28 results in English
The Fire of the Church of Our Lady
This vivid color print shows the burning of the Church of Our Lady, the cathedral of Copenhagen, on the night of September 4–5, 1807, during the Anglo-Danish war of 1807–14. Britain initiated the war in August 1807, after the Danes refused to surrender their fleet, which the British feared would fall into the hands of Napoleonic France. The British landed troops on Danish soil and on September 2 began a three-day bombardment of the city. On the third night of the attack, the steeple of the cathedral was ...
Bombed Copy of “Defensor pacis”
In September 1807, early in the Anglo-Danish War of 1807–14, the British fleet bombarded the city of Copenhagen. Among the buildings struck was the Church of the Holy Trinity, which housed in its attic the University Library of Copenhagen. Some grenades fell through the roof, and this book belonging to the library was among those that were hit. Shown here are the bombed book and the grenade. The book is the first printed edition of, ironically, Defensor pacis (The defender of peace), a major work of medieval political philosophy ...
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
Map of Spain and Portugal, Corrected and Augmented from the Map Published by D. Tomas Lopez
Tomás López (1730-1802) was a Spanish cartographer who was sent by the Spanish government to Paris for a number of years to learn cartography and engraving from the great French mapmaker Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697-1782). In 1804, López published his Atlas Geográfico de España (Geographical atlas of Spain), the first atlas of Spain produced by a Spaniard. López’s children republished this work in a new edition in 1810, and again in 1830.
Portrait of Ono Ranzan
Tani Bunchō (1763−1840) was a representative painter of the late Edo period who is said to have perfected Edo Nanga, a school of Japanese painting that flourished in this period. The subject of the painting, Ono Ranzan (1729−1810), was a leading specialist in the traditional pharmacognosy (study of medicines derived from natural sources) of the day. Ranzan asked Bunchō to paint the portrait just a year before his death. Bunchō first made a sketch of Ranzan’s right side, which Ranzan did not like, insisting that the bump ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Map of the Western Part of Asiatic Russia as of 1807 and Notes About Siberia by a Member of the Privy Council of Senator M. Kornilov
This map depicts the western part of Asiatic Russia and includes the territory stretching from Ekaterinburg to Irkutsk (approximately 3,500 kilometers). Besides rivers, mountains, and cities, it shows settlements of different ethnic groups: Tungus, Ostyak, Kalmyk, and many others. The map incorporates remarks made by Alexei Kornilov, a governor of Irkutsk Province, then Tobol'sk Province, and later a senator. His notes, compiled in 1807, include information about the ethnic diversity of Irkutsk and Tobol'sk provinces, means of transportation, systems of government, and other topics. The right side ...
Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel under Sail and Anchored
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sunday Book
The Sunday Book is the first book published in modern Bulgarian. It was written by Bishop Sofronii, an associate of Paisii Hilandarski, the founder of the Bulgarian Renaissance movement. It consists of 96 sermons, and was intended to serve as a religious guide at a time when the Bible had not yet been translated from Old Bulgarian.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Treaty Between the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi Indians
This document, also known as the Treaty of Detroit, was signed on November 17, 1807, by William Hull, governor of the territory of Michigan, and the chiefs, sachems, and warriors of four Indian tribes, the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi. Under its terms, the tribes ceded to the United States a tract of land comprising roughly the southeast quarter of the lower peninsula of Michigan and a small section of Ohio north of the Maumee River. The tribes retained small tracts of land within this territory. Until Congress abolished the ...
Retreat of Napoleon from Leipzig, 1813
This original watercolor drawing by John Augustus Atkinson (1775-1833?) shows Napoleon seated in a tent shelter, surrounded by soldiers and members of his staff. Atkinson was an English painter and printmaker who specialized in military themes. He produced sets of engravings showing British military uniforms, and was also known for his watercolors of historical events. In 1815, Atkinson was commissioned to collaborate with the British artist Arthur William Devis (1762-1822) on a painting of the Battle of Waterloo. In 1819, John Burnet, the first engraver to specialize in the reproduction ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Soldiers on a March: "To Pack up Her Tatters and Follow the Drum"
This hand-colored etched caricature is by British caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756?-1827). Rowlandson was trained as an artist in both England and France, but seems to have seen his profession as a way to make money rather than as an art form. As a result, he produced works that would sell – including pornographic images and illustrations of poems, as well as cartoons. Rowlandson produced his works by first drawing an image, then washing it with color, etching it on copper, having it engraved by a professional engraver, and then hand ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Encyclopedia of Women's Life
Gyuhapchongseo (Encyclopedia of women’s life) is an indispensable manual filled with advice for the female homemaker, written by Lady Bingheogak Yi in 1809, the ninth year of the rule of King Sunjo (reigned 1800–34) during the Joseon Dynasty. It covers five topics: Jusaui—making soy sauce and soybean paste, domestic alcoholic beverages, bap (cooked rice), rice cakes, and side dishes served alongside bap; Bongimchik—making clothes, dyeing, weaving by hand, embroidery, silkworm breeding, soldering cooking pots and kettles, and how to make fire; Sangarak—how to plow a ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
Tagasago Couple in the Hollow of a Pine Tree
A new and less formal style of poetry called haikai (linked verse) spread among the urbanites of Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo in 17th-century Japan. Haikai was also very much a social activity, with linked-verse parties held on regular occasions in homes or at restaurants. Such poetic gatherings helped give rise to privately commissioned woodblock prints, called surimono (printed matter), which paired images with representative verses from the circle. Both were typically intended to carry the cachet of “insider knowledge” for a cultured and well-educated audience. Because such surimono were not ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Charming Sumo Match
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. Sumo wrestling became a professional sport in the early Edo period ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Campaigns of the Hesse-Darmstadt Contingent Under the First Empire
During the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, many Germans fought on the side of the French Empire. After Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia in the December 1805 Battle of Austerlitz, he grouped 16 German states that were part of the Holy Roman Empire into a French-controlled Confederation of the Rhine. He then dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. The states that were members of the confederation were compelled to supply military units and soldiers to Napoleon’s armies. This map and the accompanying table show the military engagements in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
'Id (Feast Day) Poem
This calligraphic panel includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), signed and dated in the lower-left corner by the calligrapher Mir Muhammad Salih: “written by Mir Muhammad Salih, 1225” (AD 1810). Although little is known about the calligrapher, the date proves that this work dates from the early 19th century. The text is executed in black (Indian) naskh script on a beige sheet of paper, framed in a blue border decorated with gold leaf and vine motifs. Before the quatrain begins, a short invocation of God that reads "he is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Acts of the Synod of Qarqafe
This manuscript contains the canons of the Melkite Synod of Qarqafe in Lebanon, which took place in 1806 with Patriarch Agapios II Matar (sometimes known as Agapios III) presiding. The synod was seen as having been particularly influenced by the Melkite bishop of Aleppo, Germanos Adam (died 1809). The text contains numerous corrections and marginal notes by another hand. It is prefaced by a table of the canons and a list of signatories is supplied at the end of the work. The Melkite Synod of Qarqafe was later condemned for ...
History of the Revolution in New Spain
Fray Servando Teresa de Mier was born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico in 1763. He entered the Dominican order at age 16, studied philosophy and theology, and obtained a doctorate at age 27. Sentenced to exile in Spain after a sermon deemed provocative, Mier was imprisoned and escaped several times. He worked with Simón Rodríguez, a future mentor to Simón Bolívar, in France where he was later involved in hostilities against Napoleon. Historia de la Revolución de Nueva España (History of the revolution in New Spain), published in London in ...
Map of the Province of Antioquia
The Colombian political figure and historian José Manuel Restrepo (1781–1863) first became known as the geographer and cartographer of the province of Antioquia in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). In 1807, Restrepo carried out geodesic and barometric measurements in 102 towns of the province. In 1809, he completed this map of Antioquia, the first attempt to depict with precision the province’s rugged terrain. In the same year, he wrote an essay on the physical, social, and ...
A Fruit Boat, Jamaica
This watercolor is from an album of original drawings and watercolors done by an English lady by the name of Catherine Street, about whom further information is unavailable. The album also includes military scenes, a view of the battle of Waterloo, and pictures of Britain and Europe, painted in the early years of the 19th century and published in 1821. This 1811 picture seems intended as a caricature, given the exaggerated features of the people conveyed in the fruit boat. The watercolor is part of the Anne S.K. Brown ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Overtaken in a Hurricane, Jamaica
This watercolor is from an album of original drawings and watercolors done by an English lady by the name of Catherine Street, about whom further information is unavailable. The album also includes military scenes, a view of the battle of Waterloo, and pictures of Britain and Europe, painted in the early years of the 19th century and published in 1821. This vivid sketch, painted in 1812, shows a moment of pandemonium as the horse balks, probably frightened by the storm, thus threatening to deposit all five carriage passengers in the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The New Map of the North of the Coast of Brazil Showing Distances of the Pará and Amazon Rivers
This early-19th century pen-and-ink watercolor map of the northern coast of Brazil shows the Pará River, an estuary of the Amazon that empties into the Atlantic to the southeast of the main river delta.