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Map of New Netherland, Virginia, and New England
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
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Library of Congress
The North River in New Netherland
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
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Library of Congress
Map of the South River in New Netherland
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
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Library of Congress
Map of the Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Calais, Maine to Miami, Florida, a distance ...
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University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Declaration of Intention for Albert Einstein
In 1936, German-born physicist Albert Einstein filed this Declaration of Intention to become an American citizen. Following the Nazi takeover of political power in Germany in 1933 and the onset of persecution of the German Jews, Einstein renounced his German citizenship and immigrated to the United States to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. On the basis of this declaration, the man who had first proposed the theory of relativity in 1905 became a U.S. citizen in 1940.
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U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
Journal of New Netherland 1647. Written in the Years 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645, and 1646
Willem Kieft (1597–1647) was a Dutch merchant who was appointed by the West India Company as director-general of New Netherland in 1638. Kieft instituted a harsh policy toward the Indians of the colony, whom he attempted to tax and drive from their land. In 1643, a contingent of soldiers under Kieft attacked a Raritan village on Staten Island in a dispute over pigs allegedly stolen from a Dutch farm. This led to the bloody, two-year conflict known as Kieft’s war, which raged in parts of what is now ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Complaint by Some Members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Living at Raritan, etc in [...] New Jersey [...] about the Behavior [...] of Dominie Theodorus Jacobus Frilinghuisen and his Church Council
In 1664, the Dutch colony of New Netherland ceased to exist when Governor Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender New Amsterdam--soon to be renamed New York--to an English fleet. Many residents of what became the British colonies of New York and New Jersey continued to speak Dutch and to worship in churches where services were conducted in Dutch. This pamphlet, published in New York in 1725, concerns a dispute within a Dutch Reformed congregation in Raritan, "in the Province of New Jersey, in North America, under the Crown of Great ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Remonstration of the Administrators of the Dutch West India Company to their Lords the State General about Several Examples of Tyranny and Violence by the English in New Netherland
In the 1660s, colonists from the English colonies of Connecticut and Massachusetts to the east and northeast and Maryland and Virginia to the south and southwest increasingly infringed on the Dutch colony of New Netherland, which was located in parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut. This remonstrance, or complaint, published in Schiedam in 1663, was an appeal by the directors of the West India Company to the States-General, the ruling body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, for increased protection against the incursions of the ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Conditions as Created by their Lords Burgomasters of Amsterdam
This pamphlet, published in Amsterdam in 1656, contains information about the patroonships offered by the West India Company to settlers in the Dutch colony of New Netherland, and in particular about the policies of the city of Amsterdam toward overseas colonization under the terms of the agreement between the city and the West India Company. Intended to help populate the colony, the patroonships were large grants of land made to Dutch investors who agreed to establish a colony of “fifty souls, upwards of fifteen years old.” The pamphlet was, in ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Freedoms, as Given by the Council of the Nineteen of the Chartered West India Company to All those who Want to Establish a Colony in New Netherland
The Lords Nineteen, the governing body of the Dutch West India Company, established the patroon system as a way to encourage the settlement of New Netherland, the Dutch colony in North America that covered parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Delaware. Patroons were wealthy Dutchmen who were given extensive tracts of land, powers of local government, and some participation in the fur trade in exchange for settling colonists in New Netherland. In June 1629, the West India Company issued the Charter of Liberties and Exemptions, which declared ...
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National Library of the Netherlands
Education, Training
This 1919 poster shows education and training being conducted at the ordnance operations, maintenance, and repair schools at the Raritan Arsenal in Metuchen, New Jersey. Photographs show classes receiving instruction in ten different skills or trades necessary to the U.S. Army at that time: machinist, blacksmith, welding, automobile mechanic, tractor mechanic, small arms and machine guns, explosives, artillery mechanic, saddler, and woodworking. The arsenal was part of the U.S. Army Ordnance Department, which traced its origins to the Board of War and Ordnance established in 1776 to supply ...
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Library of Congress
Philadelphia, from the State House Steeple, North, East and South
This lithograph is by Leo von Elliot (1816−90) after a sketch by Joseph Thoma. Little is known about either of these artists. The panoramic view of Philadelphia in the mid-19th century looks east toward the Delaware River, predominantly showing the area east of Fifth Street between Arch and South Streets from the State House (Independence Hall). It includes the Court House (later City Hall, 500 Chestnut Street) and the Philadelphia Library (the Library Company of Philadelphia, 105 South Fifth Street). Also seen are a flag flying on top of ...
Contributed by
The Library Company of Philadelphia
Panorama of Philadelphia from the State House Steeple. East
This print is a panoramic view of Philadelphia as seen looking east toward the Delaware River from the State House (Independence Hall) steeple. The area of the city shown is mainly east of Fifth Street between Arch and South Streets. The numbered key indicates 11 landmarks visible in the print: (1) the Court House, i.e. City Hall; (2) the Philadelphia Library, i.e., Library Company of Philadelphia; (3) United States Bank, i.e., Second Bank of the United States; (4) Philadelphia Bank; (5) Girard Bank; (6) Pennsylvania Bank; (7 ...
Contributed by
The Library Company of Philadelphia
Shad Fishing (Taking up the Net)
This print shows shad fishermen working near Philadelphia, across the Delaware River from New Jersey. Several of the men are African American. They stand waist deep in the river, gathering up their catch into a rowboat. Visible in the foreground and background are residential buildings and a local church, a Philadelphia pier, the mills of Gloucester, New Jersey, and sailboats on the river. The print is by James Fuller Queen, a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer known for his attention to detail who produced many views of the city.
Contributed by
The Library Company of Philadelphia
A Map of the Country round Philadelphia Including Part of New Jersey and New York, 1776
This map of eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the area around New York City originally was published in The Gentleman’s Magazine of September 1776. The American colonies had declared their independence two months earlier and were in revolt against the British crown, so the conflict in North America was of keen interest to readers of this popular London monthly. An accompanying article explained: “It [the map] comprehends that part of America which is now the chief object of the British arms. Should New-York be suddenly reduced, it is more ...
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Library of Congress
Map of New York
David H. Burr (1803–75) was a surveyor and cartographer, who served as topographer to the United States Post Office Department in 1832–38 and as geographer to the House of Representatives in 1838–47. Under the direction of the postmaster general, Burr compiled information from postmasters throughout the country about transportation routes—post roads, railroads, and canals—and the location of post offices to produce a large set of state and regional maps. Published in 1839 by the prominent London mapmaking firm of John Arrowsmith, Burr’s The American ...
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Library of Congress
Map of New Jersey and Pennsylvania
David H. Burr (1803–75) was a surveyor and cartographer, who served as topographer to the United States Post Office Department in 1832–38 and as geographer to the House of Representatives in 1838–47. Under the direction of the postmaster general, Burr compiled information from postmasters throughout the country about transportation routes—post roads, railroads, and canals—and the location of post offices to produce a large set of state and regional maps. Published in 1839 by the prominent London mapmaking firm of John Arrowsmith, Burr’s The American ...
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Library of Congress