42 results in English
Map of the City and Bay of Cartagena de las Indias
This hand-colored pen-and-ink manuscript map was drawn by Antonio de Ulloa (1716–95) in 1735, based on an earlier map by Juan de Herrera dating from around 1721. It shows in great detail the bay of Cartagena de Indias and the adjacent coastal area of the present-day city of Cartagena, Colombia. The territory was then part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Spanish Empire. The map is oriented by a compass rose with north pointing to the left. Longitude is set in relation to the Royal Astronomical Observatory ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
A Hydrographical and Chorographical Chart of the Philippine Islands
This magnificent map of the Philippine archipelago, drawn by the Jesuit Father Pedro Murillo Velarde (1696–1753) and published in Manila in 1734, is the first and most important scientific map of the Philippines. The Philippines were at that time a vital part of the Spanish Empire, and the map shows the maritime routes from Manila to Spain and to New Spain (Mexico and other Spanish territory in the New World), with captions. In the upper margin stands a great cartouche with the title of the map, crowned by the ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Region Between Amazon River and São Paulo
This pen-and-ink watercolor map shows the course of the Amazon River, including its minor tributaries and the towns located along its banks. Although much of the area along the Amazon was controlled by indigenous people through the early colonial period, settlers established towns along the riverbanks to support trade and exploration into Brazil’s interior. The largest of these towns was Belem, which appears on the map.
Map of Greenland
This map of Greenland is by Hans Poulsen Egede (1686–1758), the Norwegian-born Lutheran clergyman and missionary known as the “Apostle of Greenland.” Egede made two journeys, in 1723 and in 1724, to explore the west coast of Greenland with the goals of mapping the coastline and obtaining information about the ancient Norse settlements on the island. Egede lived and worked in Greenland from 1721 to 1736. Upon his return to Denmark, he had this map made and published a book, Omstændelig og udførlig relation, angaaende den grønlandske missions begyndelse ...
Missa in B Minor ("Kyrie" and "Gloria" of the B Minor Mass)
In 1733, following the death of August the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) applied to the ruler's son and successor, Frederick August II, for a court title. Bach’s petition eventually was successful, and in 1736 he was named Royal Polish and Electoral Saxon Court Composer. Bach had bolstered his application by submitting a missa brevis (brief mass, consisting of Kyrie and Gloria) dedicated to Frederick August. This work, the Missa in B Minor, which Bach with deliberate ...
Turkey in Europe: According to New Observations by the Gentlemen at the Royal Science Academy
Pieter van der Aa (1659−1733) was a Dutch publisher and bookseller, based in Leiden, who specialized in reissuing maps acquired from earlier mapmakers. Van der Aa’s major work was the elaborate Galerie Agréable du Monde (The pleasurable gallery of the world), a compendium of some 3,000 maps in 66 parts, bound in 27 volumes, and completed in 1729. Presented here is van der Aa’s map of the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which in the early 18th century included present-day Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria ...
States of the Empire of the Great Lord, also Known as Sultan and Emperor of the Ottoman Turks in Three Parts of the World: Europe, Asia, and Africa
Jacques Chiquet (circa 1673−1721) was a French cartographer who published two atlases, both of which appeared in 1719: Le Nouveau et Curieux Atlas Geographique et Historique (New and curious geographic and historical atlas), a world atlas with 24 maps; and Noveau Atlas Francais (New French atlas), an atlas of France with 15 maps. Presented here is Chiquet’s map of the Ottoman Empire, which spread over parts of the three continents of the old world: Africa, Asia, and Europe. In the lower left is a small inset map showing ...
Girl's Day
The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e (“Pictures of the floating [or sorrowful] world”) developed in the city of Edo (now Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1600-1868), a relatively peaceful era during which the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan and made Edo the seat of power. The Ukiyo-e tradition of woodblock printing and painting continued into the 20th century. This print is one sheet of an illustrated book from between 1716 and 1736. It shows three richly dressed women or girls eating and drinking, probably celebrating Hina Matsuri (Girl's day ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
California or New Carolina: Place of Apostolic Works of Society of Jesus at the Septentrional America
Nicholas de Fer (1646-1720) was a French cartographer and publisher of atlases. This hand-colored map by de Fer from 1720 is actually a pirated copy of a manuscript map of 1696 by Father Eusebio Kino (1645-1711). Kino was an Italian-born Jesuit priest who was trained as a cartographer. Best known for his work in establishing missions and in defending the rights of Indians, he also made important geographic discoveries. In the 1680s and 1690s he explored Pimería Alta in present-day southern Arizona and northern Mexico. His explorations of Baja California ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brazil: According to New Surveys by Messrs. of the Royal Academy of Sciences, etc.
As seen in this map, much of Brazil was still uncharted territory in the early 18th century. The annotations about the rivers, native peoples, and mines of the interior provide limited information. The map was printed in Leiden by Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733), a Dutch publisher and bookseller who specialized in reissuing maps acquired from earlier mapmakers. Van der Aa’s major work was the elaborate Galerie Agréable du Monde (The pleasurable gallery of the world), a compendium of some 3,000 plates in 66 parts, bound in 27 ...
The Kingdom of France
This map of the Kingdom of France is attributed to Alexis-Hubert Jaillot and Guillaume Sanson, son of Nicolas Sanson, who is widely considered to have been the father of French cartography. Although dated 1724, in the monarchy of Louis XV, the map appears to be one of the last known reprints of Jaillot’s L’Atlas français (French atlas) of 1690, published more than two decades after the cartographer’s death. It depicts the provinces and major cities of France under the reign of Louis XIV, as well as the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fundamentals and Rules by Imam al-Nawawi
This short manuscript, Usul wa Dawabit lil-Imam al-Nawawi (Fundamentals and rules by Imam al-Nawawi), by the leading Shafi’i jurist known as al-Nawawi (1233−77), outlines the principles to be applied and the procedures to be used in personal conduct and ritual. The tract is divided into several parts. The first defines the limits of human action and argues against the “exaggerations” of the Mu’tazalite school of philosophy and its deviance from text-based orthodoxy. The work then covers rules for everyday living, including business transactions, marriage contracts, and gender ...
Map of Turkey, Arabia and Persia
John Senex (circa 1678-1740) was an English surveyor, engraver, bookseller, and publisher of maps and atlases. He served as geographer to Queen Anne and was elected to the Royal Society in 1728. Among his many works was A New General Atlas: containing a geographical and historical account of all the empires, kingdoms, and other dominions of the world, published in 1721. This map of the Middle East is one of 34 maps in the atlas. Senex borrowed liberally from the great French mapmaker Guillaume de L’Isle, often simply translating ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
This Chart was Compiled on the Siberian Expedition under the Command of Navy Captain Bering from Tobolsk to the Chukotkan Corner
Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681–1741) was born in Denmark but spent most of his adult life in the Russian navy. In 1725, Tsar Peter I (Peter the Great) instructed Bering to undertake an expedition to find the point at which Siberia connected to America. In what became known as the First Kamchatka Expedition (1725–30), Bering traveled overland from St. Petersburg via Tobolsk to the Kamchatka Peninsula, where he had a ship, the Saint Gabriel, constructed. In 1728 he sailed north along the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In August ...
A Current Description of the Province of the Society of Jesus in Paraguay with Neighboring Areas
Between 1609 and 1780, the Roman Catholic Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) established an autonomous Christian Indian state on the territory of present-day Paraguay, Uruguay, and parts of Argentina and Brazil. After unsuccessful efforts to Christianize the warlike Guaycurú Indians of northeastern Paraguay, the Jesuits concentrated on organizing the Guaraní Indians into a series of reducciones (reductions or townships), in which a kind of communal living was practiced. The system of reductions was an attempt to correct earlier abuses, in which the Paraguayan Indians were transformed into virtual slaves who ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Africa, Corrected from the Observations of the Royal Society of London and Paris
John Senex (circa 1678-1740) was an English surveyor, engraver, bookseller, and publisher of maps and atlases. He served as geographer to Queen Anne (1665-1714), the first sovereign (from 1707 to 1714) of the United Kingdom, formed by the 1707 union of England and Scotland. Senex was elected to the Royal Society in 1728. He borrowed liberally from other mapmakers, notably the great French cartographer Guillaume de L’Isle. This early-18th century map of Africa shows how little European geographers knew at the time about the interior of the continent. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Ancient Arabia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula, published in 1720, shows Arabia Felix, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Petraea. Other regions included are Palestine, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Persia, Aegyptus, and Aethiopia. A large number of towns are shown. The title cartouche includes nine vignette coins. The tribal and town names on the map are those used by Ptolemy. Some are used more than once, with variations. Thus “Indicara,” “Iacara,” “Ichara,” and “Aphana” all could indicate the same place: the spot where Alexander the Great intended to build a capital on an island in ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of Mexico City
Dated 1720, this map was produced by the government of Mexico City in order to improve urban sanitation through the collection of garbage. It shows the central part of the city in detail, including names of streets, plazas, hospitals, hospices, columns, small squares, arches, and other places.
Early Writings of Carl von Linné
Significant works of young scholars at times can have great impact on the scholarly community, but remain relatively unknown for a broader public. The early works of Carl Linné (1707-78), annotated journals of his travels in Sweden and abroad, in which he laid the foundation for his efforts to devise a nomenclature for natural genera and species, were never published during his lifetime. The account of his travels in Lapland was published in English in 1811. The notes of his early travels in Bergslagen, Dalarna, and abroad were edited and ...
Church of John the Baptist in Roshchenie (1710-17), Interior, Southeast Corner, with Frescoes, Vologda, Russia
This southeast view of the interior of the Church of the Decapitation of John the Baptist in Roshchen'e (a district in Vologda) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Before the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, Russia depended on a northern route through the White Sea for trade with western Europe. One of the most important centers on this route was Vologda, founded in the 12th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Complaint by Some Members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Living at Raritan, etc in [...] New Jersey [...] about the Behavior [...] of Dominie Theodorus Jacobus Frilinghuisen and his Church Council
In 1664, the Dutch colony of New Netherland ceased to exist when Governor Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender New Amsterdam--soon to be renamed New York--to an English fleet. Many residents of what became the British colonies of New York and New Jersey continued to speak Dutch and to worship in churches where services were conducted in Dutch. This pamphlet, published in New York in 1725, concerns a dispute within a Dutch Reformed congregation in Raritan, "in the Province of New Jersey, in North America, under the Crown of Great ...
Pictorial Representation of the Illustrious City of Venice Dedicated to the Reign of the Most Serene Dominion of Venice
Lodovico Ughi’s 1729 map of Venice is regarded as a landmark in the cartographic history of the city. For centuries, Venetian mapmakers had been copying older maps without significantly altering the appearance of the city. Ughi’s map was the first to be based on accurate field surveys and real measurements. Little is known about Ughi, the cartographer. The publisher of the map, Giuseppe Baroni, was one of six Venetian printmakers and merchants who formed, in 1718, a guild of engravers that attempted to regulate the quality of copper ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book of the Table Regarding the Knowledge of the Time and the Heavens for the Calculation of the Beginning of the Islamic and Christian Months
Because of the religious obligation to perform canonical prayers at set times of the day and the sanctity attributed to particular times of the year, such as the month of Ramaḍān, Muslim scientists have studied questions relating to the calendar and the reckoning of time almost since the beginning of Islam. The present manuscript presents tables for the comparison of the Hijrī and Christian years. Little is known of the author of these tables, al-Ḥusayn ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī ibn Jaḥḥāf, beyond a marginal note, which states that Ibn Jaḥḥāf ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Toragaishi
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This print is a page from an illustrated album, Allegory of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Three Actors
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This print features a central male actor holding a sake container ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Important Stars Among the Multitude of the Heavens
Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This early 18th-century text was written to train scholars in the field of astronomy, a science that Islamic tradition traces back to ...
Map of Barbary, the Nigrita, and Guinea
As late as the Renaissance, European knowledge of Africa was largely limited to the Mediterranean and coastal areas. It was also still heavily influenced by classical sources. Between 1570 and 1670, the Dutch, who dominated European mapmaking at the time, began translating reports from Portuguese sea captains, as well as earlier North African sources, to expand their knowledge of the continent. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the French Royal Academy of Sciences gave new impetus to the mapping of Africa. This 18th-century map by Guillaume de l ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Orinoco River that Includes Visible Islands and Tributaries at the Delta of the River, 1732
This early-18th century map of the valley of the Orinoco River contains extensive information about the Indian nations bordering the river, Christian missions and other settlements, the extensive array of streams that flow into the Orinoco, and navigational hazards and islands. The map includes a keyed index and a detailed historical note on the exploration of the river from 1682 to 1732. The note records information about the martyrdom of several religious figures. As indicated in the note, much of the information for the map came from different religious sources ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Luxembourg, a Famous Fortress in the Duchy of the Same Name in the Netherlands
The city of Luxembourg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is strategically located on a plateau above two gorges formed by the Alzette and Petrusse rivers. Already in the 4th century, it was the site of a Roman fort. In 963, Siegfried, Count of Ardennes and founder of the state of Luxembourg, built a castle on the same location. The walled town grew up around the castle, and the fortifications were strengthened over the course of centuries. This map, by Mattheus Seuter (1678-1756), shows both the fortifications and, in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Relation of the Late Intended Settlement of the Islands of St. Lucia and St. Vincent, in America: in Right of the Duke of Montagu, and Under His Grace's Direction and Orders, in the Year 1722
Britain and France vied for control of the island of Saint Lucia throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1722, the British government of King George I granted the island, along with the island of Saint Vincent, to the Duke of Montagu. The duke appointed Nathaniel Uring, a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor of his new lands and sent Uring with a large flotilla to colonize the island. After a stop in Barbados, Uring arrived on Saint Lucia in December 1722, where he established a settlement at Petit ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mirror Image of 'Ali wali Allah
This 18th-century Ottoman levha (calligraphic panel) depicts the Shi'a phrase “'Ali is the vicegerent of God” in obverse and reverse, creating an exact mirror image. The calligrapher used the central vertical fold in the thick cream-colored paper to trace the exact calligraphic duplication prior to mounting it on cardboard and pasting rectangular pink frames along its borders. Mirror writing flourished during the early modern period, but its origins may stretch as far back as pre-Islamic mirror-image rock inscriptions in the Hijaz, the western strip of the Arabian Peninsula. Engraving ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Eid Blessings
This calligraphic fragment provides Arabic blessings to a ruler on the occasion of Eid (also seen as 'Id). A number of the patron's epithets and titles are included in the text, which is executed in black Naskh script on a beige paper. The words are fully vocalized in black and are framed by cloud bands on a gold background. The text panel is framed by a border decorated with red, blue, and green flower and vine motifs and is pasted to a larger salmon-orange colored piece of paper backed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Synaxarion
This 18th-century manuscript, dated 1733 in the colophon, is called an Al-Sinkisār (Synaxarion), meaning a collection of brief biographies of the saints, mostly used in the Orthodox Church. The account of the life of a saint is read as a lesson when that saint’s day is celebrated in church. Each day of the year is marked in this synaxarion with red ink, and then follows a brief narrative for the particular saint or saints celebrated that day. The text is Garshuni (Arabic written in Syriac script). Garshuni Arabic is ...
Book of Theology
Shem’un al-Turani was born in 1670 near Tur Abdin in present-day Turkey. He studied in Tur Abdin and became a monk at the age of twenty. He was appointed maphrian—historically the prelate second to the patriarch in the hierarchy of the Syriac Orthodox Church—in 1710 and took the name Basileios. Maphrian Basileios Shem’un was martyred in 1740. He wrote in verse and prose, and his works are considered important both because he was one of the most-renowned Syriac writers, and because very little of the great ...
The Weapon of Religion and the Shield of Certainty
Shem’un al-Turani was born in 1670 near Tur Abdin in present-day Turkey. He studied in Tur Abdin and became a monk at the age of twenty. He was appointed maphrian—historically the prelate second to the patriarch in the hierarchy of the Syriac Orthodox Church—in 1710 and took the name Basileios. Maphrian Basileios Shem’un was martyred in 1740. Kitāb silāḥ al-dīn wa-turs al-yaqīn (The weapon of religion and the shield of certainty) contains his polemical treatise in support of Syriac Orthodox doctrine and practice and against ...
Christmas Oratorio
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) composed six cantatas for the Christmas holidays in 1734, one to be performed on each of the individual feast days during the services in Leipzig’s main churches, Saint Thomas and Saint Nicolai. The running narrative of the Gospel, as well as the keys in which the framing musical statements were composed, give the cantatas the character of a self-contained cycle. For most of the arias and choruses, Bach added new text to music derived from his earlier compositions, most notably from two congratulatory cantatas ...
Primitive Map of the Upper Paraguay River and Its Tributaries Cuiaba, Porrudos and São Lourenco
This hand-drawn map from around 1720 shows the Upper Paraguay River and its tributaries, the Cuiaba, Porrudos, and São Lourenco rivers. The basin of the Upper Paraguay River is located in the present-day Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, and is the largest floodplain area in the world. This map subsequently played a role in establishing that Portugal occupied these inland territories and therefore could claim legal ownership under the terms of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid. The map was drawn with ferrogálica, an ink that ...
Village and Square of Santos
This drawing shows the village of Santos in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The village was established in 1546 and quickly became an export site for coffee. The drawing is done with Nanquim ink, a type of ink developed in China and used for colloidal drawings and watercolors. It involves suspending carbon particles in water and stabilizing it with some type of glue.
Collection on the Genealogy of Bavarian Nobility, Volume 27
Johann Franz Eckher von Kapfing (1649–1727), prince-bishop of Freising from 1696 onwards, was keenly interested in history and genealogy. Having amassed material since his youth, he enlisted his Hofkammerdirektor (director of the court chamberlain’s office), Johann Michael Wilhelm von Prey zu Strasskirchen (1690–1747), to help him with his research. Some years after the death of Eckher, a clean copy was made of all the collected material; it was then arranged and bound into more than 30 bulky volumes. The collection, never printed, is the most extensive genealogical-historical ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
The Clarification of the General Principles of Medicine
In the introduction of this manuscript entitled al-Īḍāḥ fī kullīyāt al-ṭibb (The clarification of the general principles of medicine), the author identifies himself as ‘Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abdullāh al-Anwarī, but nothing else is known about him. As the title suggests, the work is a medical text in the tradition of second-century physician and philosopher Galen and the great polymath and physician, Abū ʻAlī ibn Sīnā (known as Avicenna, 980–1037). The manuscript is arranged as an introductory section containing definitions followed by sections on theoretical medical knowledge and on ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Certificate of Emancipation for Female Slave
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. “‘Itq Raqīqah” (Certificate of emancipation for female slave) gives a detailed physical description of a woman who is being ...
Explanation of “The Prosodies” of Abi Abdullah Muhammad al-Arabi
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This work explains how to live a life of charity. Charity refers to not only generosity toward one's ...