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Church of St. Nicholas (1705), South Facade, Detail, Nyrob, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nyrob (northern part of Perm' Territory) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated near the Kolva River some 160 kilometers north of Solikamsk, Nyrob is first mentioned in historical sources in 1579. Because of its remote location, the settlement was chosen by Tsar Boris Godunov in 1601 as the place of exile for the boyar ...
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Library of Congress
Church of Transfiguration, from Yanidor Village (1702), Northwest View, Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This northwest view of the log Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior from the village of Yanidor (Cherdyn' District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sypan River (a northern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Yanidor was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1702, the Church of the Transfiguration follows the traditional plan of ...
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Library of Congress
Practical Instruction to Order One’s Life According to Saintly Precepts: Offered by Father Antonio Garriga of the Society of Jesus. As a Brief Memorial and Memento of the Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius Loyola, Founder of the Society.
This book is the only known copy of the second-oldest imprint from the Jesuit Province of Paraguay. It was produced at the mission of Nuestra Señora de Loreto, established in 1610 as the first reduccione (reduction or township) in the province, and known for its printing press, which turned out works in Spanish, Latin, and Indian languages. The book contains a set of religious instructions, written by Father Antonio Garriga (1662-1733). Originally from Palma de Mallorca, Spain, Garriga first came to South America in 1696. He is best known as ...
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John Carter Brown Library
Second Map of Sacred Geography Gathered from the Old and New Testaments: This Map Shows the Promised Land Divided into Its Tribes and Regions
This hand-colored map of the Holy Land is a reprint of a map that appeared in the 1662 edition of Nicolas Sanson’s Geographia sacra (Sacred geography), first published in 1653. Sanson (1600-67) is considered by many to be the founder of the French school of cartography. The map was published in Amsterdam in 1704 by François Halma (1653-1722), a Dutch bookseller and publisher who started a business in Utrecht, later moved to Amsterdam, and finally settled in Leeuwarden.
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National Library of Israel
The Coast of Arabia the Red Sea, and Persian Sea of Bassora Past the Straits of Hormuz to India, Gujarat and Cape Comorin
This 1707 map of the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent regions is the work of Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733), a Dutch publisher and bookseller based in Leiden who specialized in reissuing maps acquired from earlier mapmakers. The map appears to be based on an earlier Portuguese work, and uses a mix of Dutch, Latin, and Portuguese for titles and place names. The map covers only the eastern and central parts of the peninsula, which is shaped differently than shown on many other maps. The map shows four rivers on the ...
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Qatar National Library
Church of the Savior (1706-10), Southwest View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. In 1706-10, master ...
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Library of Congress
Church of the Savior (1706-10), East View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. Shortly thereafter, in ...
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Library of Congress
Church of John the Baptist in Roshchenie (1710-17), Northeast View, Vologda, Russia
This northeast view of the Church of the Decapitation of John the Baptist in Roshchen'e (a district in Vologda) was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Before the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, Russia depended on a northern route through the White Sea for trade with western Europe. One of the most important centers on this route was Vologda, founded in the 12th century. A rich center ...
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Library of Congress
Church of the Transfiguration (1714), West Facade, Kizhi Island, Russia
This west view of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Kizhi Island (Karelia) was taken in 1991 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located within an archipelago in the southwestern part of Lake Onega, Kizhi Island is one of the most revered sites in the Russian north, with a pogost, or enclosed cemetery, containing two wooden churches. The site’s dominant feature is the Church of the Transfiguration of ...
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Library of Congress
Church of the Transfiguration (1714), Southwest View, Cupolas with Aspen, Kizhi Island, Russia
This view of cupolas at the top of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Kizhi Island (Karelia) was taken in 1991 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located within an archipelago in the southwestern part of Lake Onega, Kizhi Island is one of the most revered sites in the Russian north, with a pogost, or enclosed cemetery, containing two wooden churches. The site’s dominant feature is the Church ...
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Library of Congress
Church of the Transfiguration (1714), West View, Evening, Kizhi Island, Russia
This west view of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Kizhi Island (Karelia) was taken in 1993 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located within an archipelago in the southwestern part of Lake Onega, Kizhi Island is one of the most revered sites in the Russian north, with a pogost, or enclosed cemetery, containing two wooden churches and a bell tower. In 1990, this ensemble was added to the ...
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Library of Congress
Church of the Transfiguration (1714), West View, Sunset, Kizhi Island, Russia
This spectacular west view of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Kizhi Island (Karelia) was taken in 1991 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located within an archipelago in the southwestern part of Lake Onega, Kizhi Island is one of the most revered sites in the Russian north, with a pogost, or enclosed cemetery, containing two wooden churches and a bell tower. In 1990, this ensemble was added to ...
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Library of Congress
Portable Atlas, or, the New Theater of War in Europe
Daniel de la Feuille was a watchmaker, goldsmith, engraver, and bookseller in Amsterdam in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. He was also a prolific mapmaker. In this “portable atlas,” de la Feuille documented the intricacies of the War of Spanish Succession (1701-14), which began after the Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, died and left his kingdom to Philip, the Duke of Anjou and the grandson of the French Bourbon king, Louis XIV. Worried that France’s Sun King intended to dominate Europe by consolidating his power in ...
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Library of Congress
The Grand Theater of the War in Italy
Pierre Mortier (1661-1711) was a Dutch publisher of atlases, maps, and charts. The grandson of religious refugees from France who settled in Leiden about 1625, Mortier grew up in Amsterdam, which at the time was the center of the international book trade. As a young man, he spent several years in Paris, where he got to know French maps and publishers. Returning to Amsterdam about 1685, he established himself as a publisher of high quality maps, including reprints of works by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot, Nicolas Sanson, and the other great French ...
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Library of Congress
Emperor Kangxi's Poems on Thirty-Six Scenic Spots of Bi Shu Shan Zhuang, the Imperial Summer Resort
Bi shu shan zhuang is China’s largest imperial palace garden. Situated in Rehe (present-day Chengde, Hebei province) in a river valley bordered by mountains on the west, north, and east, the villa consists of palace halls, lakes, plains, and mountains. Construction of the complex spanned many years, beginning in 1703 under Emperor Kangxi (1654-1722). On the occasion of the completion of the main palace complex in 1711, Kangxi bestowed the title of Bi shu shan zhuang (Summer Mountain Villa) on the villa and selected 36 scenic spots and composed ...
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Library of Congress
Geographic Surveys by the Imperial Order
This work is an incomplete manuscript in three volumes, probably one of the earliest official atlases of the Qing dynasty, which began in 1644. The title, Qin ding fang yu lu cheng kao lue (Geographic surveys by the imperial order), on the cover of volume three, was crossed out at a later date and replaced in red ink with Qin ding huang yu quan lan (Complete atlas by the imperial order). A label on the same cover reads, “these are the draft copies for the compilation at Wu ying dian ...
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Library of Congress
Tobol'sk Kremlin, Merchants' Court (Gostinnyi Dvor), (1703-05), South View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the Merchants' Court (Gostinnyi dvor) in Tobol’sk, was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Peter the Great attached much significance to the development of Tobol'sk as a base for Russian expansion in Siberia. In 1708, he designated Tobol’sk as the administrative center for the Province of Siberia, which ...
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Library of Congress
Cathedral Bell Tower (1713), South Facade, Solikamsk, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Cathedral Bell Tower in Solikamsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded around 1430 on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Solikamsk is among the oldest Russian settlements in the Ural Mountains. Its wealth was based on rich sources of salt (hence the first part of its name) and other minerals. By the late 16th century, the defeat of ...
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Library of Congress
Ascension-Trinity Monastery, Church of the Ascension (1704), Southeast View, Solikamsk, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Trinity (formerly Ascension) at the Ascension-Trinity Monastery in Solikamsk was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded around 1430 on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Solikamsk is among the oldest Russian settlements in the Ural Mountains. Its wealth was based on salt (hence the first part of its name) and other minerals. The Ascension Monastery was founded circa 1590 ...
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Library of Congress
Civil Alphabet with Moral Teachings
Civil Alphabet with Moral Teachings, published in 1710, is the first official Russian civil alphabet. Also known as the “ABC book of Peter the Great,” it was aimed at simplifying the Russian alphabet and was produced after many years of experiments conducted by Dutch and Russian experts under the guidance and with the direct participation of Tsar Peter the Great (reigned, 1682–1725). This copy of the alphabet is of particular interest, as it contains corrections to the composition and form of the letters, handwritten by the tsar. The back ...
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Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library
Journal of the Campaign of the Islands of America Done by Monsieur D.: The Storming and Possession of the Island Saint Christophe with an Exact Description of the More Curious Animals and Trees and Plants of America
This work of 1709 is a first-hand description of the island of Saint Kitts and its flora, fauna, people, and economy during the colonial period. The book is by a French naval officer, Gautier du Tronchoy, who in late 1698 and early 1699 took part in a mission to Saint Christophe, as the French called the island. France and Britain vied for control of Saint Kitts for much of the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1783, the island became a British colony. In 1983, Saint Kitts became independent, as part ...
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Library of Congress