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This photograph by Henry B. Goodwin depicts the Swedish author Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (1858–1940), the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Goodwin was born the son of a Bavarian landscape painter and originally named Heinrich Buergel. He was a scholar of Old Icelandic and one of the pioneers of portrait photography in Scandinavia. He adopted a new homeland and a new name and contributed to the visual image of contemporary Swedes by becoming the most-renowned society photographer in Sweden in his era. An advocate of ...
Frontier Folk of the Afghan Border—and Beyond
Frontier Folk of the Afghan Border—and Beyond is a book of photographs, with explanatory text, of people from more than 20 tribes and ethnic groups mainly living in the Northwest Frontier region of British India (present-day Pakistan) or across the border in Afghanistan. A few of the pictures show people or scenes from Kashmir, Tibet, and Russian Turkestan. The photographs depict local costumes, festivals and celebrations, and economic life. Most were taken by Captain L.B. Cane of the Royal Army Medical Corps. The text is by Lilian Agnes ...
Al-Arab, Volume 1, Number 1, July 4, 1917
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...
We Live and Work According to Lenin: Atlas of the Novosibirsk Region
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union drew its legitimacy from the life and work of Vladimir I. Lenin, the leading figure of the Russian Revolution and the founder of the Soviet state. This late Soviet-era atlas of the Siberian region of Novosibirsk contains, in addition to its 32 maps, sections on V. I. Lenin and Siberia, the establishment of Soviet power in Novosibirsk, and the participation of the region in the Great Patriotic War (World War II), as well as descriptions of the industrial, agricultural, educational, and cultural achievements ...
National War Relief Exhibition
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1917, shows a disabled veteran with a prosthetic arm using a scythe to harvest wheat. The text announces the National War Relief Exhibition in Pozsony. The poster was created by Pal Sujan, a popular artist whose portraits and other paintings were widely shown in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sujan was born in Budapest in 1880, studied art, and worked as an art teacher in ...
Certificate of Ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Accompanied by Resolution and Transcript of the Journals of the Two Houses of the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee
The Nineteenth Amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. The amendment was first introduced in Congress in 1878. Over the years, champions of voting rights pursued different strategies for achieving their goal. Some worked to pass suffrage acts in each state, and by 1912 nine western states had adopted woman suffrage legislation. Others challenged male-only voting laws in the courts. Suffragists also used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. Often supporters met fierce resistance as opponents heckled, jailed, and sometimes physically abused them. By 1916 ...
Subscribe to the War Loan! The Army and Navy Expect it from You!
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This 1917 poster, created by the influential German designer and graphic artist Lucian Bernhard, appeals to German citizens to help finance the war with their savings. Bernhard was born in 1883, and his original name was Emil Kahn. After studying at the Munich Art Academy, he moved to Berlin where he worked as a commercial artist. He was best known for his innovative advertising posters for German companies. Bernhard emphasized simplicity as ...
Lake Nahuel Huapí, Argentina
This 1917 photograph of Nahuel Huapí Lake in the Patagonia region of Argentina is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
"The Child at Your Door." 400,000 Orphans Starving, No State Aid Available. Campaign for $30,000,000
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. Embassy in Constantinople. The committee, which raised millions of dollars at public rallies and churches, issued this poster as ...
Kościuszko, Pułaski—They Fought for Liberty in America
This Polish-language poster, produced in Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, was aimed at the many Polish-speaking immigrants living in the United States at that time. The message— “Kościuszko, Pułaski fought for liberty in America. Can you help America fight for freedom in Poland? Eat less sugar, wheat, meat, fats so that we can support our brothers fighting in the allied armies”—invokes the names of two Poles. Tadeusz Kosciusko and Kazimierz Pulaski fought on the American side in the Revolutionary War ...
4 Reasons for Buying Victory Bonds
This World War I poster, produced in Canada in 1917, depicts “4 reasons for buying Victory Bonds.” The “reasons” are the four most important German civilian and military leaders, whose faces would have been familiar to many Canadians from news reports: Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German emperor; Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, the chief of the German General Staff; Crown Prince Wilhelm, the son of the emperor and heir to the throne; and Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, commander of the German Navy. Canada, a dominion within the British Empire ...
Exhibition of Moroccan Art
This World War I poster advertises an exhibition of Moroccan art for the benefit of wounded Moroccan soldiers. It shows a wounded soldier standing over a seated Moroccan artisan, who is painting a ceramic bowl. Moroccan units fought as part of the French Army from the early days of the war, beginning with the participation of the Moroccan Brigade in the September 1914 Battle of the Marne. In all, 37,300 Moroccan soldiers, all of them volunteers, fought with the French forces in Europe. The number of Moroccan soldiers wounded ...
Following the Paths of Our Fathers in the Ranks of the Polish Army for Motherland and Freedom
This World War I poster shows a winged knight on a horse, heading into battle. The text, in English and Polish, encourages men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. Thus, there was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting Britain, France, and Russia against the Central ...
A Day for the African Army and the Colonial Troops
This World War I poster showing French soldiers fighting alongside black soldiers from Africa celebrates the participation of troops from the French colonies and overseas territories during the war. More than 480,000 such troops were deployed by France in Europe over the course of the war, including 134,300 soldiers from West Africa, 172,800 from Algeria, 60,000 from Tunisia, 37,300 from Morocco, 34,400 from Madagascar, 2,100 from the Somali coast, and 44,000 from Indochina. Initially, most colonial troops were volunteers, but as the ...
Lest They Perish. Campaign for $30,000,000. American Committee for Relief in the Near East: Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. embassy in Constantinople. This poster, showing a woman carrying a baby on her back surrounded by the rubble of ...
Italy Has Need of Meat, Wheat, Fat, and Sugar
This Italian-language poster, produced in Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, was aimed at the many Italian-speaking immigrants living in the United States at that time. Illustrated with a portrait of an Italian army officer, the poster declares that “Italy has need of meat, wheat, fat, and sugar” and urges people to conserve these foods so that supplies can go to “our people and to the Italian troops.” The poster was sponsored by the U.S. Food Administration, a government agency established ...
Many Peoples - One Nation
During World War I, President Woodrow Wilson and other U.S. political leaders were concerned about disunity among the American people. They were particularly anxious that so-called hyphenated Americans, Americans born abroad or of foreign heritage, might prove disloyal. For example, Irish-Americans might be bitter at British rule in Ireland or German-Americans could be sympathetic to Germany. In response, U.S. leaders launched a widespread “Americanization” campaign involving both government agencies and private organizations. This poster, with the slogan “Many peoples - one nation. Let us unite to Americanize America,” was ...
Poles! Kościuszko and Pułaski Fought for the Liberty of Poland and Other Nations. Follow Their Example. Enlist in the Polish Army!
This World War I poster invokes the memory of two illustrious Poles who fought in the American Revolution, Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817) and Kazimierz Pułaski (1747–79), to encourage men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. There thus was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting ...
For the Freedom of the World. Subscribe to the National Loan at the Banque Nationale de Crédit
This World War I poster issued by the French Banque Nationale de Crédit urges French citizens to purchase war bonds, “for the freedom of the world.” An image of the Statue of Liberty appears on the horizon, an allusion to the entry into the war of the United States on April 6, 1917. The participation of the United States gave a lift to the people of France, who by this time had suffered huge casualties in battles with Germany and had expended much of the nation’s wealth to fight ...
Send the Eagle's Answer: More Ships
This poster, issued by the publication section of the Emergency Fleet Corporation in Washington, D.C., shows a large, colorful eagle flying above ships setting sail for a distant shore in flames. The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. The bald eagle as a symbol of ...
Sponsored by the Jewish Relief Campaign, this World War I poster features a monumental female figure wearing a hat reminiscent of the U.S. flag. She is offering the bounty of America—a tray laden with food—to the destitute women and children of Europe. The skyline of New York City and the Statue of Liberty are in the background, and the word “share” appears in large type at the top of the poster. The American Jewish Relief Committee was established on October 14, 1914, by three prominent members of ...