32 results in English
History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark: To the Sources of the Missouri, thence Across the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean
This account of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, published in 1814, is based on the detailed journals kept by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the leaders of expedition. The book begins with “Life of Captain Lewis,” written by Thomas Jefferson, which reproduces Jefferson’s detailed instructions to Lewis regarding the goals of the expedition. “The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri River, and such principal streams of it, as, by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean, whether the Columbia, Oregan [sic ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Fire of the Church of Our Lady
This vivid color print shows the burning of the Church of Our Lady, the cathedral of Copenhagen, on the night of September 4–5, 1807, during the Anglo-Danish war of 1807–14. Britain initiated the war in August 1807, after the Danes refused to surrender their fleet, which the British feared would fall into the hands of Napoleonic France. The British landed troops on Danish soil and on September 2 began a three-day bombardment of the city. On the third night of the attack, the steeple of the cathedral was ...
Bombed Copy of “Defensor pacis”
In September 1807, early in the Anglo-Danish War of 1807–14, the British fleet bombarded the city of Copenhagen. Among the buildings struck was the Church of the Holy Trinity, which housed in its attic the University Library of Copenhagen. Some grenades fell through the roof, and this book belonging to the library was among those that were hit. Shown here are the bombed book and the grenade. The book is the first printed edition of, ironically, Defensor pacis (The defender of peace), a major work of medieval political philosophy ...
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
Map of Spain and Portugal, Corrected and Augmented from the Map Published by D. Tomas Lopez
Tomás López (1730-1802) was a Spanish cartographer who was sent by the Spanish government to Paris for a number of years to learn cartography and engraving from the great French mapmaker Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697-1782). In 1804, López published his Atlas Geográfico de España (Geographical atlas of Spain), the first atlas of Spain produced by a Spaniard. López’s children republished this work in a new edition in 1810, and again in 1830.
Scaled Coastal Map of Japan, Eastern Provinces (Ino Maps)
Inō Tadataka (1745−1818) was a famous surveyor and cartographer of the Edo period in Japan. He is known for completing the first map of Japan based on actual measurements, which he himself made by traveling throughout the country. In 1800 Inō surveyed the area from Edo (present-day Tokyo) to Nemuro (in present-day Hokkaidō) on the Ōshū Highway. He continued measuring other parts of eastern Japan until 1803. He compiled the results of his surveys into three sets of maps of different scales, which he presented to the shogunate in ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Portrait of Ono Ranzan
Tani Bunchō (1763−1840) was a representative painter of the late Edo period who is said to have perfected Edo Nanga, a school of Japanese painting that flourished in this period. The subject of the painting, Ono Ranzan (1729−1810), was a leading specialist in the traditional pharmacognosy (study of medicines derived from natural sources) of the day. Ranzan asked Bunchō to paint the portrait just a year before his death. Bunchō first made a sketch of Ranzan’s right side, which Ranzan did not like, insisting that the bump ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
A New Map of Arabia, Including Egypt, Abyssinia, the Red Sea, from the Latest Authorities
John Cary (circa 1754−1835) was a leading London engraver, map-, chart- and print-seller, and globe maker, active between 1787 and 1834. This map of 1804 shows the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring parts of Africa and the Middle East. Important caravan routes are marked, including the “route of the grand caravan of Sudan from the Niger to Cairo,” “route of the caravan from Batsora [Basra] to Aleppo,” “caravan of Darfowar [Darfur] to Mecca by Dongola,” “caravan of Sudan directly to Mecca by Suakem,” and several other caravan routes to Mecca ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of the Western Part of Asiatic Russia as of 1807 and Notes About Siberia by a Member of the Privy Council of Senator M. Kornilov
This map depicts the western part of Asiatic Russia and includes the territory stretching from Ekaterinburg to Irkutsk (approximately 3,500 kilometers). Besides rivers, mountains, and cities, it shows settlements of different ethnic groups: Tungus, Ostyak, Kalmyk, and many others. The map incorporates remarks made by Alexei Kornilov, a governor of Irkutsk Province, then Tobol'sk Province, and later a senator. His notes, compiled in 1807, include information about the ethnic diversity of Irkutsk and Tobol'sk provinces, means of transportation, systems of government, and other topics. The right side ...
Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel under Sail and Anchored
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Portable Atlas of the Hungarian Kingdom: New and Complete Representation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 60 Plates in Pocket Format
Atlas Regni Hungariae Portatilis: Neue und vollständige Darstellung des Königreichs Ungarn (Portable atlas of the Hungarian kingdom: new and complete representation of the Kingdom of Hungary) is the first pocket-sized atlas of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its creator was a Slovak, Ján Matej Korabinský, who was born in Prešov in 1740 and died in Bratislava in 1811. Korabinský was a professor at several academic institutions, who taught theology, philosophy, and mathematics. The atlas contains copperplate maps of 58 counties, including those that constitute part of present-day Slovakia. All maps also ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Sunday Book
The Sunday Book is the first book published in modern Bulgarian. It was written by Bishop Sofronii, an associate of Paisii Hilandarski, the founder of the Bulgarian Renaissance movement. It consists of 96 sermons, and was intended to serve as a religious guide at a time when the Bible had not yet been translated from Old Bulgarian.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Treaty Between the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi Indians
This document, also known as the Treaty of Detroit, was signed on November 17, 1807, by William Hull, governor of the territory of Michigan, and the chiefs, sachems, and warriors of four Indian tribes, the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi. Under its terms, the tribes ceded to the United States a tract of land comprising roughly the southeast quarter of the lower peninsula of Michigan and a small section of Ohio north of the Maumee River. The tribes retained small tracts of land within this territory. Until Congress abolished the ...
The Second Art: the Science of Expression
This work by Isma’il bin Mustafa bin Mas’ud al-Kalanbawi deals with proper usage in the Arabic language. The work takes the form of a list of 20 questions and answers about different aspects of the language. The book was transcribed in 1805 (1220 AH). The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who ...
Free Will and Acts of Faith
This manuscript is a philosophical-religious work with citations from the Qur’an. The text of this copy dating from the early 19th century is written in a very small and poor quality Nasta’liq script with black ink on thin yellowish paper. This style of Perso-Arabic script was the predominant style of Persian calligraphy in the 14th and 15th centuries and was very popular with Ottoman calligraphers. The manuscript is bound with ten other works dealing with grammar, rhetoric, and other subjects. It is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic ...
Clark's Map of 1810
When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in April 1803, the extent and character of the land was uncharted. On May 14, 1804, Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out on an expedition to explore the new territory that would fundamentally change Americans’ conceptions of their country. Clark served as the expedition’s principal cartographer. After completing the three-year journey from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean and back, Clark worked at compiling a comprehensive map of the American West, using his personal knowledge and information gleaned from ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti: Comprehending a View of the Principal Transactions in the Revolution of Saint Domingo: with Its Ancient and Modern State
Marcus Rainsford was a soldier who served for many years with the British Army in the British West Indies. He visited Haiti in 1799, where he became an admirer of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the former slave who led Haiti’s revolution and struggle to end slavery. This book is Rainsford’s account of the slave uprising that began in August 1791 and the subsequent fighting that, at different times, involved French, Spanish, and British troops and various factions in Haiti. The book includes the first known representations of Toussaint, which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Encyclopedia of Women's Life
Gyuhapchongseo (Encyclopedia of women’s life) is an indispensable manual filled with advice for the female homemaker, written by Lady Bingheogak Yi in 1809, the ninth year of the rule of King Sunjo (reigned 1800–34) during the Joseon Dynasty. It covers five topics: Jusaui—making soy sauce and soybean paste, domestic alcoholic beverages, bap (cooked rice), rice cakes, and side dishes served alongside bap; Bongimchik—making clothes, dyeing, weaving by hand, embroidery, silkworm breeding, soldering cooking pots and kettles, and how to make fire; Sangarak—how to plow a ...
Contributed by National Library of Korea
Plum Tree of a Country Farmhouse
Along with new artwork, a new and less formal style of poetry called haikai (linked verse) spread among the urbanites of Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo in 17th-century Japan. Haikai was also very much a social activity, with linked-verse parties held on regular occasions in homes or at restaurants. Such poetic gatherings helped give rise to privately commissioned woodblock prints, called surimono (printed matter), which paired images with representative verses from the circle. Both were typically intended to carry the cachet of “insider knowledge” for a cultured and well-educated audience. Because ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Charming Sumo Match
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. Sumo wrestling became a professional sport in the early Edo period ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Military Document
This sanad (document) is in the form of a namah (letter) written in black Nasta'liq script and outlined in cloud bands on a gold background. The letter is from a ruler to a certain Mirza Yadigar, from whom he requests military assistance. In response, the ruler sends a reputable fighter named Mirza Qilich (qilich means "sword" in Turkish) to the ruler. Known as Rustam-i Zaman (the Rustam of his day, Rustam being a great Persian hero) because of his fighting prowess, Mirza Qilich provides military assistance to vanquish the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
'Id (Feast Day) Poem
This calligraphic panel includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), signed and dated in the lower-left corner by the calligrapher Mir Muhammad Salih: “written by Mir Muhammad Salih, 1225” (AD 1810). Although little is known about the calligrapher, the date proves that this work dates from the early 19th century. The text is executed in black (Indian) naskh script on a beige sheet of paper, framed in a blue border decorated with gold leaf and vine motifs. Before the quatrain begins, a short invocation of God that reads "he is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Acts of the Synod of Qarqafe
This manuscript contains the canons of the Melkite Synod of Qarqafe in Lebanon, which took place in 1806 with Patriarch Agapios II Matar (sometimes known as Agapios III) presiding. The synod was seen as having been particularly influenced by the Melkite bishop of Aleppo, Germanos Adam (died 1809). The text contains numerous corrections and marginal notes by another hand. It is prefaced by a table of the canons and a list of signatories is supplied at the end of the work. The Melkite Synod of Qarqafe was later condemned for ...
House of Ichizuke
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. Kitagawa Utamaro was a highly influential ukiyo-e artist, known in Japan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Province of Antioquia
The Colombian political figure and historian José Manuel Restrepo (1781–1863) first became known as the geographer and cartographer of the province of Antioquia in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). In 1807, Restrepo carried out geodesic and barometric measurements in 102 towns of the province. In 1809, he completed this map of Antioquia, the first attempt to depict with precision the province’s rugged terrain. In the same year, he wrote an essay on the physical, social, and ...
The New Map of the North of the Coast of Brazil Showing Distances of the Pará and Amazon Rivers
This early-19th century pen-and-ink watercolor map of the northern coast of Brazil shows the Pará River, an estuary of the Amazon that empties into the Atlantic to the southeast of the main river delta.