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Type of Item
This map, prepared and printed in 1908 at the office of the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, United Kingdom, provides a relatively detailed view of the geography of British Guiana (present-day Guyana), one of only two British colonies on the mainland of South and Central America (the other being British Honduras). A note indicates that the portion of the map north of 5° North latitude is from a map prepared by the government surveyor of British Guiana, while the remainder of the map “has been compiled from various sources and is less ...
Spinner in Vivian Cotton Mills, Cherryville, North Carolina: Been at it Two Years. Where Will Her Good Looks Be in Ten Years?
This image of a young girl working in a North Carolina textile mill in the early 20th century is from the Records of the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) at the Library of Congress. The photograph is attributed to Lewis W. Hine (1874-1940), one of the leading American documentary photographers of the Progressive Era. Best known for his photography of urban social conditions in New York City, Hine also investigated conditions at cotton mills across the Carolina Piedmont. Working with the Reverend Alfred E. Seddon and journalist A.H. Ulm ...
Nepal and the Himalayan Countries
Isabelle Massieu (1844–1932) was a French writer and traveler who became the first French woman to visit Nepal. Beginning in 1892, she undertook a series of journeys from her native Paris that took her to nearly all parts of Asia and resulted in the publication of several popular books. Népal et pays himalayens (Nepal and the Himalayan countries) is a first-hand account of her 1908 voyage from the Sutlej Valley in northern India across Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim to Tibet. Massieu describes the people, landscape, and architecture of the ...
Third Class Carriage, Sultan's Railway, Syria
Railway construction in the Ottoman Empire began in the mid-19th century, generally with European financing and supervision in the context of Great Power rivalry. By the early 20th century, railways had become a major mode of transportation in the Near East. This stereo-view image from around 1908 depicts men seated in a railroad car, some wearing traditional dress, others in Western dress with fezzes. The producer of the image was the Stereo Travel Company of Corona, Long Island, New York, a small firm active in the early years of the ...
At Prayer in the Mosque, Damascus, Syria
This card from around 1908 depicts Muslim men at prayer in the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus (Jāmi' al-Umawī al-Kabīr). Constructed in the eighth century on the site of earlier places of worship, the mosque is a site of spiritual significance to both Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. It is also said to house the head of John the Baptist. The card is a “stereo view,” produced by the Stereo Travel Company of Corona, Long Island, New York, which was active in the early years of the 20th century. Popular ...
German East Africa as a Settlement Region for Europeans, Taking into Consideration British East Africa and Nyassaland
As imperial Germany began creating an overseas empire in the late 19th century, many influential Germans sought to emulate the example of Great Britain, which had built its large and powerful empire in part by promoting the settlement of immigrants from the British Isles to British-controlled territories in other parts of the world, including East Africa and South Africa. Germany declared a protectorate in East Africa in 1885 and established the colony of German East Africa (present-day Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi) in 1891. In 1908, Friedrich von Lindequist, undersecretary in ...
In Iasnaia Poliana
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
The Guinean Campaign (1908)
In this book, Luis Monteiro Nunes da Ponte (1884-?), a Portuguese army officer, civil engineer, and former civilian governor of the city of Porto, describes his military expedition of 1908 to Guinea (present-day Guinea-Bissau). Nunes da Ponte focused primarily on the regions of Bissau, Bolama, Oio, and Cuore and described the challenges likely to face Portuguese colonization in the region. Portugal claimed Guinea as early as 1446, but until the late 19th century it administered the territory as part of the Cape Verde Islands colony. Portuguese control was limited to ...
Formally Dressed Emigrant Family Listening to the Record Player (in South America)
During the period of Japanese emigration to other countries, Japanese diplomatic establishments abroad recommended that Japanese immigrants adopt local customs and manners so as to avoid friction with local inhabitants. This photograph illustrates the assimilation of Japanese emigrants. Japanese emigration to Brazil began in 1908, and reached its peak in 1926–35. Following the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888, the government of Brazil looked to immigrants to address a labor shortage in the increasingly important coffee industry. European immigrants, particularly Italians, filled the gap at first, but were ...
Poster for the Recruitment of Emigrants
This poster was made by the Japanese Settlement Company of South America, which was mainly financed by a giant textiles group in Japan. This company was established in 1928 to promote emigration from Japan to the Amazon River basin, in Para Province in Brazil. Japanese emigration to Brazil began in 1908, and reached its peak in 1926–35. Following the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888, the government of Brazil looked to immigrants to address a labor shortage in the increasingly important coffee industry. European immigrants, particularly Italians, filled ...
The Presidential Succession of 1910: The National Democratic Party
La sucesión presidencial en 1910: El Partido Nacional Democrático (The presidential succession of 1910: the National Democratic Party) caused an immediate sensation among the political class in Mexico when it was published in late 1908. The book’s author, Francisco I. Madero, was a member of a prominent family of landowners and businessmen from the state of Coahuila. Madero was committed to liberal politics and for many years provided intellectual and material support to dissidents arrayed against the government of Porfirio Díaz (president 1876–1911, except for 1880–84 and ...
Roar! Gauntlets, 1908–1914
This work is a collection of poems, plays, and essays by the Russian futurist Velimir Khlebnikov (born Viktor Khlebnikov, 1885–1922). It opens with Khlebnikov’s statement on the unity of Slavs in the aftermath of the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1908. The book includes a segment of his poem “The Wood Nymph and the Goblin,” the play Asparuh, and the drama in verse Marquise Dezes. It concludes with Khlebnikov’s reflections on railroads. The volume is illustrated by Kazimir Malevich and Vladimir Burliuk. Khlebnikov was ...