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The Historical Theater in the Year 400 AD, in Which Both Romans and Barbarians Resided Side by Side in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire
This map in Latin by the great French mapmaker Guillaume de L’Isle (1675–1726) shows the eastern parts of the Roman Empire circa 400 AD and the territory of adjacent tribes and kingdoms not under Rome’s control. The latter include the Sarmatians and the Scythians, peoples that the Romans regarded as barbarians. Arabia is shown divided into its three traditional divisions, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta. Qatar is indicated as “Catarei.” The eastern part of the map shows the empire of Alexander the Great, including Persia ...
The Kingdom of Serbia, Otherwise Called Rascia
The note in Italian in the cartouche in the lower left-hand corner of this map states that it was “described on the basis of the most exact maps and with the direction of the most recent news by Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola, subject and geographer of the Most Serene Master the Duke of Modena and published by Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi in his printing house at the [Via della] Pace with the authorization of the Pope. Year 1689.” Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola (1643−95) was an Italian geographer and cartographer ...
Wallachia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania
Gerard Mercator (1512–94) was born in Rupelmonde in Flanders (Belgium). His given name was Gerard de Kremer or Cremer. “Mercator,” meaning “merchant,” is a Latinized version of his Flemish last name. He studied philosophy and theology at the University of Leuven, and developed an interest in astronomy and mathematics. He produced his first map, of Palestine, in 1537. He went on to create numerous maps and globes in the course of his long career and is best known for his invention of the Mercator map projection. In 1554 he ...
Turkey in Europe: According to New Observations by the Gentlemen at the Royal Science Academy
Pieter van der Aa (1659−1733) was a Dutch publisher and bookseller, based in Leiden, who specialized in reissuing maps acquired from earlier mapmakers. Van der Aa’s major work was the elaborate Galerie Agréable du Monde (The pleasurable gallery of the world), a compendium of some 3,000 maps in 66 parts, bound in 27 volumes, and completed in 1729. Presented here is van der Aa’s map of the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which in the early 18th century included present-day Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria ...
General Map of European Turkey, Greece and the Ionian Islands
Adrien-Hubert Brué (1786−1832) was a French geographer and cartographer who as a young man accompanied the explorer Nicolas Baudin on his 1800−1803 voyage to New Holland (Australia). Brué returned to France to become an important geographer, associated with the Institut Geographique de Paris and geographer to the king. His Grand atlas universel (Large universal atlas) was first published in 1816 and issued in revised and updated editions in 1825, 1830, and 1838. Shown here is Brué’s map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, Greece, and the Ionian ...
European Turkey as the Theater of War between the Turks and the Russians
This map shows southeastern Europe during the Crimean War (1853−56) that pitted Russia against the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and its allies Britain, France, and Sardinia. The western European powers backed the Turks in order to block Russia’s expansion into the Black Sea region, which they believed threatened their positions in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Many of the war’s major battles were fought on the Crimean Peninsula in southern Russia, which, ironically, is not shown on this early map of the “theater of war.” The conflict ...
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Serbia is Number 20 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Serbia was a powerful medieval kingdom conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1459. The Serbs regained their independence in the ...
Maps of the Middle East and the Near East
Shown here is a large folding map produced by the General Staff of the German Army during World War II. Notes on the map indicate that it was solely for use within the army and that reproduction was prohibited. One side is a large map of the region stretching from the Balkan Peninsula to the eastern part of Iran. Shown are towns and cities by population size, international borders, the borders of republics and provinces within the Soviet Union, major and secondary roads, roads under construction, oil pipelines, mountain passes ...
Marittima Italiana: Bombay Line
Marittima Italiana was an Italian shipping company, established in 1936 as an offshoot of the long-established firm of Lloyd-Triestino, which in the late 1930s operated shipping lines between Italy and east Africa, southern Africa, Asia, and Australia. Shown here is a map of Marittima Italiana’s line from Genoa to Bombay (Mumbai), India. Distances are given for the different sections of the route: from Genoa to Naples, Naples to Port Said, Port Said to Aden, and Aden to Bombay. Inset maps show these five ports and the Suez Canal, with ...
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Zenith: International Review of Arts and Culture, Number 1, February 1921
Zenit (Zenith) was the most important avant-garde magazine published in the former Yugoslavia and one of the most significant publications of the broader European avant-garde movement of the early 20th century. It was launched in February 1921 by the artist Ljubomir Micić (1895-1971) and published monthly in Zagreb and Belgrade until December 1926, when it was banned by the authorities. A total of 43 issues were published, as well as one poster, “Zenitismus,” and one issue of a daily Zenit newspaper dated September 23, 1922. “Zenitism” was an avant-garde movement ...
Miroslav’s Gospel is a liturgical work that is considered the most important and the most beautiful of Serbian manuscript books. It was created around 1180 by two student monks for Duke Miroslav, the brother of Stefan Nemanja, grand prince of the medieval Serbian state of Rascia. Written on parchment in Cyrillic uncial (the Cyrillic script that developed from Greek in the 9th century), it is a monument to early Serbian literacy. The work is decorated with approximately 300 stylized miniatures of outstanding beauty, and is representative of a group ...
University, Belgrade, Servia
This photochrome print of Kapetan Misino zdanje (Captain Misa's building) in Belgrade, Serbia, is part of “Views of Belgrade, Serbia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. Built between 1858 and 1863, the structure was designed by Czech architect Jan Nevole (1812-1903). It was intended to be the residence of the wealthy merchant and proponent of education, Captain Misa Anastasijevic, who donated it to the city on the condition that it be used for educational and cultural pursuits. The building, with its many domes and portals, recalls the ...
Landing Place and Cathedral, Belgrade, Servia
This photochrome print of Belgrade as seen from the neighborhood of Kalemegdan is part of “Views of Belgrade, Serbia” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. At the top of the hill is the Saborna Crkva (Cathedral church), the great Serbian Orthodox cathedral dedicated to St. Michael, built by Prince Miloš Obrenović in 1837-40. The waterway is the Sava River, which flows into the Danube River. The “landing space,” or the port of Sava, played a role in Belgrade's history since the Roman occupation in the 3rd century ...
Serbian Concert and Exhibition
This World War I poster advertises a concert and art exhibition to take place in Paris on June 17–18, 1916, for the benefit of Serbia. The poster depicts a classical female figure with a crown of thorns around her feet, presumably representing Serbia, and lists the officers and members of the organizing committee for the event. The president of the committee was Princess Alexis Karageorgevitch, a non-reigning member of the Serbian royal family. The Kingdom of Serbia suffered heavy military and civilian losses during the war. The European conflict ...
Serbia Day. June 25, 1916
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed deep into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading ...
Serbia Day. June 25, 1916
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, shows a group of Serbian civilians and soldiers as they head into the mountains. When invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany pushed into Serbia in 1915, they occupied the capital city of Belgrade, and drove the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman ...
Serbia Day, June 25, 1916. Anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman ...
Save the Serbians from Cholera
This World War I poster, issued in New York in 1918 to raise funds for the Franco-Serbian Field Hospital of America, shows the figure of Death reaching down from storm clouds to menace a devastated populace. Of all the belligerents on either side in the war, Serbia suffered the highest number of military deaths as a share of the population: 22.7 percent killed of all males between the ages of 15 and 47, and 5.7 percent killed of the total population. War-related casualties were compounded by the effects ...
Map of the Gulf of Catarro
This 18th-century Spanish maritime map shows the Gulf of Kotor, a fjord-like body of water located on the eastern side of the Adriatic Sea. The map is part of the Library of Congress’s collection of Spanish navigation maps, acquired from Maggs Brothers, London. The map shows depths in soundings and is oriented with north at the lower right. The phrase “Del Ferro” in the upper left refers to Ferro Island, the southwestern-most of the Canary Islands, that was used in 18th-century maps as the prime meridian. Also shown is ...
Slavonia, Croatia, Bosnia, and a part of Dalmatia
Gerard Mercator’s 1590 Sclavonia, Croatia, Bosnia cum Dalmatiae parte (Slavonia, Croatia, Bosnia, and a part of Dalmatia) is the best representation of Bosnia made up to that time. One of the oldest items in the cartographic collections of the National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the map was published by the well-known Blaeu firm in Amsterdam. Shown are villages, towns, rivers, and mountains. The scale is in German miles. The map is in Latin, but it gives place names in the languages of the region, which include ...