41 results in English
Java and Australia
This manuscript map of Java and the tip of northern Australia is a copy of an earlier work by the Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). In the 16th century, Portugal sent several expeditions to explore the islands south of Malaysia; it is possible that they gained some knowledge about the geography of Australia from these missions. Some scholars have speculated that the Malays had a knowledge of Australia, which Eredia somehow absorbed. The first documented European sighting of Australia was by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606.
Modern Asia
John Wilkes was a London publisher best known for his Encyclopaedia Londinensis; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and literature (1801-28). Wilkes frequently worked with Samuel John Neele, the engraver of this hand-colored map of “modern Asia.” The map reflects late 18th-century European geographic conceptions and terminology. India is referred to as “Hindoostan,” while much of the interior is shown as comprised of “Western Tartary” and “Chinese Tartary.” “Tartary” was a designation applied by Europeans to those parts of Asia inhabited by nomadic Turkic and Mongol peoples. This map shows ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
White Isles of the South Sea: History of the Apostolic Vicariate of the Gilbert and Ellice Archipelagoes, by Father Fernand Hartzer
This work, written by a French Roman Catholic priest and missionary, is a history of the establishment and early growth of the Catholic mission in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. At the time, the islands were a British protectorate. They became a crown colony in 1915. In 1978, the Ellice Islands became the independent country of Tuvalu. In 1979, the Gilbert Islands, along with two other island groups, the Line Islands and the Phoenix Islands, became the independent country of Kiribati. In addition to the history of the mission, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Funafuti; Or Three Months on a Coral Island: An Unscientific Account of a Scientific Expedition
Funafuti is a coral atoll that is part of Tuvalu, a sovereign nation located in the west-central Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. This book is an account of a scientific expedition in 1897 to Funafuti, which at the time was part of the British protectorate of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. The author, Janet William Edgeworth David, the wife of Professor T. W. E. David of Sydney University in Australia, accompanied her husband on the expedition. The object of the expedition was to take deep borings of coral ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Report by Mr. Arthur Mahaffy on a Visit to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, 1909
The Gilbert and Ellice Islands in the west-central Pacific Ocean were first visited by Europeans in the early 19th century and became a British protectorate in 1892. In January–March 1909, Arthur Mahaffy (1869–1919), a British colonial official, made an inspection visit to the protectorate to review economic and social conditions, and in particular to examine the system of taxation used to support the protectorate’s government. Mahaffy’s eight-page report, which was submitted to the Office of the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific in Suva, Fiji, in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Germany and Its Colonies: Travels through the Empire and Its Overseas Possessions, with the Collaboration of Arthur Achleitner, Johannes Biernatzki, et al.
This 538-page work with its 1,367 illustrations reflects German national pride in the early 20th century, a period of rapid economic growth and scientific and cultural achievement in the German Empire. Most of the book deals with Germany proper, which at that time included Alsace-Lorraine, conquered from France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. A concluding chapter is devoted to Germany’s overseas empire, which had grown rapidly since the achievement of national unity in 1871. Germany’s colonies included Togo, Cameroon, German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia), German East ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Melanesians of British New Guinea
Charles Gabriel Seligman (1873–1940) was a British ethnographer who conducted field research in New Guinea, Sarawak, Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka), and Sudan. Trained as a medical doctor, in 1898 he joined an expedition organized by Cambridge University to the Torres Strait, the body of water that separates the island of New Guinea from Australia. The purpose of the expedition was to document the cultures of the Torres Strait islanders, which were rapidly disappearing under the influence of colonization. In 1904, Seligman was one of three members of the Cooke ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Samoa Travels
Otto Finsch (1839–1917) was a German ornithologist and ethnographer who was involved in the establishment of Kaiser Wilhelms-Land, a German protectorate located in the northeastern part of present-day Papua New Guinea. Finsch worked as a curator at the Museum of Natural History and Ethnography in Bremen. He was awarded an honorary doctorate for his ornithological work by the University of Bonn in 1868 and became director of the Bremen museum in 1876. After an initial expedition to the Pacific in 1879–82, he returned to Germany and became a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
It is Nice in the Surf but What about the Men in the Trenches? Go and Help
This 1917 Australian poster is representative of many used to recruit volunteers to serve with the British forces in World War I. Australian recruitment drives were highly successful and resulted in more than 400,000 men enlisting from a population of fewer than five million. Posters such as this one appealed to the Australian value of “mateship” or comradeship, while others appealed to patriotism. In addition to the young man swimming in the surf, the poster features the emblem of the Win the War League, an organization founded in 1917 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Australia has Promised Britain 50,000 More Men; Will You Help Us Keep that Promise
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. Australia fought on the side of its “mother country,” Great Britain. Australian soldiers suffered heavy casualties in the Gallipoli campaign and in the trenches on the Western front. Casualties led to recruiting drives intended to attract new enlistments. This poster by an unidentified artist appeals to the strong sense of loyalty to Britain felt by the Australian people. It shows a kangaroo in front of number 50,000 and in the background ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sheep at Sheep Station; Houses and Woods in Background, Australia
This photograph, taken in Australia some time in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Voyage Around the World by the King's Frigate La Boudeuse and the Ship L'Etoile in 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1769
Following France’s defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756-63), Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), a soldier with a distinguished military record in Canada, received permission from King Louis XV to undertake France’s first major geographical exploration of the Pacific. In 1766-69 Bougainville became the first Frenchman to circumnavigate the globe. His voyage, meticulously recounted in this book, resulted in several significant scientific contributions, including establishing the precise location of a number of Pacific islands and determining the width of the Pacific Ocean. However, it was Bougainville’s observations of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A New, Authentic, and Complete Collection of Voyages Round the World: Undertaken and Performed by Royal Authority, Containing a New, Authentic, Entertaining, Instructive, Full, and Complete Historical Account of Captain Cook's First, Second, Third, and Last Voyages, Undertaken by Order of His Present Majesty
This compilation of British navigators' accounts of their voyages around the world covers the famous voyages of Sir Francis Drake and Captain James Cook, as well as expeditions by George Anson, John Byron, Samuel Wallis and Philip Carteret, and Constantine Phipps (Lord Mulgrave). In 1740-44, Anson led a three-year-and-nine-month mission that raided Spanish commerce off the coast of Peru before returning to England via the Cape of Good Hope. Byron made a voyage in 1764-65, during which he discovered the Islands of Disappointment (in present-day French Polynesia) and several smaller ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Going to Work
This watercolor on heavy board, showing military personnel of the Women’s Army Corps in New Guinea in 1944, during World War II, is signed and dated by the artist, John Cullen Murphy (1919-2004). Murphy was an American cartoonist best known for drawing the Prince Valiant comic strip. Murphy joined the armed forces in 1940 and spent the war years in the Pacific, where he was an anti-aircraft officer, and drew illustrations for the Chicago Tribune. The battle for New Guinea was one of the major military campaigns in the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
A New Chart of Part of the North Pacific Ocean Exhibiting the Various Straits, Islands and Dangers
This map of the Pacific Ocean north of the equator is by Edmund March Blunt, the publisher and main author of the American Coastal Pilot. This work first appeared in 1796 and, in successive editions over the years, established Blunt as the premier publisher of nautical books in the United States. At the lower left of the map are shown the Caroline Islands, including the “Pelew Isles” (Palau Islands) as well as Yap and other islands that now make up the Federated States of Micronesia. The first Europeans to reach ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kusae, on the Basis of British and German Nautical Charts / by E. Sarfert
This map of the volcanic island of Kosrae in the western Pacific is by Ernst Gotthilf Sarfert, a German ethnographer who participated in the German South Sea Expedition of 1908–10 and spent four months on Kosrae in 1909, studying the island and its people. Kosrae comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the others being Pohnpei, also a single volcanic island; Truk, a group of 14 volcanic islands; and Yap, a group of four islands and 13 coral atolls. These islands are all part ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Deed of Settlement
The Deed of Settlement and Royal Charter of Incorporation of the South Australian Company is a key document in South Australia's history: it highlights the difference between the manner in which South Australia was established and populated and the foundation of other Australian colonies as penal settlements. It also records British economic expansionism at its peak and illustrates the interconnections between British business interests, the Colonial Office, and social and evangelical activists. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act, which empowered the government to establish and ...
Travels of Francois Coreal to the West Indies, Containing the Most Remarkable Things He has Seen on His Voyage from 1666 to 1697
This three-volume work by a Spanish author of uncertain identity, Francisco (François) Coreal, was published in Amsterdam in 1722. It purports to be the French translation of a first-hand account, in Spanish, of multiple voyages to Brazil and Spanish America undertaken by Coreal over a span of 30 years, from 1666-97. Coreal's supposed voyages cover about half of the three volumes. The rest of the work is comprised of a heterogeneous set of texts taken from the travelogues of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) and several of his contemporaries. Many ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Papers of Joseph Ingraham, 1790-1792: Journal of the Voyage of the Brigantine "Hope" from Boston to the North-West Coast of America
Joseph Ingraham was the master of the brigantine Hope, a 70-ton American ship that was designed and equipped to make the trip around Cape Horn to the west coast of North America, from there to China, and from China back to Boston. In the late 18th century, American fur traders undertook expeditions to the northwestern Pacific, where they obtained furs, which they brought for sale to the Chinese port of Canton (present-day Guangdong). There they acquired tea, silk, porcelain, and other goods for sale in the U.S. market. This ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Operations Against the Japanese on Arundel and Sagekarsa Islands
This World War II photograph shows American soldiers wading into water on an island in the New Georgia group of the Solomon Islands. They are part of Operation Cartwheel, a U.S.-led effort, supported by forces from Australia, New Zealand, and the Netherlands, to neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, by advancing upon it from two directions: from the west along the northeast coast of New Guinea and from the east through the Solomon Islands. The photograph is by Sergeant John Bushemi (1917-44), a staff ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Nauru or Pleasant Island
This map of Nauru, the world's smallest independent republic and the least populous member of the United Nations, was compiled and drawn by J.D. Hutchison, who also did the surveying, in 1926. Nauru was rich in phosphate, a mineral valued for its agricultural uses and sought by farmers in Australia, New Zealand, and elsewhere. The map shows the lands held by various interests including the Nauruans, the British Phosphate Commission, the colonial government, and the missionaries. Formerly, Nauru was called Pleasant Island, the name given to it by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Gilbert Islands: Military-Very Secret (with a Proviso, Classified as Military-Secret in the Front)
This series of detailed topographic maps shows ten islands in the Pacific Ocean: nine in the Gilbert Islands chain and the separate island of Nauru. At the time these maps were made, the Gilbert Islands were part of the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Nauru, a former German colony, was a League of Nations protectorate administered by Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand. Japan captured and occupied all of these islands during World War II. The maps appear to be of English origin, with detailed annotations ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Interesting History of Prince Lee Boo, Brought to England from the Pelew Islands
The Interesting History of Prince Lee Boo, Brought to England from the Pelew Islands, is an abridged version of a longer work by George Keate (1729-97), An Account of the Pelew Islands, Situated in the Western Part of the Pacific Ocean. Composed from the Journals and Communications of Captain Henry Wilson, and some of his Officers, who, in August 1783, were there Shipwrecked, in the Antelope, a Packet belonging to the Hon. East India Company, published in 1788. The book tells the story of Captain Henry Wilson’s shipwreck on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mandate for Nauru
Nauru is an island country located in the central Pacific that has been inhabited for thousands of years by people of Micronesian and Polynesian origin. In 1888, Imperial Germany took over the island. At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its colonies. The League of Nations, established by the treaty, conferred a mandate on Great Britain to administer the territory under a trusteeship. Australia, whose troops had occupied the island in 1914, took control of the island, with Britain and New Zealand acting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tawhiao, the Maori king
This late-19th century photograph is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. Tawhiao (1822-94) was a Maori ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Susan, Rotorua
This photograph, taken in New Zealand some time between 1890 and 1920, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
New Zealand, Maoris at Their Talking House
This photograph, taken in New Zealand some time between 1880 and 1920, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The New and Unknown World: or Description of America and the Southland
This monumental work by the Dutch writer Arnoldus Montanus (1625?-83) reflects the fascination of 17-th century Europe with the New World. Montanus was a Protestant minister and headmaster of the Latin School in the town of Schoonhoven. He wrote books on church history, theology, the history of the Low Countries, and the peoples and cultures of the Americas and Australia. (The “Southland” in the title of his book refers to the recently-discovered Australia.) Montanus never visited the New World and his work contains numerous errors and fantastic conceptions about ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Australia
Adrien Brué (1786-1832) accompanied the French explorer Nicolas Baudin on his 1803 voyage to Australia. Baudin described Brué as “a young man of good disposition and with a zeal for geography,” and named the Brué Reef off Australia’s northwestern coast in his honor. Brué returned to France to become the royal geographer and an important publisher of high-quality maps. The detailed notes on this 1826 map identify its sources. Brué calls Australia “New Holland,” the name first given to it in 1644 by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman. Only ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Portrait of Girl and Woman, Samoan Princesses in Native Dress, Full-Length, Facing Front
This full-length portrait of a Samoan woman and girl was taken by an unknown photographer around the turn of the 20th century. The heavy ornamentation and wedding ring suggest that they are the wife and child of a prominent person. The shape of the fan (ili aupolapola) indicates that they may not be royalty. Both are wearing skirts made of ti leaves known as titi and shirts made of decorated tapa (bark cloth) known in Samoa as siapo.
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Point Hicks to Black Head
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Black Head to Cape Morton
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Cape Morton to Cape Palmerston
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...
A Chart of Part of the Sea Coast of New South Wales on the East Coast of New Holland from Cape Palmerston to Cape Flattery
This map is one of four manuscript charts from the first great voyage of exploration by Captain James Cook, which in April 1770 made the first clear delineation of the east coast of Australia. Sponsored by the Royal Society and the Royal Navy, the expedition had several objectives. Cook was to observe and describe the transit of Venus, chart the coastlines of places he visited in the South Pacific, and record details of the peoples, flora, and fauna he saw. The expedition sponsors also hoped Cook would find and claim ...
Samoans Posed in Front of a Hut with Palm Fronds and Thatched Roof
This early-20th century photograph shows a group of people on one of the islands in the Samoan archipelago, which is located south of the equator between Hawaii and New Zealand. The Samoans are a Polynesian people, famous for their seafaring skills. The photograph is by A.J. Tattersall, who wrote on its reverse side: “I warn anyone against using this copy without my permission. A.T., Photo, Samoa.” Tattersall was born in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1861, and worked for photographic firms in Auckland before going to Apia, Samoa, to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Large, Western-Style Wooden Building Atop Small Hill Overlooking Harbor, Samoa
This early-20th century photograph shows the governor's mansion on Togo Togo Ridge in Utulei, American Samoa, overlooking the harbor of Pago Pago. The mansion has served as the residence of all the governors of American Samoa, naval and civilian, from its construction in 1903 to the present. The photograph is by A.J. Tattersall, who wrote on its reverse side: “I warn anyone against using this copy without my permission. A.T., Photo, Samoa.” Tattersall was born in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1861, and was employed by photographic firms ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
War Canoe, Vella Lavella
This photograph shows warriors alongside their war canoes on the beach at Vella Lavella, one of the Solomon Islands. The photograph was taken by Edward A. Salisbury (1875-1962), an American explorer, writer, and early producer of travel films who in the 1920s published many accounts of his expeditions to the South Pacific in Asia: The American Magazine of the Orient. Salisbury’s article, “A Napoleon of the Solomons,” which appeared in the September 1922 issue of Asia, was a portrait of Gau, the warrior king of Vella Lavella. Salisbury described ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Thatched Roof Building in Palm Grove with People Gathered Around Trees and Building
Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands was the scene of the first post-World War II atomic tests, carried out by the United States to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on naval ships. This photograph, part of the record of the operation made by the U.S. Army Air Forces, shows inhabitants of the island gathered around a thatched-roof building in a palm grove. Before the tests, all 167 residents of Bikini were evacuated from their home island. Because of the high levels of radiation caused by the explosions over ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Thatched Roof Building Shaded by Palm Trees with People Standing at Entrance
Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands was the scene of the first post-World War II atomic tests, carried out by the United States to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on naval ships. This photograph, part of the record of the operation made by the U.S. Army Air Forces, shows people looking out from a typical thatched-roof building on Bikini. Before the tests, all 167 residents of Bikini were evacuated from their home island. Because of the high levels of radiation caused by the explosions over Bikini, neither they ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Long a Pacific Mystery, the Secret Naval Base at Truk is Hit by Avengers, February 1944
This illustration shows U.S. Navy planes flying over the island of Truk in the Federated States of Micronesia during World War II. The destruction of the Japanese naval base at Truk was an important element of American strategy in the Pacific theater. It also had a profound effect on the indigenous inhabitants, who were caught up in fighting that lasted from February 1944 to the end of the war. The planes shown are the Avenger torpedo bombers that first saw action in the Battle of Midway in 1942. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
New Hydrographic Map of the Sea and New Southern Lands: Made by the Cosmographer and Mathematician Emanuel Godinho de Eredia
This hydrographic map is the work of Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). At the turn of the 17th century, the Portuguese were exploring southeast Asia from their base in Malacca, searching for the “Islands of Gold” that figured prominently in Malaysian legends. Around 1602, the Viceroy of Portuguese India commissioned an expedition around the islands south of Malaysia and India.  Eredia served as a soldier and engineer on the mission and completed this map around the same time. His work, however, is suspected to be based more on ...