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Charter Given by the High and Mighty Lords of the States General on the Date of June the Third, 1621
On June 3, 1621, the States-General, the governing body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, issued a charter to a group of Dutch merchants to establish the Dutch West India Company. Similar to the Dutch East India Company, which was founded in 1602 in order to promote trade with Asia, the West India Company was granted a 24-year monopoly on all trade by Dutch merchants and inhabitants in a region that included the Americas and West Africa. The text of the charter, published in this 1623 pamphlet, contained 45 ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Humming of an Insect
Printed during the reign of Tianqi (1621–27) of the Ming dynasty, this literary work lists the names of the author and editors. It was written by Li Tingxun, a native of Sanyuan Xian, Shaanxi Province, and edited by two fellow-members of a scholarly society, Xiong Jiarui and Shi Dingyu; three of his disciples, Kong Shengzhen, Ma Yiyuan, and Wei Jizheng; and Li Tingxun’s son, Li Menghe. Li Tingxun achieved his jin shi (doctoral degree) in 1595 and became prefect of Ningling Xian, Henan Province. The work is arranged ...
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Library of Congress