The Art of Making Mechanical Timepieces for Church Towers, Rooms, and Pockets
Manuel del Río was a Spanish Franciscan, said to have been a skilled watchmaker, who probably learned the trade in Oporto, Portugal, with Tomás Luis de Sáa. Del Río belonged to the Franciscan community in Santiago, where in 1759 he published Arte de los reloxes de ruedas (The art of making mechanical timepieces). The work was reissued in 1789 in Madrid by del Río’s disciple Ramón Durán. That edition is presented here. The prologue states that one of the reasons for writing the book was the lack of manuals ...
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National Library of Spain
Map in Which the Rivers on Argentina, Parana and Paraguay are Described Most Exactly for the First Time, When a Beginning was Made by the New Colony as Far as the Mouth of the Jauru River
This atlas of colonial South America is by Miguel Antonio Ciera. A noted mathematician and professor of astronomy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, Ciera was part of an expedition sent to demarcate the border between Spanish and Portuguese holdings in South America following signature of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid and the 1756 Guarani War. The atlas focuses on the southern part of the continent, in the watershed of the Paraná River, where the borders were most disputed. The territory in the atlas includes present-day Argentina and Paraguay ...
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National Library of Brazil
Different Views of the Major Cities in Persia
This map by the Nuremberg engraver and publisher Johann Baptist Homann (1663-1724) features 15 aerial views of cities in Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, southern Russia, eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus region. Beneath each city portrait is a number or letter key indicating the most important points in each city, including city gates and walls, bodies of water, royal palaces, and markets. The cities depicted are (1) Astrakhan, Russia; (2) Derbent, Dagestan, Russia; (3) Tiflis, Georgia; (4) Kars, Turkey; (5) Erzurum, Turkey; (6) Baku, Azerbaijan; (7) Sultanieh (Zanjān Province), Iran; (8 ...
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Library of Congress
Map of French Guyana and of the Island of Cayenne
This map of French Guyana and the island of Cayenne is by Jacques Bellin (1703-72), a prolific cartographer attached to the French Marine Office. It reflects the careful mapping of bays, seas, and harbors that characterized 18th-century French naval cartography. In addition to the detailed information about the coast, Bellin’s map includes notes about the interior of this part of South America, much of which was still largely uncharted by the Europeans.
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National Library of Brazil
Map of the Persian Gulf
This map of the Persian Gulf is by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Qatar is shown as Catura. Cities on both the Arabian and Persian sides of the gulf are indicated, and the map shows a river emptying into the gulf at the port of Julfar (present-day Ra's al-Khaymah, United Arab Emirates). The scale is in common leagues, and there are no latitudinal or longitudinal lines. Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. His ...
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Qatar National Library
The Attack of Manilla, October 1762
The Seven Years' War (1756-63) was a world-wide conflict between Britain and France that also involved Spain as an ally of France. In 1762, the British sent Admiral William Draper, with an expeditionary force of some 2,000 European and Indian (Sepoy) soldiers, to attack Manila in the Spanish colony of the Philippines. The Spanish offered little opposition, and on October 2, 1762, the acting governor-general, Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo, surrendered the city. The British occupation lasted until 1764, when the Philippines reverted to Spanish control as part of the ...
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Library of Congress
Memoirs of the Revolution in Bengal, Anno Domini 1757
This work by William Watts (active 1737-58) is an account of the Battle of Plassey, which took place on June 23, 1757, near the village of Pâlāshir, some 150 kilometers north of Calcutta (present-day Kolkata). In this decisive encounter, the forces of the British East India Company, under Robert Clive, defeated Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The British victory and the treaty with the Moghul Empire that ensued brought the province of Bengal and its great wealth under the control of the company, thereby establishing the ...
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Library of Congress
European Cavalry Battle Scene
This is the first in a pair of original gouache paintings by F. Oetinger showing a violent cavalry battle during the Seven Years' War (1756-63), a conflict that involved all the major European powers and was fought on the European continent as well as in the colonies; it became known as the first global war. As a result of the conflict, France lost most of its North American colonies, Prussia reemerged as the dominant power in Europe, and Great Britain emerged as the world’s most powerful nation. The painting ...
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Brown University Library
Church of the Annunciation (1762), Northwest View, Ustiuzhna, Russia
This northwest view of the Church of the Annunciation in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of iron ore. It rapidly became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century. The town’s former ...
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Library of Congress
Church of the Hodigitria Icon of the Virgin (1763), Southeast View, Kimzha, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Hodigitria Icon of the Mother of God, in the village of Kimzha (Mezen'skii District, Arkhangel'sk Oblast), was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The village of Kimzha arose in the early 16th century, on the right bank of the Kimzha River, a tributary of the Mezen' River, which flows into the White Sea. In 1699, a lightning strike and ...
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Library of Congress
Map of a Part of China, the Philippine Islands, the Isles of Sunda, the Moluccas, the Papuans
This 18th-century map of southeast Asia and parts of China was published in Amsterdam by the firm of Covens and Mortier. Pieter Mortier (1661-1711) built up a business that prospered by publishing new editions of atlases by Alexis Hubert Jaillot, Nicolas de Fer, and other French mapmakers. Mortier also acquired the stock of the Dutch mapmaker Frederik de Wit and the right to reprint his maps. When Mortier died, the business passed to his son Cornelis (1699-1783). In 1721, Cornelis married the sister of Johannes Covens (1697-1774). In the same ...
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National Library of Brazil
Arabic-Italian Dictionary
This mid-18th century volume, entitled Repertorio Arabo–Italiano in Italian, forms a kind of lexical vade mecum (a book for ready reference) for Arabic and Italian. Its principal components are an Arabic–Italian dictionary (Arabic on the right, Italian on the left) and a classified word list. The dictionary is the largest portion of the book, arranged according to the Arabic alphabet. The word list in the second part consists of 55 classified sections on various topics, including animals, clothing, precious stones, months and days, logical terms, and Christian themes ...
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Greek-Catholic Diocese of Aleppo
General Map of the Diocese of Pará: Shows the Division of Parishes Where the Venerable Father Miguel de Bulhões III, Bishop from Pará, Founded and Built the Diocese
This map shows the territory of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Belem do Pará. The diocese was founded in 1720, following its separation from the Diocese of São Luis do Maranhão, and was centered in the city of Belém, the capital of Pará state. The map shows the extent of the diocese under Bishop Miguel de Bulhões e Souza (1706-78), who served as a bishop in Singapore before coming to Brazil in 1749. Bulhões oversaw the construction and consecration of a new cathedral in Belém as well as the reopening ...
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National Library of Brazil
Collection of the Prospects of the Villages, Remarkable Places and People who are Depicted in the Map Drawn by the Engineers During Their Expedition that Began from the City of Pará to the Village of Mariua on the Negro River
This collection of maps shows villages along the Rio Negro and the Amazon. They are the product of an expedition undertaken by a group of engineers tracing the route of the Negro from Pará to Mariua. The drawings mostly feature local houses, churches, and other buildings along the banks of the river. The maps are attributed to the German engineer João André Schwebel, who was a partner of Mendonça Furtado on this expedition.
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National Library of Brazil
Plan of New Orleans the Capital of Louisiana; With the Disposition of Its Quarters and Canals as They Have Been Traced by Mr. de la Tour in the Year 1720
New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, governor of the French colony of Louisiana. Bienville named the town after Philippe, Duke of Orléans, regent for King Louis XV. This map, published in London in 1759 by Thomas Jefferys, displays the focus and symmetry of the town plan, which was designed by or under the direction of Bienville. The “Mr. de la Tour” in the title refers to one of the earliest detailed manuscript plans of the city and denotes Pierre Le Blond de ...
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Library of Congress