Oaxacan Feather Dancer
This photograph from Mexico shows the imposing figure of an Oaxacan dancer in an elaborate costume that features intricate, detailed designs of feathers and beads on the headdress, breastplate, and shield. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Codex Colombino
This document was created to record the 11th-century military and political feats of the Mixtec Lord Eight-Deer (also known as Tiger Claw) as well as those of another ruler, Four-Wind, along with the religious ceremonies marking these feats. The codex, thought to have been created in the 12th century, was acquired by the National Museum around 1891 and was reproduced in 1892. The life of Eight-Deer, depicted in all pre-Hispanic Mixtec codices known to exist, included his conquests of two important Mixtec domains: Tilantongo and Tututepec. Through this and other ...
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National Institute of Anthropology and History INAH
Ixcatlán, Santa María, Mexico
This map from Ixcatlán, Santa María, in the present-day state of Oaxaca, Mexico, is from the Relaciones Geográficas collection in the Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones Geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas. The questionnaires covered such topics as demographics, political administration, languages spoken, physical terrain, and vegetation. The crown received 191 responses to these questionnaires. Of the 167 responses known to ...
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University of Texas Libraries
Marquesado del Valle Codex
This exceptionally valuable file contains 28 separate petitions from different leaders and towns of the Marquesado del Valle, protesting seizures of lands and sugar mills by Hernán Cortés, the first marquess. The Marquesado comprised the present-day Mexican state of Morelos as well as parts of the states of Puebla, Oaxaca, and Mexico. The great sugar plantations that Cortés created were organized by renting, buying, or seizing gardens, fields, and other lands that had belonged to the caciques (Indian nobles), towns, and districts since time immemorial. Throughout the 16th century, the ...
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General Archive of the Nation