassing parts of Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (in present-day Iran and Pakistan). The map shows cities of different sizes, provinces and provincial capitals, caravan routes, fortresses, ruins, and rivers, mountains, and other geographic features. Three distance scales are provided: English miles, German miles, and Persian farsangs (also seen as parasangs and fursakhs). The map is by the German cartographer Carl Ferdinand Weiland (1782−1847) and was published in Allgemeiner Hand-Atlas der Erde und des ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Gold Regions of California
The California Gold Rush of 1849 was a major event that sparked interest around the world and spurred the long-term rise and development of San Francisco and the surrounding region. Previously a Spanish and Mexican outpost, California witnessed a huge influx of prospectors and settlers after the gold strikes at Sutter’s Mill in early 1848. This map shows the entire area of California, including the Baja (present-day Mexico), and highlights in bright yellow the gold-producing regions along several rivers. The map also lists the names of various mountains, bays ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Upper & Lower California Showing the Military Stations and Distribution of Troops
During the Mexican-American War of 1846–48, U.S. troops occupied parts of the Mexican territory of Alta (Upper) California in an arc from present-day Sacramento to San Diego. This hand-drawn map of 1847 shows the locations in Alta California where U.S. forces were stationed. The notation on the lower left-hand side gives the distances between sites and the numbers of men deployed. Longitude and latitude are marked but there is no exact scale. The map shows the extent of U.S. control, later to be formalized in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topographical Sketch of the Gold & Quicksilver District of California
Published in July 1848 after the first gold strikes at Sutter’s Mill on the American River in northern California, this map shows the location of key gold and quicksilver (mercury, in the form of cinnabar) deposits in the territory of California. Soon after the find, prospectors began streaming into California in enormous numbers, and demand was high for geographic knowledge of the region, especially as it related to previous strikes. The map displays the basic topography of California by showing mountains, rivers, bays, and mountain passes, but its main ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Protester during the Riots of February 1848
This daguerreotype portrait of a protester was made at the end of the riots of February 1848 in Paris. The unidentified photographer was most likely inexperienced in the technique, as the text on the flag, “République Liberté Egalité Fraternité 22, 23, 24 février” (Republic Liberty Equality Brotherhood, 22, 23, 24 February), is reversed. A professional photographer would have used the mirror system invented earlier to correct the image in the dark room. Beyond this misstep, however, the viewer can sense the photographer’s intense desire to immortalize the face of ...
A Memoir of India and Avghanistaun
Josiah Harlan (1799−1871) was an adventurer and soldier of fortune who possibly was the first American to travel to Afghanistan. Born in Pennsylvania into a large Quaker family, he went to Asia in 1823, where he found employment as a surgeon with the British East India Company. In 1827 he entered the service of Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk, the former leader of Afghanistan who had been deposed in 1810. Harlan remained in Afghanistan for 14 years, where he engaged in various intrigues with rival Afghan leaders, several times changing allegiances. During ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the River Jordan and Dead Sea: And the Route of the Party Under the Command of Lieutenant W.F. Lynch, United States Navy
In 1847-48, Lt. William Francis Lynch of the U.S. Navy led a 16-man expedition to explore the Dead Sea and the course of the River Jordan to its source, with the assent of the Secretary of the Navy John Y. Mason and the support of the United States Naval Hydrographic Office. The United States had no formal designs on territory in the Middle East, but personally Lynch found the Holy Land ripe for colonization and commerce. Upon his return, he published accounts of the expedition and lectured on the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mercator Map of the Bering Sea from the Northeast Coast of Asia, Between Cape Olutor and Cape Chukotka: Taken from Captain Litke's Map, Supplemented by an Insert of the Anadyr Inlet
Fedor Petrovich Litke was a Russian naval officer, geographer, and explorer. In 1826-29, as captain of the ship Seniavin, he completed his second circumnavigation of the world. On this voyage, he mapped the western coastline of the Bering Sea. He subsequently published, in French and Russian, an eight-volume account of his explorations that included numerous maps and plans. This mid-19th-century Russian map, produced by the Ministry of Marine, is based on one of Litke’s maps. It shows sandbars, notations of depth in sazhens, and anchorages. Relief is shown ...
Elements of Christian Teaching, or a Short Sacred History and a Short Christian Catechism
Ioann Veniaminov (1797-1879) was a Russian Orthodox priest who in 1823 volunteered to go to Alaska as a missionary. Settling with his wife and family in Unalaska, he built a church and school and began his lifelong task of studying the native languages of the region. With the help of the Aleut chief Ivan Pan'kov, Veniaminov invented an alphabet for the Unangan (Aleut) language which he used to translate religious and educational material from Russian. This book, from the collections of the National Library of Russia, was first translated ...
New Physical, Political, Industrial and Commercial Map of Central America and the Antilles: With a Special Map of the Possessions of the Belgian Colonization Company of Central America, the State of Guatemala
Unlike Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Denmark, Belgium never had colonial possessions in the Americas. It entertained, nonetheless, certain colonial ambitions, as reflected in this map. Following the breakup of the United Provinces of Central America in the civil war of 1838-40, the caudíllo Rafael Carrera rose to power in Guatemala. Belgium became an important source of external support to the new regime as it struggled to consolidate itself as an independent state. The Compagnie belge de colonisation (Belgian Colonization Company), commissioned by Belgian King Leopold I, became the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Overview of Afghanistan and the Countries on the Northwest Border of India
Carl Zimmermann was a first lieutenant in the Prussian Army who, in the early 1840s, developed a strong personal and professional interest in the conflict then being waged by the British Army in Afghanistan. In what became known as the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-40), Britain tried to extend its control from India northwest into Afghanistan, but suffered a series of disastrous defeats at the hands of the Afghan tribes and eventually was forced to withdraw. In 1842 Zimmermann published Der Kriegs-Schauplatz in Inner-Asien (The theater of war in inner Asia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Instructions of the Route to the Heavenly Kingdom: A Sermon
Father Ioann Veniaminov (1797-1879) was the greatest of the Russian Orthodox missionaries to Alaska. A man of enormous linguistic talents, Veniaminov created an alphabet for the Unangan (Aleut) language and, with the help of the Aleut chief Ivan Pan'kov, wrote and published in 1834 an Aleut catechism, the first book published in an Alaskan native language. As Bishop Innokentii, Veniaminov encouraged the study of Tlingit and a variety of Aleut-Eskimo dialects such as Atkan and Central Yup'ik. This work, published in Moscow in 1840, contains religious teachings by ...
Dahomey and the Dahomans: Being the Journals of Two Missions to the King of Dahomey, and Residence at His Capital, in the Year 1849 and 1850
Frederick E. Forbes was a British naval officer who, in 1849-50, undertook two missions to the court of the King of Dahomey in an unsuccessful attempt to convince him to end involvement in the slave trade. Dahomey was a warlike kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century and came to dominate its neighbors through its army, which included both men and women and was based on strict military discipline. This two-volume work reproduces Forbes’ journal and his account of his conversations with King Gezo ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Attack on a Barricade in Paris, 1848
This unsigned early pencil sketch by British artist John Everett Millais (1829-96) shows the chaos of the February 1848 revolution in Paris that ended the reign of Louis-Philippe and established the French Second Republic. In February 1848, the French merchant classes erected barricades throughout Paris to protest their lack of political rights and the difficulties caused by an extended economic depression. In an incident outside the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a soldier fired into a crowd, inciting a riot. By the end of February, Louis-Philippe had fled and the opposition ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Forest. Anita Dying
This painting depicting Italian patriots during the wars of Italian independence is excerpted from a multi-scene, “moving” panorama that is more than 1.2 meters tall and 110 meters long. Giant paintings such as these were a popular form of entertainment in the 19th century. The panorama scroll would be unrolled slowly as a narrator described the action. In its entirety, this panorama chronicles the life and exploits of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian freedom fighter. The work is attributed to John James Story (1827-1900), an artist from Nottingham, England, but ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Iowa-Florida Act
In December 1838, delegates from the Territory of Florida met in the town of Saint Joseph to adopt a constitution, a necessary step toward becoming a state. It was not until March 3, 1845, however, that both houses of the United States Congress approved “An Act For The Admission of the States of Iowa and Florida Into The Union.” Florida was to be admitted to the union as a slave state and Iowa as a free state, thereby preserving the delicate political balance within the U.S. Senate between free ...
Will of Zephaniah Kingsley, 1843
Zephaniah Kingsley was a wealthy planter and slave owner in northeast Florida. His heirs included his wife, a freed slave named Anna M. J. Kingsley, and their children. Kingsley was both a defender of slavery and an activist for the legal rights of free blacks. Born in Bristol, England, in 1765, Kingsley moved to Charleston, South Carolina, then a British colony, in 1770. By the 1790s, Kingsley was active in maritime commerce, including the slave trade. In 1803, he became a citizen of Spanish Florida and began acquiring land in ...
Portrait of Mauma Mollie
Mauma, a Partridge family slave, was transported to South Carolina on a slave ship from Africa. She came to Jefferson County, Florida with John and Eliza Partridge in the 1830s, and was Frances Weston Partridge’s nurse. Henry Edward Partridge recorded in his diary in 1873: “We buried either in 57 or 58 our faithful old ‘Mauma’ Mollie – her who had nursed nearly all of the children of the family; been a friend as well as faithful servant to my Mother; in whose cabin we had often eaten the homely ...
General Geography in Brief for the Whole World
Published in 1843 with the support of many private donors, General Geography in Brief for the Whole World is a reworking in Bulgarian of Samuel Goodrich’s American textbook, Peter Parley's Method of Telling about Geography to Children, but from the Greek translation produced by American missionaries rather than the original English. Other Greek-language geography texts also inspired aspects of this work, notably William Channing Woodbridge’s Rudiments of Geography (1835), which was translated into Greek by missionaries at about the same time as Goodrich’s text. When American ...
Something for the Unlearned
Most famous for being the father of Bulgarian revolutionary Khristo Botev, Botio Petkov (1815–69) was an accomplished educator and writer in his own right. Among his students were the luminaries Ivan Vazov and Nikola Nachov. Born in the town of Karlovo, Petkov himself studied with a famous teacher, Raino Popovich. Petkov wrote for the early Bulgarian newspaper Tsarigradski vestnik (Constantinople Herald), and published several translations into Bulgarian from Russian, including this book. Petkov completed this translation while he was a seminary student in Odessa, a city in Russia (present-day ...
Universal Geography for Children
Geography textbooks were very popular as basic education tools during the 19th-century National Revival in Bulgaria. Between 1824 and 1878, some 43 different titles or editions of this genre were published. Universal Geography for Children by Ivan Bogorov, or Bogoev (1818–92), appeared early in this tradition. Bogorov’s book was a translation from the Russian of a work, also entitled Universal Geography, by Vasilii Bardovskii (1804–74), a teacher of geography at a gymnasium in St. Petersburg and the author of several popular Russian geography textbooks. Bogorov’s Mathematical ...
Bulgarian Dream Interpreter, Printed for the Curiosity of Readers
Published in 1844, Bulgarian Dream Interpreter is an early Bulgarian astrological publication, part of a Balkan tradition of apocryphal and astrological works. It was intended to assist readers in interpreting their dreams by providing an alphabetical list of dreams and interpretations. The work is anonymous, but the publisher was Zaharia Carcalechi, a noted Bucharest journalist and publisher who produced works mainly in Romanian, but who also published 12 Bulgarian-language books in the period between 1840 and 1850.
Bulgarian Phrasebook for Those Who Would Like to Speak Greek
Bulgarian Phrasebook for Those Who Would Like to Speak Greek is an 1845 phrasebook and manual for writing business letters in Greek for use by Bulgarians. It was not the first such business aid published in Bulgarian, but it is significant because of the importance of its author, Konstantin Fotinov (circa 1790–1858), a Bulgarian educator and editor of the first Bulgarian periodical, Liuboslovie (Philology). Fotinov recognized that in order to compete with the Greeks in the area of commerce, Bulgarians needed to be conversant in Greek, which was widely ...
Bulgarian Arithmetic
Arithmetics were a popular genre of textbooks during the era of the Bulgarian National Revival in the 19th century, when it was widely believed that everyone, especially future businessmen, needed to know basic mathematics. Bulgarian Arithmetic was the fourth such text published in this era, in 1845. The author, Khristodul Kostovich Sichan-Nikolov (1808–89), was a monk, teacher, writer, and publicist, often assisted in his scholarly pursuits by the writer, educator, and priest Neofit Rilski. Before writing his own text, Sichan-Nikolov had been involved as the editor of the first ...
Book of Amusements for 1846
Book of Amusements for 1846 was the second in a series that began publication the previous year, in 1845. The anthologist, Konstantin Ognianovich (1798–1858), was a Serb who believed in education for Bulgarians and who contributed to the Bulgarian National Revival by producing poetic works and popular anthologies that encouraged reading and Bulgarian national pride. Part of the tradition of calendar publishing, the volumes in the series led the transformation of the genre from an earlier focus on light content to the production of popular anthologies with serious content ...
Brief Interpretation of the Holy Church, and How Many Holy Vessels and Vestments are Kept There, and of the Everyday Services, of the Divine Liturgy, and of the Holy Church Mysteries
Brief Interpretation of the Holy Church, and How Many Holy Vessels and Vestments Are Kept There, and of the Everyday Services, of the Divine Liturgy, and of the Holy Church Mysteries is a Bulgarian translation of a liturgical work originally written in Greek. Shown here is the second edition. In 1837, when the first edition of this work was published, very few Bulgarian books existed for educational or even religious purposes. The Greek original is by the Hellenistic educator, Demetrios Nikolaos Darvares (1757–1853); the translation is by Raino Popovich ...
Grammar of the Slavic Language
Ivan N. Momchilov was a noted teacher and textbook writer during the 19th-century era of the Bulgarian National Revival. As a teacher, he recognized the need for a basic primer for his pupils on Church Slavic, and set about writing such a work. His 1847 Grammar of the Slavic Language was Momchilov’s first textbook and the first Church Slavic grammar to be published in Bulgarian and by a Bulgarian. It was compiled using several other grammars as its foundation, namely those by the Russian Ivan Stepanovich Peninskii, by the ...
New Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ
The noted educational reformer, grammarian, and priest Neofit Rilski (1793–1881) was the first to translate the New Testament into modern Bulgarian. Rilski’s translation was critical to religious education, as most Bulgarians could not understand the existing translations of the Bible into Church Slavic. Financed by the Protestant British and Foreign Bible Society and sanctioned by the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Ilarion, Metropolitan of Tŭrnovo, the translation was a milestone in the Bulgarian National Revival and in the efforts of Bulgarians to achieve religious autonomy from the ...
A Map of Seoul in the Period of Joseon Dynasty
Suseon jeondo (Map of Seoul) is a wood-block print map of Seoul made by Kim Jeongho (1804–66), the leading geographer of the Joseon Dynasty in the 1840s. The word Suseon indicates Seoul, which was the capital and called Hanyang at that time, and jeondo means the complete map. An actual survey of the whole city by Kim Jeongho, the map shows major roads, facilities, villages, and other features of the capital in detail. The mountains, traditionally considered significant in connecting the sky with the authority of the king, are ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
Oumayagashi no zu
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This nishiki-e (full-color print) by Utagawa Kuniyoshi is from the series ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Sumo Wrestler Kagamiiwa of the West Side
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This sumo-e (pictures of sumo wrestlers), by Utagawa Toyokuni II, is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Illustrated Travel Notes on the Journey to Kangyou
The work was compiled by Yao Ying (1785-1853) of Tongcheng, Anhui Province, who successfully passed the highest imperial examination and received the title of jin shi (doctoral degree) in the 13th year of the Jiaqing reign (1808) and assumed various official posts. In 1843 he was banished by the imperial court to Sichuan. While there he was dispatched twice to Chad Ya (present-day Chaya Xian, Changdu Diqu, Tibet) in order to resolve disputes among the Tibetan monks. He also conducted surveys of Xikang, Tibet and various places in the southwestern ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bokhara, Kabool, Beloochistan, &c.
This map of Afghanistan and parts of present-day Iran and Pakistan was published by Charles Knight (1791–1873), an English author and publisher who is best known for his role as superintendent for publications for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. The society was founded in London in 1826 for the purpose of improving the educational level of the British working and middle classes. In the 1830s and 1840s, it produced numerous publications, including a Library of Useful Knowledge, the volumes of which sold for sixpence, and a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Historical, Geographical, and Statistical Description of the Russian Empire. Volume 1, Book 4. Vologda Province
This work by the historian and statistician Ivan Ilych Pushkarev (1808–48) is a historical and statistical description of the Russian province of Vologda, containing information about its geography, people, economic development, and government institutions. It was conceived as a fundamental work based on the materials of the ministries and statistical committees of the provinces. Pushkarev planned to publish 18 volumes with the descriptions of 76 provinces, regions, and districts, and a concluding historical and statistical description of the Russian Empire as a whole. However, he had time to prepare ...