144 results in English
Great Trading Routes of the Sahara
This 1889 map of trans-Saharan trading routes by French explorer Edouard Blanc reflects the growing priority that Europeans gave to land-based trade during the late 19th-century imperial “scramble for Africa.” In articles about his work, Blanc stressed the importance of identifying “natural” geographic routes that would connect French colonial possessions in west Africa, such as Senegal, to Algeria in north Africa, and link the Mediterranean coast to Sudan and central Africa. Blanc based his maps not only on his own travels but also on nearly a century of reports from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guide to Kiev and Its Environs, Including an Address Section, Map and Phototype Views of Kiev
This 1890 guidebook provides comprehensive information for visitors to Kiev. It includes a history of the city and details of places of interest, such as Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the cathedrals and other churches, historical monuments, public gardens and wooded areas, public and administrative buildings, and bridges over the Dnieper River. Included is useful information for travelers, such as timetables for trains, steamships, and other passenger transport and a directory for hotels, restaurants, doctors, banks, stores, baths, libraries, clubs, and city and church authorities. The guide anticipates by 24 years Baedeker’s ...
Theater and Drama: A Collection of Critical Articles on Theater and Dramatic Literature
Mikola Kindratovich Voroniy (1871–1938) was a prominent Ukrainian poet, writer, actor, and director. This book is a collection of his most important articles on the art of the theater and dramatic literature. The topics covered include the work of actors and directors, dramatic literature as the most complex genre of literary and artistic expression, and the nature and role of the audience. The author draws general conclusions from his analysis and discusses the ways in which the theater might develop in the future. Voroniy received his university education in ...
Costa Rica
This map of Costa Rica was published by the International Bureau of the American Republics (instituted in 1910 as the Pan American Union), an agency established in 1890 in Washington D.C., by resolution of the International Conference of American States. The bureau published handbooks, maps, and a monthly bulletin for disseminating information relating to the promotion of trade among the countries of the Americas. The map shows the routes of steamship lines from the ports of Limon, Puntarenas, and San Juan del Sur (Nicaragua); undersea telegraph cables; railroads; and ...
Ciniselli Circus Water Pantomime
This poster by an unknown artist is devoted to the Ciniselli Circus water pantomime (probably The Four Elements). Produced in Berlin by the firm Dinse & Eckert, the picture is a colored lithograph with the letters written in gold. The water pantomime was performed for the first time in Russia in 1892. In The Four Elements, water rushed down in a cascade and fountains gushed out in different places of the arena. Deer, elephants, and horses with riders swam in the arena lake. Pantomime, an art form in which the story ...
Tales of Heroes and Great Men of Old
Siyar al-Abtal wa-al-Uzama’ al-Qudama’ (Tales of heroes and great men of old) introduces young readers to classical mythology. It typifies many publications of the British and American missionaries in the Levant in the mid-to-late 19th century. Uplifting humanistic writing of this kind was new to the Middle East. It grew directly from the children’s book movement in Britain in the first half of the century, led by the British Tract Society, which later reinforced the efforts of American missionaries to the Middle East, such as Cornelius Van Dyck. The ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Rand, McNally & Company’s Map of the United States Showing, in Six Degrees, the Density of Population, 1890
This map, published in 1892 by the Chicago-based Rand McNally and Company, shows the population density of the United States in 1890. Six shades of color are used to indicate the different levels of population density by location, ranging from fewer than two inhabitants per square mile (2.59 square kilometers) to more than 90 inhabitants per square mile. The most densely populated parts of the country are in the Northeast and parts of the Midwest. The West is for the most part sparsely populated, although already by this time ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Comprehensive Map of Vietnam’s Provinces
This undated brush and ink manuscript map of Vietnam during the 19th century combines features of the traditional cartography practiced in both China and Vietnam with some Western elements. The place names and a text block in the lower right-hand corner are in classical Chinese calligraphy, the writing system used by both Chinese and Vietnamese scholar-officials. Traditional elements include its pictorial style (mountains, trees, and structures such as the border gate between Vietnam and China), lack of precise scale, and emphasis on mountains and water. A large number of mountains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Members of Gaucho Tribe, Argentina
This photograph of gauchos at work in Argentina is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Immigrants Being Transported on Horse-Drawn Wagon, Buenos Aires, Argentina
This photograph of newly arrived immigrants in Buenos Aires, Argentina is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Busload of Immigrants, Buenos Aires, Argentina
This photograph of immigrants in Buenos Aires, Argentina is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Entrance to the Temple of Jupiter
This photograph depicting the ruins of the entrance to the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek, Lebanon, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ruins of Old Mosque, Baalbek
The American Colony in Jerusalem was founded in 1881 as a Christian utopian community by Chicago natives Anna and Horatio Spafford. In addition to pursuing its religious goal of emulating the spirit and practices of the early Christians, the community engaged in humanitarian relief efforts, notably during the difficult years of World War I. The American Colony’s photographic department traced its beginnings to the community’s 1898 purchase of a camera to document a visit to Jerusalem of the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II. Over the years, the colony’s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mosque of Abderrahman, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Sidi Abderrahman [Abdul Rahman, Abdel Rahman, Abdurrahman] Mosque in Algiers, Algeria, circa 1899. According to Cook’s Practical Guide to Algiers, Algeria, and Tunisia (1904), “With the exception of the Djama el Kebir…this is the oldest religious building in Algiers…. The marabout [popular saint] Abd er Rahman et Thalebi was born in 1387 and died in 1471. The mosque was built between these dates and contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Cathedral of St. Philippe in Algiers, originally the Ketchaoua mosque, which had been converted to a Christian place of worship under the French occupation. The structure was rededicated as a mosque following Algeria’s independence in 1962. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sheep at Sheep Station; Houses and Woods in Background, Australia
This photograph, taken in Australia some time in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Barbados, Native Huts
This photograph is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. The easternmost island in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cairo to Kisumu: Egypt-Sudan-Kenya Colony
Cairo to Kisumu: Egypt-Sudan-Kenya Colony was the fifth in a series of books known as Carpenter’s World Travels, written by Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) in the 1920s and published by the Garden City, New York, firm of Doubleday, Page & Company. Carpenter was an American author of books on travel and world geography whose geographical readers were popular in American schools in the early 20th century. Cairo to Kisumu is not an account of a single journey, but a composite based on the notes Carpenter made on several trips ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Victoria Nyanza. The Land, the Races and their Customs, with Specimens of Some of the Dialects
Lake Victoria (in the Bantu language, Victoria Nyanza), is the largest lake in Africa and the second largest body of fresh water in the world, surpassed only by Lake Superior in North America. The lake is crossed by the equator, and is the chief source of the Nile River. The first European to reach the lake was the British explorer John Hanning Speke in 1858, who named it after Britain’s Queen Victoria. In 1890, at the height of the European scramble for colonies in Africa, Britain and Germany divided ...
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Fredericksborg Castle, Copenhagen, Denmark
This photochrome print is from the “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Copenhagen, Denmark” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows Fredericksborg Castle as it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. The 1892 edition of Baedeker’s Norway, Sweden, and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers offered the following information about the castle: “This palace was erected in 1602-20 by Christian IV in a plain and vigorous Renaissance style, on the site of an older building of Frederick II. The massive edifice, which consists ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Royal Theater, Copenhagen, Denmark
This photochrome print is from the “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Copenhagen, Denmark” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the Royal, or National Theater, which is identified in the 1892 edition of Baedeker’s Norway, Sweden, and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers as “a handsome Renaissance structure by Petersen and Dahlerup, built in 1872-74.” To the right and left of the entrance are bronze statues of the Danish poets Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754) and Adam Oehlenschläger (1779-1850). The theater is located on Kongens Nytorv (King ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tivoli Park Entrance, Copenhagen, Denmark
This photochrome from circa 1890-1900 is from the “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Copenhagen, Denmark” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the entrance to Tivoli Gardens, which opened in 1843, and is the second-oldest amusement park in the world (after Dyrehavsbakken, also in Denmark). The park was inspired by the romantic pleasure gardens of Europe, which were landscaped according to the naturalistic English tradition rather than the French style based on geometric lines. Tivoli's founder, Georg Carstensen (1812-57), had seen pleasure gardens ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Helsingborg, Sweden
This photochrome print is from the “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Copenhagen, Denmark” section of the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts a ship entering the harbor at Helsingborg, Sweden, which, between 1874 and 1896, was connected to Copenhagen by regular ferry service. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
From the West, Cetinje, Montenegro
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Montenegro” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts the town of Cetinje, the capital of Montenegro, an independent principality that separated from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. According to Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900), Cetinje had 3,000 inhabitants at the time. “In some respects the place resembles a little German country town, but it has several distinctive features of its own. It may be seen in an hour, but a whole day ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arrival of the Post, Cetinje, Montenegro
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Montenegro” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts a scene from Cetinje, the capital of Montenegro, an independent principality that separated from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. According to Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900), Cetinje, a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, was a two-day excursion by mountainous road from the town of Catarro (present-day Kotor) on the Adriatic coast. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View, Njegus, Montenegro
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Montenegro” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts a view from Njegus, characterized by Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900) as “the ancestral home of the reigning family and the cradle of the Montenegrin wars of independence.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Inn di Krstac on the Cetinje Road, Njegus, Montenegro
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Montenegro” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900) recommended that European and American travelers of this period take a two-day excursion to Montenegro--from the port city of Catarro (present-day Kotor) to Cetinje, the then-capital of Montenegro. This photochrome print depicts a scene along the road in the town of Njegus, which Baedeker identified as “the ancestral home of the reigning family and the cradle of the Montenegrin wars of independence ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View, Thal von Rieka, Montenegro
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Montenegro” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. Baedeker’s Austria, Including Hungary, Transylvania, Dalmatia, and Bosnia (1900) recommended that European and American travelers of this period take a two-day excursion to Montenegro--from the port city of Catarro (present-day Kotor) to Cetinje, the then-capital of Montenegro. This photochrome print shows a scene on the road from Cetinje to the town of Rjeka, noted by Baedeker for its splendid mountain views. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fish Market, Bergen, Norway
This photochrome print from the “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company shows the Bergen fish market as it looked in the last decade of the 19th century. According to the 1892 edition of Baedeker’s Norway, Sweden and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers, “fish has always been the staple commodity of Bergen, which is the greatest fish-mart in Norway. The Hanseatic merchants compelled the northern fishermen to send their fish to Bergen, and to the present day the trade still flows mainly ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Storthings Bygningen, Christiania, Norway
The Storthings Byningen is the hall of the Norwegian parliament, which was completed in 1866. This photomechanical print from the Detroit Publishing Company shows how it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. Oslo, the present-day capital of Norway, was called Christiania from 1624 to 1878 (Kristiania from 1878 to 1924). It was named after King Christian IV of Denmark, which was part of a Nordic union with Norway for more than 400 years.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Oscarshal, Christiania, Norway
According to the 1892 edition of Baedeker’s Norway, Sweden and Denmark, the “château of Oscarshall was erected in the English Gothic style by Nebelong for King Oscar I in 1849-52, and adorned with paintings by eminent Norwegian artists. It was sold to the government by Charles XV, but it is still kept up as a royal residence. It deserves a visit for the sake of its pictures and the view.” This photomechanical print from the Detroit Publishing Company shows how a late 19th-century tourist would have approached ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Norwegian Carriage, Hardanger Fjord, Norway
This photochrome print of a Norwegian girl in a carriage at Hardanger Fjord in Norway is part of “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. In his Peeps at Many Lands: Norway (1909) the British travel writer A.F. Ferryman-Mockler observed that "all that is grand, all that is beautiful, will be found in the Hardanger.” The fjord, located in southern Norway, is approximately five kilometers miles wide at its center and more than 650 meters deep in some places. The fjord is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View in the Kungsparken, Malmo, Sweden
This photochrome print of the popular Kungsparken (King’s Park) in Malmö is part of “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway and Sweden” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. The park was designed by the Danish architect O. Høegh Hansen, and opened in 1872. Hansen’s design reflected French and Austrian influences of the 1850s and evoked both the romantic and baroque styles. Malmö is located in southern Sweden, just across Oresund Strait from Denmark. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View in the Kungsparken, Malmo, Sweden
This photochrome print of Malmo, Sweden is from the “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company, which also included six views of Sweden. The 1892 edition of Baedeker’s Norway, Sweden, and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers described Malmo as a “thriving seaport, the capital of the fertile province of Skåne, with 47,500 inhabitants” and informed its readers about “the pleasant promenades of Kung Oskars Park (café, with concerts frequently).” Malmo is located on the body of water known as the Sound ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Skansen, Stockholm, Sweden
This late 19th-century photochrome print offers a bucolic view of the open-air museum of Skansen on Djurgården Island, a royal park situated within Stockholm. Founded in 1891, Skansen is the oldest such heritage museum in Europe, with traditional Swedish culture and wildlife exhibits, as well as log structures such as the house and barn pictured on the other side of the pond. These buildings, most of which date from the 18th and 19th centuries, were intended to display Sweden's regional diversity and rural traditions at a time of rapid ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
1897, Arts Exhibition, Stockholm
This photochrome print from the Detroit Publishing Company is a view of the General Art and Industrial Exposition of Stockholm in 1897. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, industrialized countries organized large-scale international exhibitions to showcase their industrial and scientific achievements and to appeal to national pride at home. Such exhibitions were mounted in Paris in 1855, 1867, 1878, and 1889, Vienna in 1873, Philadelphia in 1876, and Chicago in 1893. The Stockholm exhibition was timed to coincide with the 25th anniversary of King Oscar II’s accession ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ovrelerfos, Trondhjem, Norway
This photochrome print from the “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” section in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company shows a noted tourist destination in Norway as it would have appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. The Lille (Lower) Lerfos and Store (Upper) Lerfos are picturesque waterfalls on the Nid River, several kilometers south of the city of Trondheim. The 1892 edition of Baedeker’s Norway, Sweden and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers advised that the best view of the falls “is from one of the windows ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Sami Family, Norway
This photochrome print is part of “Landscape and Marine Views of Norway” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. The photo shows a Sami, or Lapp, family gathered by a pair of traditional conical tents called lavvu, in northern Norway. In his 1876 work Through Norway with a Knapsack, the British scientist and author William Mattieu Williams described the lavvu as "a framework of wooden ribs, all bearing towards each other in the centre," over which animal skin is stretched for insulation. The Sami, the indigenous people of northern ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Devin and the Danube River, Southwest Slovakia, near Austrian Border, Austro-Hungary
This photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late 19th-century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that was part of the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts Devín Castle, located on a bluff in southwestern Slovakia, at the confluence of the Morava and Danube rivers. The castle was an important military fortress of Great Moravia, a Slavic state that in the first half of the 8th century covered parts of present-day Moravia, western Slovakia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Entrance to Castle, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
Prague Castle is the largest medieval castle complex in Europe and the historic seat of kings, emperors, and presidents going back to the ninth century. This photochrome print shows the castle as it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. In addition to the castle itself, the complex includes St. Vitus’ Cathedral, several palaces, a monastery, Golden Lane (once home to writer Franz Kafka), and St. George’s Basilica.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Museum, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
The National Museum of what is now the Czech Republic was founded in 1818 by Count Kašpar Maria Sternberg (1761-1838), an early scholar in the field of paleontology. The museum’s collections include millions of objects in the fields of natural history, history, art, and music. The main building, pictured here, was completed in 1891. It is located at the upper end of Wenceslas Square, one of the main squares in the city of Prague. The square is named for Saint Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Radetzky Memorial, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the bronze monument to Field Marshal Radetzky, who stands on a shield borne by eight soldiers, holding his baton and a flag. Joseph, Count Radetzky (1766-1858), was a soldier of Czech origin who led many victorious campaigns in the service of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The monument was erected in 1858, the year of Radetzky’s death. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress