The Pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the Northern Provinces of New Granada, 1850–51
Peregrinación de Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) por las provincias del norte de la Nueva Granada, en 1850 i 51 (The pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the northern provinces of New Granada, 1850–51) consists of articles written by Manuel Ancízar (1812–82), published in book form in 1853. Ancízar, who wrote under the pseudonym Alpha, was secretary of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission) of New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Formed in 1849, the commission included engineers and geographers ...
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View of the Snow-capped Mount Chita and of the Great Snowfields near Güicán, Province of Tundama
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows the snow-covered Chita Mountains in the municipality of Güicán, Tundama Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. Most of Güicán falls within the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy National Park, which has a number of peaks above 5,000 meters. Before colonization the area was populated by the Güiccanes Chibcha people. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art ...
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White and Mestizo Inhabitants, Tundama Province
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows three individuals representing  different ethnic and racial groups living in Tundama Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. As indicated on the caption, shown are a man of European extraction and two mestizos (people of mixed Indian and European ancestry).  Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when still a youth. He returned home ...
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Notable Citizens, Province of Tundama
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows citizens in Tundama Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. The individuals are all well-dressed. The couple in the foreground appears to be of European extraction, while the individual behind the tree may be mestizo. In his paintings, Fernández  often focused on types rather than individuals, as he tried to represent the general traits of people of different ethnic, racial, and social backgrounds. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio ...
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A House in Boyacá, General Headquarters in 1819, Province of Tunja
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows a house in the town of Boyacá in the then-province of Tunja (present-day Boyacá Department), in northeast Colombia. The house probably served as the headquarters of Simón Bolívar, who led patriots to victory over the Spanish in the Battle of Boyacá on August 7, 1819, liberating much of the colony of New Granada. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times ...
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The Engraved Rock of Gámeza, Province of Tundama
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows the Gámeza Rock art in Tundama Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. The caption below the picture says that the great rock once dammed Lake Sogamoso, and that its surface was smoothed by the action of the water. When the rock was dislodged, the resulting flood was a great catastrophe, which the native people recorded in their incised petroglyphs. Sogamoso was once a sacred place of the pre-Columbian Chibcha. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family ...
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National Library of Colombia
White and Mestizo Inhabitants, Tunja Province
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows three inhabitants of Tunja Province (present-day Boyacá Department), northeast Colombia. The caption identifies the individuals as white, or of European ancestry, and Indian mestizo, meaning of mixed European and Indian ancestry. The men carry tools and are engaged in some kind of physical labor. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when still ...
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National Library of Colombia
Notables of the Capital, Province of Tunja
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows three citizens of Tunja, now the capital of Boyacá Department, in northeast Colombia, and at that time both a provincial capital and the name of a province. The man and the two women depicted are well dressed and probably intended by Fernández to be seen as representatives of the prosperous provincial elite. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president ...
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National Library of Colombia
View of the Field of the Battle of Boyacá that Led to the Freedom of the Country, Province of Tunja
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows the site of the Battle of Boyacá, located at a height of some 3,000 meters in Tunja Province (present-day Boyacá Department), in northeast Colombia. Boyacá, which was fought on August 7, 1819, was the decisive battle in the struggle for independence from Spain of the colony of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three ...
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National Library of Colombia