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Relieving Guard at the Vatican
This pencil caricature depicts King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Napoleon III as soldiers changing guard, while Pope Pius IX peers around the corner. The caricature relates to the intricate maneuvering in the mid-19th century among France, Austria, the Papal States, and Italian nationalists that preceded the unification of Italy. French and Austrian troops had been in Rome to protect the Papal States since 1850, when Pius IX began to fear the rise of anti-papal nationalists. In 1858, the Sardinians entered into an agreement with Napoleon III to fight ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Vatican I, Rome, Italy
This photochrome print of Vatican City is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Shown is Saint Peter’s Square (Piazza di San Pietro), which adjoins Saint Peter’s Basilica, one of the world’s largest Christian churches. The church and square are named for the Apostle Peter, the first Bishop of Rome and the first pope. Saint Peter is buried beneath the altar of the basilica. The square, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680), features two ...
Contributed by Library of Congress