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Map of the Argentine Railways
Between 1880 and 1915, the Argentine railroad network expanded from 1,388 miles (2,234 kilometers) to 22,251 miles (35,809 kilometers) in length, making it the longest on the continent of South America and the eighth longest in the world. Railroads played a key role in economic development and national consolidation and made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of ...
Map of the Dominican Republic
The division of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola into the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic and French-speaking Haiti goes back to the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, under which Spain transferred the western third of what was then the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo to France. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777, the French and Spanish empires defined precisely the border between their respective territories on the island. Part of the present-day border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic still follows the line negotiated in 1777, but adjustments to the border ...
Study for Woolworth Building, New York
On April 24, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson pressed a button in Washington, DC, that first illuminated the more than 5,000 windows in the 60-story Woolworth Building, the tallest building in the world at that time. Located on Broadway in lower Manhattan, New York City, the building was a triumph of American construction technology and architectural prowess. Known as "the Cathedral of Commerce," it was clad in gleaming architectural terra-cotta, with a gilded roof ascending to 793 feet (233 meters). Shown here is a sketch elevation of the building by ...
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At the Universal Peace Congress in Stockholm
The Universal Peace Congresses were international meetings to promote peace that took place in different European capitals in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The congresses established liberal pacifism as a distinct system of thought in European politics and a serious force in international relations for several decades. Religious peace groups, labor organizations, government officials, authors, and other notables attended these congresses, whose attendance grew until World War I, when they were discontinued because of conflicting loyalties among the delegates. The first notable peace congress was held in London ...
Suffrage Parade, New York City, May 6, 1912
The suffrage parade was a new development in the fight for women’s suffrage in the United States. It was a bold tactic, adopted by suffragists and the more militant suffragettes shortly after the turn of the century. Although some women chose to quit the movement rather than march in public, others embraced the parade as a way of publicizing their cause and combating the idea that women should be relegated to the home. Parades often united women of different social and economic backgrounds. Because they were carried out in ...
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Echo of Babylon, Number 4, September 3, 1909
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
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Korea
This photograph of a Korean woman and her daughter in traditional costume is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
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Lest Liberty Perish from the Face of the Earth - Buy Bonds
In 1917 the United States entered the Great War, as World War I was known at the time. A national propaganda campaign was started to convince Americans to support the war effort. Some of the images used in this campaign have become a permanent part of American cultural iconography, notably J.M. Flagg’s famed 1917 poster of Uncle Sam declaring, “I want YOU.” In addition to recruiting troops to fight, the U.S. government issued “Liberty Bonds” to help finance the war effort. Artists helped the cause by making ...
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Afghanistan
Angus Hamilton was a British journalist who reported for a number of newspapers and journals between 1894 and 1912. Among the events he covered were the Boer War in South Africa, the Boxer uprising in China, and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–5. Like most books of this period, Afghanistan approaches its subject through the prism of the rivalry between Great Britain and Russia for influence in Central Asia, the so-called “Great Game.” The first chapter is devoted to the Orenburg−Tashkent Railway (in present-day Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) recently ...
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The Strangling of Persia
William Morgan Shuster (1877−1960) was an American lawyer and financial expert who served as treasurer general to the government of the Persian Empire in 1911. In 1910, the Persian government asked U.S. president William Howard Taft for technical assistance in reorganizing its financial system. Taft chose Shuster to head a mission of American experts to Tehran. The Strangling of Persia is Shuster’s account of his experiences, published soon after his return to the United States. In the Anglo-Russian convention of August 31, 1907, Britain and Russia had ...
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The Melanesians of British New Guinea
Charles Gabriel Seligman (1873–1940) was a British ethnographer who conducted field research in New Guinea, Sarawak, Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka), and Sudan. Trained as a medical doctor, in 1898 he joined an expedition organized by Cambridge University to the Torres Strait, the body of water that separates the island of New Guinea from Australia. The purpose of the expedition was to document the cultures of the Torres Strait islanders, which were rapidly disappearing under the influence of colonization. In 1904, Seligman was one of three members of the Cooke ...
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Tripoli – Sentries
This photograph of a sentry post in Tripoli, Libya, is from the George Grantham Bain Collection at the Library of Congress. The collection contains approximately 40,000 glass plate negatives and 50,000 photographic prints, most dating from the 1900s to the mid-1920s. Bain, who was born in 1865 and died in 1944, founded the New York-based Bain News Service in 1898. Specializing in news about New York City and to a lesser degree the eastern United States, Bain distributed its own pictures and those purchased from other commercial agencies ...
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Arabs in Tripoli
This photograph of a street scene in Tripoli, Libya, is from the George Grantham Bain Collection at the Library of Congress. The collection contains approximately 40,000 glass plate negatives and 50,000 photographic prints, most dating from the 1900s to the mid-1920s. Bain, who was born in 1865 and died in 1944, founded the New York-based Bain News Service in 1898. Specializing in news about New York City and, to a lesser degree, the eastern United States, Bain distributed its own pictures and those purchased from other commercial agencies ...
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Two 7-Year Old Newsies, Profane and Smart, Selling Sunday, Nashville, Tennessee
This photograph, taken by an unknown photographer in Nashville, Tennessee, in November 1910, shows two seven-year old newspaper boys. The photograph is from the collection of the Children’s Bureau, a government office established in 1912 to investigate and report "upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children and child life among all classes of our people." Enactment of the law was the culmination of a campaign begun in 1903 by two early social reformers, Lillian Wald of New York's Henry Street Settlement House, and Florence Kelly of ...
Paul Kruger Street, Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows Paul Kruger Street, looking south towards Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, as it appeared around 1910. The railroad station was the work of Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946), a British-born architect who designed many important buildings in South Africa. The street was named in honor of Paul Kruger (1825-1904), the president of the South African Republic (Transvaal) who led the resistance of the Afrikaans-speaking Boers to Britain in the Boer War of 1899-1902. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services ...
Indochina
This brochure, in English and French, was intended for tourists to French Indo-China. It extols the virtues of the region and its people, and includes a brief history and description of the country, followed by detailed maps and photographs of famous sites. Also included are a proposed itinerary and information about transportation, lodging, and prices. The brochure was produced by the Touring Club de France (Touring Club of France), a civic organization established in 1890 to promote tourism in France and later, in its colonies. The club published hotel and ...
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Central America, the Lesser Antilles, and the Dutch West and East Indies
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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Natal, Rhodesia, and British East Africa
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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British Kaffraria and its German Settlements
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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The German Colonists in the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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A Corner in Guatemala City
This photograph, taken in Guatemala City between 1910 and 1920, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
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General View of Kamenskii Factory with the Dam. Kamensk-Uralskii
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Satkinskii State Plant
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Girls from Madagascar
This photograph of a scene in Madagascar is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives ...
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Scene in Zlatoust
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Staro-Sibirskaia Gate in the City of Perm
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. Shown in this 1909 photograph are the obelisks that marked the old Siberian entrance (zastava) to the city of Perm. Major entry points to Russian towns such as this were originally guarded checkpoints; they later acquired a ceremonial function. Erected in 1824, these obelisks commemorated a visit to Perm by Tsar Alexander I in 1824, and are crowned by the ...
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Razguliai, Outskirts of the City of Perm
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. Shown in this 1909 photograph is the Razguliai district on the edge of the city of Perm. Construction in this district began no later than 1723. A factory settlement on the small Egoshikha River, it is considered the oldest area of Perm, which received town status in 1781. The large wooden houses in the image are log structures, some of ...
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General View of the City of Perm from Gorodskie Gorki
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the central district of the city of Perm, seen in a view toward the west from an area called City Hills. The complex of brick buildings in the foreground served as the maintenance center for the Urals Railway. On the right is the bustling waterfront of the Kama River, one of the main tributaries of the ...
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City of Perm. General View
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the central district of the city of Perm, seen in a view toward the southwest from an area called City Hills. A mixture of wooden and masonry houses line the streets approaching downtown. In the right background stands the Cathedral of the Transfiguration, with a neoclassical bell tower. Smoke from a factory chimney obscures the bell ...
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View of the City of Perm from the Railroad Bridge across Kama
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the central district of the city of Perm, seen in a view toward the east from the railroad bridge spanning the Kama River. As in most views of central Perm, the dominant feature is the Cathedral of the Transfiguration, with its neoclassical bell tower. Visible to the right is the bell tower of the Cathedral of ...
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Perm. Summertime Location of the Exchange
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. Shown here is the wooden pavilion built in 1908 to serve as the summer office of the stock exchange in the city of Perm. Its construction followed improvements to Embankment Park (a park overlooking the Kama River) undertaken in 1906–07 (evident in the recently planted saplings). The profusely decorated small structure exemplified the “Ropet style,” named after Ivan Ropet ...
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Perm. Headquarters of the Ural Railway Administration
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. Shown in this 1909 photograph is the headquarters of the Urals Railway Administration in the city of Perm, built in 1888–92 to an eclectic style by I.A. Bykhovets. This imposing building is located next to the Perm I train station (the city’s oldest), completed in 1878 by Bykhovets, and partially visible on the left. The two buildings ...
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Perm. Mary Magdalene Church
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the Church of Saint Mary Magdalene in the city of Perm. The church was built in 1889–92 as part of a large orphanage, and the imposing structure was designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance by Aleksandr B. Turchevich-Glumov (1855–1909). Funds for construction came largely from local merchants. In addition to its religious ...
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Perm. Mary Magdalene Church
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the Church of Saint Mary Magdalene in the city of Perm. The view is from the southwest, and clearly shows the imposing bell tower, the upper part of which has not survived. The church was built in 1889–92 as part of a large orphanage, and was designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance by ...
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Steam Engine "Kompaund" with a Schmidt Super-Heater
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. Shown here is a Kompaund (Compound) steam locomotive of the Ab type, with a Schmidt superheater. The number between the coupler indicates Ab 132, produced at the Briansk locomotive factory in 1909—shortly before Prokudin-Gorskii took this photograph. These locomotives were among the most powerful produced in Russia in the early 20th century, with a top speed of 115 kilometers ...
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Northern Part of the Village of Nyrob
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. His visit to the area of the Northern Urals (apparently in 1912) included the historic settlement of Nyrob, located 40 kilometers to the north of the regional center of Cherdyn, and shown here in this photograph. Referred to in written sources as early as 1579, remote Nyrob soon became a place of exile. It was here, in 1601, where Tsar ...
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City of Ekaterinburg. General View of the Central Part
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. The caption for this photograph mistakenly identifies this as a view of central Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91). In fact it is a view taken in 1909 of a workers’ settlement on the outskirts of the town of Ekaterinburg known as Verkh-Isetskii zavod (factory on the Upper Iset). The Upper Iset factory was established following the creation in 1725 of ...
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City of Ekaterinburg. General View of the Southern Part
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the southern districts of the town of Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91), dotted with churches and bell towers, many of which were demolished during the Soviet period. Visible with two domes in the center background is the Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Assuage My Sorrow.” Attached to the archbishop’s residence, this ...
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City of Ekaterinburg. General View of the Northern Part
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the northern part of the town of Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91). There is a clear demarcation between pasturage (with a resting cow) and a long boundary street lined with houses. The houses are built primarily of wood, and typically have four-sloped metal roofs that are painted red. Some of the houses are elevated on a ...
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City of Ekaterinburg. Pond Embankment
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows an embankment along City Pond in the town of Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91). The pond was created in 1724 when the engineer Georg Wilhelm de Gennin (Hennin) dammed the Iset River to create a power source for an iron factory established by order of Peter the Great in 1723. The settlement that sprung up around ...
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Pond Embankment in Ekaterinburg
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, and urban scenes. This 1909 photograph shows an embankment along the upper west side of City Pond in the town of Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91). The pond was created in 1724 when the engineer Georg Wilhelm de Gennin (Hennin) dammed the Iset River to create a power source for an iron factory established by order of Peter the Great in 1723. The ...
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Ekaterinburg. View of the House of the Chief of the Gornyi District from the Dam
The center of the Ekaterinburg is occupied by a picturesque pond (more like a lake in size), which was formed by damming the Iset River in 1723. Along the west bank of City Pond was the attractive Gymnasium Embankment, named after the nearby classical high school. The most prominent landmark on the embankment was the mansion built for the chief mining director of the Ural State Factories. Designed in a neoclassical style by the prominent local architect Mikhail Malakhov, the mansion was begun in 1818 and completed in the 1830s ...
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