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Type of Item
Letter from Otto Ringling, October 26, 1907
Otto Ringling (1858–1911) was the son of a German immigrant who, with his brothers Albert, Alfred, Charles, John, August, and Henry, created the Ringling Bros. circus empire in the late 19th century. The brothers bought the competing Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1907. They ran the circuses separately at first, but merged them in 1919 to create the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, which came to be known as “the Greatest Show on Earth.” This letter, written by Otto to his brothers in October 1907, details how the assets ...
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody
William Fredrick “Buffalo Bill” Cody (1846–1917) was at different times a trapper, miner, Pony Express rider, scout, wagon master, stagecoach driver, legislator, and Civil War soldier. He earned his nickname, Buffalo Bill, because of his skill in supplying the Kansas Pacific Railroad with buffalo meat for its workers; in 18 months, he killed more than 4,000 buffalos. In 1883, he started the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Omaha, Nebraska, using cowboys and Native Americans to portray scenes from the West. The show recreated daring rescues, heroic ...
The Euphrates Valley: Syria, Kurdistan, et cetera
This early 20th-century British map depicts the Euphrates Valley, a region that includes parts of present-day Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria. Also shown is the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The map indicates railroads, both existing and projected, and the route of submarine telegraph cables. The vilayets (administrative provinces) of the Ottoman Empire in Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine and southern Anatolia are marked by red lines. A dotted line running across Persia (present-day Iran) from west to east is labeled “Southern limit of Russian sphere.” Under the Anglo-Russian Convention of ...
Offices for Shipping and Forwarding Companies of Elder
This photograph, taken in 1907, shows the interior of the offices of a British shipping and forwarding company in the port of La Luz, near the northeast tip of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). La Luz, also known as Las Palmas Port, was built between 1883 and 1903 by the British firm of Swanston and Company. Strategically located some 100 kilometers west of Morocco in the Atlantic Ocean, between the continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas, the Canary Islands was important as a coaling station for steamships transiting long ...
Crown of Roses, Issue 1, August 1904
Klílā d-warde (Crown of roses) was a magazine issued in Mosul (present-day Iraq) between August 1904 and July 1908. It was published by the Dominican Fathers, in the neo-Aramaic language using an East Syriac script, which was common to the Chaldean Catholics of the region. It contained devotional articles, with occasional coverage of cultural topics. The magazine was produced by a small staff of clergy based in Mosul. The Dominican presence in the city goes back to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV sent a group of Italian friars to establish ...
The Province of Burma; A Report Prepared on Behalf of the University of Chicago
Alleyne Ireland (1871–1951) was a Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society in London who, in 1901, was appointed by the University of Chicago to head a commission to study colonial administration in the Far East. Ireland’s first major project, published in 1907, was this exhaustive, two-volume study of Burma, at the time under British rule as a province of the Indian Empire. Volume one contains a general description of Burma, a history of Britain’s acquisition of the colony, and chapters on the people, government, general administration, civil ...
Turkmen Man Posing with Camel Loaded with Sacks, Probably of Grain or Cotton, Central Asia
The resting camel seen here bears large sacks of cotton grown in the irrigated fields of the extensive Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). Camels were the primary beast of burden for heavy work in this hot, arid climate. The youth next to the camel wears a bright robe and a shaggy sheepskin hat. Visible in the background are hundreds of other sacks awaiting delivery to the cotton gin. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process ...
Congressional Party in Convent Ruins, Old Panama, March, 1907
This photograph from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress depicts a scene from a visit to Panama by a delegation of the U.S. Congress in 1907. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes ...
Policeman in Samarkand
Shown in this winter view is a local policeman dressed in a Russian-style winter uniform with a karakul hat adorned with a badge. The long coat has shoulder boards indicating a rank equivalent to sergeant. He is armed with a sabre (right) and a pistol on a red lanyard. He is standing guard at the gated entrance to the territory of the Namazga Mosque in Samarkand. The entrance, probably erected in the late 19th century, is built of fired Russian brick, rather than the usual soft adobe. The attached column ...
Observing a Solar Eclipse on January 1, 1907, near the Cherniaevo Station in the Tian-Shan Mountains above the Saliuktin Mines. Golodnaia Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Cathedral of St. Seraphim (1907), Southwest View, Viatka, Russia
This photograph of the Cathedral of St. Seraphim of Sarov in Viatka was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The city of Viatka, renamed Kirov in 1934, is located on the Viatka River, 900 kilometers east of Moscow. Founded in 1181 under the name "Khlynov," Viatka was brought into the Muscovite realm by the end of the 15th century. The town subsequently became a trading and administrative center in ...
Two Prisoners in Shackles
Two shackled prisoners stand in an adobe courtyard showing traces of snow. On the left are two clay water jugs, a flintlock rifle, and a kerosene lantern. The prisoners are dressed in faded quilted robes, with slippers on their feet. Party visible behind the prisoners is a guard in Russian winter uniform The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date ...
Vendors beside Table Displaying Flatbread
A baker, at right, and a young vendor of lavash (flat bread) stand in front of a bakery built of adobe brick. The ground is covered in snow and ice, with melting snow visible at the roofline. The youth’s large colorful turban could be used to support a tray of the bread. The baker has a haggard look and is hunchbacked from the hot, backbreaking labor at the oven. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create ...
Man in Courtyard
This man with a turban and brightly colored robe is probably a pilgrim. In his right hand he holds a green tubeteika (traditional Central Asian cap), while under his left arm is a folded red mat. In the background is an adobe structure that appears to be a modest khanaka (hostel for pilgrims), of which there were many in Bukhara. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early ...
Zindan (Prison), with Inmates Looking Out through the Bars and a Guard with Russian Rifle, Uniform, and Boots, Central Asia
In this arresting photograph a guard stands at attention next to a primitively barred portal at the zindan (prison) in Bukhara. A visitor squats next to the portal, while prisoners huddle behind the bars. The men wear quilted robes to protect against the intense cold of the unheated brick jail. Snow and ice are banked against the whitewashed walls. The guard is dressed in Russian-style uniform, with a sheepskin hat, a padded tunic, red breeches, and high leather boots. He holds a flintlock rifle with fixed bayonet. The image is ...
Observing a Solar Eclipse on January 1, 1907 near the Cherniaevo Station in the Tian-Shan Mountains above the Saliuktin Mines. Golodnaia Steppe
This unusual photograph shows preparations for observing a total solar eclipse on January 1 (14 in the Gregorian calendar), 1907, at the Cherniaevo Station settlement near the Saliutkin Mines in the Tian-Shan Mountains. Located in Central Asia near the border between China and present-day Kyrgyzstan, the range derives its name from the Chinese for “celestial mountains.” The first Russian to study the mountains was the noted Russian geographer Peter Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, who explored the region in 1856 and 1857. The high elevation and clear dry air were ideal for observation purposes ...
The Heart of the Antarctic; Being the Story of the British Antarctic Expedition 1907–1909
The British Antarctic Expedition of 1907–9, led by Ernest H. Shackleton, left Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, in the ship Nimrod on January 1, 1908. On February 3, the Nimrod deposited Shackleton and a party of 14 men at Cape Royds, on Ross Island. The men divided into three groups. One would try to reach the South Pole, a second went north to reach the South Magnetic Pole, while a third was to explore the mountains west of McMurdo Sound. Shackleton, three companions, and four ponies set out for the ...
Selected Poems with Postscript, 1907–1914
This volume is a collection of poems written in 1907–14 by the Russian futurist Velimir Khlebnikov (born Viktor Khlebnikov, 1885–1922). It includes Khlebnikov’s famous poem “Bobeobi,” in which the poet attributes colors to letters to create a portrait of a face. The book also contains a postscript with reflections on language, history, and numbers and their role in the cycles of history. Illustrations by Pavel Filonov and Kazimir Malevich are included. Khlebnikov was born in Astrakhan Province and lived most of his life in Kazan. He attended ...
General Map Showing the Explorations and Surveys of the Expedition, 1907-09
The British Antarctica Expedition of 1907-09, led by Ernest H. Shackleton, left Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, in the ship Nimrod on January 1, 1908. On February 3, the Nimrod deposited Shackelton and a party of 14 men at Cape Royds. The men divided into three groups. One would try to reach the South Pole, a second went north to reach the South Magnetic Pole, while a third was to explore the mountains west of McMurdo Sound. Shackleton, three companions, and four ponies set out for the South Pole on October ...
Homeopathy was introduced to India in the 1830s by John Martin Honigberger (1795–1869), a Romanian-born student of Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843), the German physician regarded as the founder of homeopathic medicine. Honigberger spent some 15 years in Lahore, where his early patients included Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab and the son of the Maharaja’s military advisor, General Jean François Allard. Homeopathy first flourished in Punjab and Bengal, before spreading to other parts of British India. In this book, Mirza Allah Baig Lakhnavi gives concise instructions for the purchase ...