158 results in English
The Ash Wednesday Supper
La cena de le Ceneri (The Ash Wednesday supper), the first of Giordano Bruno’s six Italian philosophical dialogues, was first published in London in 1584. The title page indicates neither the place of publication nor the publisher, but scholars agree that the book was printed at the London shop of John Charlewood. The work is dedicated to the French ambassador to the English court, Michel de Castelnau, sieur de la Mauvissière, who assisted Bruno after his arrival in London in 1583. The book is divided into five dialogues and ...
Peresopnytsia Gospel, a Monument of the 16th Century Renaissance Art from South Russia
This work is devoted to one of the most important and beautifully decorated East Slavic manuscripts, the Peresopnytsia Gospel created in the mid-16th century, partly at the Monastery of the Mother of God in Peresopnytsia, Volyn, and partly at the Monastery of the Holy Trinity near L’viv, both in present-day Ukraine. The present book, by Alexander Gruzinskii, covers the history of the gospel, its ornamentation, and graphics. The first part focuses on the origin of the Peresopnytsia manuscript, which was rediscovered in 1830s by Slavist scholar Osip Bodjanskij. The ...
Atlas of Joan Martines
This manuscript atlas by Joan Martines, cosmographer to King Philip II of Spain, dated 1587, represents the combination of two cartographic schools that existed at the time of its creation. The older one was the traditional school of Majorca, which specialized in decorative portolan maps that by this time were obsolete with regard to the geographic information they conveyed. The newer one was the cartographic school of the Low Countries, which applied Renaissance principles and used different forms of cartographic representation based on new concepts in astronomy, mathematics, and geography ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
The Luminous Treasure with Acceptable Answers to Matters of Faith
Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Laṭīf ibn Aḥmad al-Bashbīshī (1631–85) was an Islamic jurist of the Shāfiʻī school of jurisprudence. He was born and died in the village of Bashbīsh in the region of Al-Mahalla in the Nile delta of Egypt. He studied Islamic jurisprudence in Cairo and taught at the Cairo-based Al-Azhar Mosque, long considered the foremost institution in the Islamic world for the study of Sunni theology. Al-Tuhfa al-Saniyya bi Ajwibat al-Masaa’il al-Mardhiyya (The luminous treasure with acceptable answers to matters of faith) is a collection of writings ...
A Modern Depiction of Ireland, One of the British Isles
Abraham Ortelius (1527-98) was a Flemish engraver and businessman who traveled widely to pursue his commercial interests. In 1560 he became interested in scientific geography during a voyage with Gerardus Mercator. Ortelius’s major work, Theatrum orbis terrarum (Theater of the world), was published in Antwerp in 1570, at the threshold of the golden age of Dutch cartography. Theatrum presented the world in its component parts and reflected an age of exploration, broadened commercial connections, and scientific inquiry. Now considered the world’s first atlas, the original Theatrum was enhanced ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Molla Sadra’s Miscellany
Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī (1571–1640), commonly known as Molla Sadra, was a Persian Islamic philosopher, theologian, and mystic who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. The foremost exemplar of the Illuminationist, or Eshraqi, school of philosopher-mystics, Molla Sadra is commonly regarded by Iranians as the greatest philosopher that Iran has produced and is arguably the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world of the last four centuries. His school of philosophy is called Transcendent Theosophy. Molla Sadra's philosophy and ontology ...
An Examination of the Talents Required for the Sciences
Examen de ingenios para las sciencias (An examination of the talents required for the sciences), first printed in 1575, is the only known work by Juan Huarte de San Juan, who was born in Navarre, Spain, in around 1529. The work seeks to clarify various questions regarding human knowledge and the capacities and abilities found in some persons but not in others, and such questions as what makes a person skilled in one science but not in another and how to recognize which art and science are best suited to ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Account of the Composition of the Human Body
Juan Valverde was a Spanish medical anatomist who was born in Amusco, in the present-day province of Palencia, around 1525. He left for Italy around 1542, and later practiced medicine and taught in Rome. He was the great Spanish follower of the new anatomy established by Andreas Vesalius in 1543 with his work De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of the human body). Vesalius was responsible for a new vision of the human body in the modern world. Valverde helped to spread this vision through the 16 editions in ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Chasoslovets
This chasoslovets (book of hours or horologion) is the first book printed by the first Bulgarian printer, Iakov (Jacob) Kraikov. It is a collection of prayers, eulogies, saints’ lives, and apocrypha that both served as a daily handbook for priests and was valued by lay readers in search of knowledge and enlightenment. Kraikov printed the book in Venice, at the largest Slavic Cyrillic printing-house for Serbs and Bulgarians in the city, which he acquired in 1566. The selection of font, typesetting, pagination, and the rich artful decoration (more than 30 ...
Ismāʻīl, the Persian Ambassador of Ṭahmāsp, King of Persia
Melchior Lorck, or Lorichs (1527–circa 1590), was the most brilliant graphic artist in 16th-century Denmark. He was born in Flensburg of distinguished parents; the Danish kings took up residence in the Lorck house when visiting the city. In 1549 King Christian III gave Lorck financial support to go on an educational journey. Lorck’s wanderlust led him throughout Europe and in the end to Vienna, where he gained employment with Emperor Charles V. From 1555 to 1559 Lorck was one of three ambassadors sent by the emperor to Constantinople ...
Map of Denmark from the Atlas “Theatrum orbis terrarum”
The Flemish scholar and geographer Abraham Ortelius (1527–98) published the first edition of his Theatrum orbis terrarum (Theater of the world) in 1570. Containing 53 maps, each with a detailed commentary, it is considered the first true atlas in the modern sense: a collection of uniform map sheets and accompanying text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved. The 1570 edition was followed by editions in Latin, Dutch, French, German, and Spanish, with an ever-increasing number of maps. Shown here is the first ...
Final Concord Between William Shakespeare and Hercules Underhill
The final concord between William Shakespeare and Hercules Underhill is the confirming title to Shakespeare's New Place house in Stratford-upon-Avon, signed Michaelmas 1602. Shakespeare originally purchased New Place in May 1597 from William Underhill. Underhill was poisoned two months later by Fulke Underhill, his oldest son and heir, who was hanged for the crime in 1599. When Hercules Underhill, Fulke's younger brother, came of age, Shakespeare protected his title to New Place by paying him to reconfirm the purchase. As was the custom, three copies of the final ...
General Business Ledger of the Plantin Press, 1563–67
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is the general business ledger of the press for the period 1563–67, when Plantin had to provide his financial partners with a ...
The Royal Bible. Missal. Accounts of the King of Spain, 1568–1578
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Antwerp was at that time under Spanish rule, and Plantin held the monopoly on printing religious works for the Spanish home and colonial market. Shown ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Jan Moretus I, 1572–1581
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing the copies of the letters sent by Plantin's son-in-law Jan Moretus I (1543–1610) during the years 1572 ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Christopher Plantin and Jan Moretus I, 1579–1590
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent by Christopher Plantin and his son-in-law Jan Moretus I (1543–1610) during the years ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Jan Moretus I, 1591–1602
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent by Jan Moretus I (1543–1610) during the years 1591–1602. Moretus, Plantin’s ...
General Ledger, 1590–1599
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a ledger that provides a summary of the daily journaux (account books) of the activities of the press in the years 1590 ...
Wallachia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania
Gerard Mercator (1512–94) was born in Rupelmonde in Flanders (Belgium). His given name was Gerard de Kremer or Cremer. “Mercator,” meaning “merchant,” is a Latinized version of his Flemish last name. He studied philosophy and theology at the University of Leuven, and developed an interest in astronomy and mathematics. He produced his first map, of Palestine, in 1537. He went on to create numerous maps and globes in the course of his long career and is best known for his invention of the Mercator map projection. In 1554 he ...
Coruña Bay, Ferrol Bay, Spain
This English manuscript double chart, in pen and water colors, on vellum, shows the harbors of La Coruña and El Ferrol in Spain. The date, localities depicted, and provenance of the charts indicate that they were prepared for use in the Drake-Norris expedition of 1589. After the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588 by the English fleet and failed in its attempt to invade England and overthrow Queen Elizabeth I, the English organized a counter-expedition aimed at destroying the remaining ships of the Armada. These ships had taken refuge in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Compendium of Materia Medica, 52 Juan; Illustrations, in Two Juan
Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) is a systematic encyclopedia of traditional Chinese medicine before the 16th century. The work, in 52 juan of text and two juan of illustrations, consists of 1,892 entries, 374 of them added by the author and compiler Li Shizhen (1518−93). Included are about 11,000 prescriptions. It is a priceless legacy of the treasury of Chinese medicine and still applicable. Li Shizhen completed the first draft of the text in 1578, but it was not published until the 21st year ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Statutes and Ordinances of the University, and General Study of the Ciudad de Los Reyes in Peru
Constitvciones y ordenanças de la Vniversidad, y stvdio general de la ciudad de los Reyes del Piru (Statutes and ordinances of the university, and general study of Ciudad de los Reyes in Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1602. Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro, and was originally called Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings). The university in Lima was founded in 1551. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Christian Doctrine and Catechism for the Instruction of the Indians, and of all the People Who Have to Be Instructed in Our Holy Faith: With a Confession Booklet and Other Necessary Things
Doctrina christiana, y catecismo para instrvccion de los indios, y de las de mas perʃonas, que han de ʃer enʃeñadas en nueʃtra ʃancta fé : con vn confessionario, y otras cosas neceʃʃarias (Christian doctrine and catechism for the instruction of the Indians, and of all the people who have to be instructed in our holy faith: with a confession booklet and other necessary things) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1584. It is the first book printed in South America. A trilingual edition in Quechua, Aymara, and Spanish, it is also ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Third Catechism and Exposition of the Christian Doctrine for Sermons that the Curate and Other Priests Preach and Teach to the Indians and all the Other People Conforming to the Decisions Established at the Holy Provincial Council of Lima
Tercero cathecismo y exposición de la Doctrina Chriʃtiana, por sermones para qve los cvrasy otros mini ʃtros prediquen y enʃeñen a los Yndios y a las demás perʃonas conforme a lo qve en el Sancto Concilio Prouincial de Lima de proueyo (Third catechism and exposition of the Christian doctrine for sermons that the curate and other priests preach and teach to the Indians and all the other people conforming to the decisions established at the holy provincial council of Lima) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1585. The first printing ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Confession Booklet for the Curate of the Indians with the Instructions for Their Rites, Last Rites in Preparation for Death, and a Summary of the Privileges and Impediments of Matrimony
Confessionario para los cvras de indios, con la instrvcion contra svs ritos: y exhortación para ayudar a bien morir y ʃumma de ʃus priuilegios y forma de impedimentos del matrimonio (Confession booklet for the curate of the Indians with the instructions for their rites, last rites in preparation for death, and a summary of the privileges and impediments of matrimony) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1585. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Catholic Indian Creed, in Which the Mysteries of the Faith, Which are Contained in the Three Catholic Creeds, the Apostles’, Nicene, and the Athanasian, are Manifested
Symbolo catholico indiano, en el qval se declaran los myʃterios dela fé, contenidos enlos tres symbolos catholicos, apoʃtolico, Niceno y de S. Athanaʃio (Catholic Indian creed, in which the mysteries of the faith, which are contained in the three Catholic creeds, the Apostles’, Nicene, and the Athanasian, are manifested) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1598. The book contains the texts of the three most important creeds in the Christian church, the Apostle’s Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, in the languages of Quechua and Aymara, along ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
General Record of the Conversion of Silver and Gold of Different Measures of Purity and Weight, in Various Quantities: Their Value in Percentages and Other Rules and Recommendations Indispensable to the Viceroyalty of Peru
Libro general de las redvciones de plata, y oro de diferentes leyes y peʃos, de menor á mayor cantidad, y de ʃus intereʃʃes á tanto por ciento, con otras reglas, y auiʃos muy neceʃsarios para eʃtos reynos del Piru (General record of the conversion of silver and gold of different measures of purity and weight, in various quantities: Their value in percentages and other rules and recommendations indispensable to the viceroyalty of Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1597. The first printing press in South America was established in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile
Sermon que el mvy reverendo padre fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez calificador del Sancto Officio, Miniʃtro Prouincial delos frayles Menores, dela prouincia del Piru y Reyno de Chile (Sermon that the Very Reverend Father, Fray Pedro Gutierrez Florez the Inquisition Officer of the Holy Office, Provincial Minister of the Friars Minor, in the Province of Peru and Kingdom of Chile) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Feast Hosted by the Prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the Presence of Your Majesty and the Queen Our Lady
Relacion delas fiestas qve delante de sv magestad, y dela reyna nvestra señora hizo, y mantuuo el Principe del Piamonte en Valladolid (Report of the feast hosted by the prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the presence of  Your Majesty and the queen our lady) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Atlas
This atlas has been attributed to the important Portuguese cartographer, navigator, and illuminator Fernão Vaz Dourado (circa 1520−80), based on similarities between other maps by Vaz and illustrations in this manuscript. Vaz spent his last years in Portuguese Goa (present-day India) and is known to have produced seven brilliantly illuminated sea atlases between 1568 and 1580. His portolan charts belong to a class of late-16th-century cartographic masterpieces, which reflect the period’s rising demand for cartographic works that were both visually impressive and accurate for practical navigation. This atlas ...
The Lusiads
Presented here is the first printed edition of Os Lusiadas (The Lusiads), the national epic of Portugal, published in Lisbon in 1572. Composed by the poet, soldier, and sailor Luís de Camões (circa 1524−80), the poem celebrates the great Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469−1524) and the achievements of Portugal and its people in venturing out into the Atlantic, rounding the tip of Africa, and forging a path to India. The poem is comprised of ten cantos, each with a variable number of stanzas. Each stanza is written ...
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Explanation of the Gospels that the Sacred Mother Church Reads and Proclaims Throughout the Year on Sundays and Other Holidays
Az Evangeliomoknac, Mellyeket Vasarnapokon, Es Egyeb Innepeken Esztendö Altal, Az Anyaszentegyhazban oluasni es Praedicallani szoktanac, Magarazattyanac. Masodic Resze :  Mely Magaban Foglallya, Hvsvettvl Fogva, Adventig Valo Vasarnapi Evangeliomokat (Explanation of the Gospels that the Sacred Mother Church reads and proclaims throughout the year on Sundays and other holidays) is the second volume of a large multivolume work of sermons in Hungarian by church dignitary and religious writer Mikuláš Telegdy (also seen as Miklós Telegdi, 1535−86). The second volume also contains sermons for Sundays from Easter to Advent. The work was ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
A Complete Map of the Mountains and Oceans of the World
Sankai yochi zenzu (A complete map of the mountains and oceans of the world) is a Japanese map of the world, created around 1785 by Sekisui Nagakubo (1717−1801). The map is based on the 1602 edition of Matteo Ricci’s Great Universal Geographic Map in Chinese, first produced in 1584. It is a hand-colored wood-block print, showing the world’s continents and seas, with relief shown pictorially. An alternative title, Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu (A complete illustration of the globe, all the countries, and the mountains and oceans ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
New Map of the Wonderful, Large and Rich Land of Guiana...
This hand-colored map of Guiana (present-day French Guyana, Suriname, and Guyana) is the work of Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), the patriarch of one of the most famous Dutch mapmaking families. The map includes annotations in Dutch about the indigenous peoples of northern South America, along with fantastic illustrations of South American animals. The Amazon and Orinoco rivers are both well depicted on the map.
New and Precise Depiction of the Southern Part of America, Which Includes: Brazil, the Carribean, the New Kingdom of Guiana, Castilia del Oro, Nicaragua, the Antilles, and Peru: And Beneath the Tropic of Capricorn, Chile, the Rio de la Plato, Patagonia & the Straits of Magellan
This folding map of South America and the West Indies, printed on two separate sheets, with uncut margins, was engraved for the second edition of the fourth part of Hulsius' collection of voyages, which consists altogether of 26 parts. The "Vierte Schiffart" (Fourth voyage) is an account of Ulrich Schmidel's voyage to Brazil and the Rio de la Plata from 1534 to 1554. In this second edition of the map, three islands have been inserted below the bottom border of the lower map, with the name "Francisci Draco Ins ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Augustine: Part (Below Thirty Degrees Latitude) is on the Mainland of Florida, but the Sea Coast is More Low-Lying and thus Torn Away and Rendered Island-Like
This map is the earliest engraving of any city or territory now part of the United States. It also includes the dorado fish, one of the natural history subjects drawn by John White, governor of the first Anglo-American settlement in America, in the Hatteras region, then part of Virginia (now North Carolina). Sir Francis Drake’s 1585-86 raid on the West Indies picked up the Virginia settlers and returned them to Europe. In the course of the return voyage, the author of this view-plan was able to copy the figure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Island and City of Metropolitan Goa of India
Jan Huyghen van Linschoten (1563-1611) was a Dutch traveler and explorer who spent six years (1583-89) in Goa, an important trading center on the west coast of India that Portugal annexed in 1510 and was to occupy for the next 450 years. Linschoten was employed as bookkeeper to the local archbishop. After returning to the Netherlands, he wrote two books containing valuable information about the people and geography of India. Translated into English and published in London in 1598, Linschoten’s works helped to stimulate Dutch and English interest in ...
Modern Geographic Table of Geography
Antoine du Pérac Lafréry (1512-77) was a French engraver who settled in Rome, probably in the early 1540s, where he became a celebrated publisher of maps. Lafréry assembled and bound collections of maps from various sources, which he sold under the title Tavole moderne di geografia...di diversi autori raccolte et messe secondo l’ordine di Tolemeo (Modern geographical maps...from various authors, collected and organized according to Ptolemy’s geographical order). This work dates from around 1575, a few years after Abraham Ortelius, working in Antwerp, published the first ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Visegrad, Bosnia, Austro-Hungary
This photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late-19th century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly the Austro-Hungarian Empire) in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts the Mehmed Pasha Sokolović Bridge across the Drina River in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The bridge was built in the late 16th century by the court architect Mimar Koca Sinan (1490-1588) by order of the Ottoman Grand Vizier Mehmed Pasha Sokolović (1505 or 1506-79). Built of 11 masonry arches with spans of 11-15 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zemaitija Land Court Year Book for 1592
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Codex Totomixtlahuaca
This indigenous pictographic document is a colonial-era map from the Mixtecan, Tlapaneca, and Nahua cultural area in the present-day state of Guerrero, Mexico. It refers, principally, to the settlement called Totomixtlahuacan and states that the document was written in 1584. It is an indigenous colonial map that makes abundant use of Mesoamerican pictorial conventions and includes many texts written in Nahuatl, the most widespread Mesoamerican language. The map describes a geographical area, framed by various identified towns and crossed by two rivers. Different individuals, probably noble landowners, are mentioned in ...