16 results in English
Java and Australia
This manuscript map of Java and the tip of northern Australia is a copy of an earlier work by the Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). In the 16th century, Portugal sent several expeditions to explore the islands south of Malaysia; it is possible that they gained some knowledge about the geography of Australia from these missions. Some scholars have speculated that the Malays had a knowledge of Australia, which Eredia somehow absorbed. The first documented European sighting of Australia was by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606.
Fortress of Dio: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the fortress of Diu, located on an island off the northwest coast of India. In 1509, the Portuguese defeated the forces of the Sultan of Gujarat in the Battle of Diu, thereby securing dominance over trade routes in the Indian Ocean. Construction of this fortress-garrison complex began in 1535, under an agreement with the sultan, but the agreement fell apart and the sultan’s troops attacked the fort in 1537. The fortress was reconstructed in 1545 by João de Castro (1500-48), a Portuguese naval commander and the ...
Fortress of Chaul: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the fortress of Chaul, one of Portugal’s defense complexes along the western coast of India. The Portuguese first settled at Chaul in 1521 and constructed a fort, which was rebuilt several times. The structure shown in this drawing most likely is the one built in 1613, which featured expanded defense works.
The Lusiads
Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is the national epic of Portugal. Written by the poet, soldier, and sailor Luís de Camões (circa 1524–80) and first published in 1572, it celebrates the great Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469–1524) and the achievements of Portugal (known during the Roman Empire as the province of Lusitania, hence the title) and its people in venturing out into the Atlantic, rounding the tip of Africa, and forging a path to the East Indies. Manuel de Faria e Sousa (1590–1649) was a Portuguese historian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Spain and Portugal, Corrected and Augmented from the Map Published by D. Tomas Lopez
Tomás López (1730-1802) was a Spanish cartographer who was sent by the Spanish government to Paris for a number of years to learn cartography and engraving from the great French mapmaker Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697-1782). In 1804, López published his Atlas Geográfico de España (Geographical atlas of Spain), the first atlas of Spain produced by a Spaniard. López’s children republished this work in a new edition in 1810, and again in 1830.
The National Library Songbook
Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional (The National Library songbook) is a compilation of 1,560 Portuguese-Galician troubadour poems from the 12th−14th centuries. The poems are preceded by an incomplete text, Arte de trovar (Art of poetry), which gives practical guidance on composition of this kind of poetry, with a general picture of the rules of the genres developed by the minstrels and troubadours for their poems. Also known as the Colocci-Brancuti Songbook, the codex was made in Italy around 1525−26 by order of Angelo Colocci (1474−1549), an Italian ...
The Lusiads
Presented here is the first printed edition of Os Lusiadas (The Lusiads), the national epic of Portugal, published in Lisbon in 1572. Composed by the poet, soldier, and sailor Luís de Camões (circa 1524−80), the poem celebrates the great Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469−1524) and the achievements of Portugal and its people in venturing out into the Atlantic, rounding the tip of Africa, and forging a path to India. The poem is comprised of ten cantos, each with a variable number of stanzas. Each stanza is written ...
New Map Showing the Spanish and Portuguese Explorations with Observations of the Most Ingenious Geographers of Spain and Portugal
This map, showing the southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula, was published in Amsterdam by François Halma (1653-1722), a Dutch bookseller and publisher who started a business in Utrecht, later moved to Amsterdam, and finally settled in Leeuwarden. In addition to publishing maps, Halma produced one of the earliest Dutch-French dictionaries.
Portuguese Possessions in Oceania
This book by Affonso de Castro, an infantry captain in the Portuguese Army who served as governor of East Timor (present-day Timor-Leste) from 1859 to 1863, is one of the earliest historical studies of this former Portuguese colony. The work is in two parts. The first part examines the history of East Timor from its occupation by the Portuguese in the 16th century, and recounts Queen Mena's conversion to Christianity and the disputes with the Dutch over the region. In the second part of the study, the author examines ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Conquest of the Malukus
This is the first edition, published in Madrid in 1609, of a work that recounts in detail the struggle among Portugal, Spain, and local kings and sultans for control of the Maluku (Moluccan) Islands in the 16th century. Also called the Spice Islands, the Maluku are part of present-day Indonesia. Among the individuals who figure in the story are the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the English privateer Sir Francis Drake, and King Tabariji of Ternate. The author of this work, Bartolomé Leonardo de Argensola (1562-1631), was a priest who served ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Current and Precise Description of Portugal, Which Was Once Lusitania, by Fernando Alvarez Seco
Fernando Alvares Seco (fl. 1561-85) was a Portuguese mathematician and cartographer who made the first known map of Portugal. It was engraved by Sebastiano del Re and published in Rome in 1561. Abraham Ortelius (1527-98) later reprinted the map in his Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theater of the world), which was first published in May 1570. Ortelius was a cartographer and map publisher from Antwerp. From 1564 to 1570, he made maps of his own, but in 1570 turned to publishing the Theatrum. Known as the world’s first atlas, this ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kingdom of Algarve
This 18th-century map, most likely a reprint from an early-19th century French atlas, shows the Kingdom of the Algarve. In 1249, King Alfonso III of Portugal completed the reconquest of southern Portugal from the Moors. Thereafter, Alfonso took to calling himself the King of Portugal and the Algarves. The Algarve, which corresponds to the present-day region of Faro, retained a semi-autonomous existence under Portuguese rule until 1910, when it was merged into the newly proclaimed Republic of Portugal. The Algarve was famous as the location from which, in Sagres, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Modern Map of Spain
Nova Hispaniae Descriptio (A modern map of Spain) is the first map bordered by cartouches, one of the most attractive developments of 17th century Dutch cartography. Cartouches were used to supplement the geographical information provided by a map as well as to add aesthetic appeal. In this map, which is based on a plate made by Gerard Mercator (1512–94), the cartographic image is surrounded by plans, city views, and characters in the dress of the day. The top margin includes views of the cities of Alhama, Granada, Bilbao, Burgos ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Atlas of the Azores and Madeira Islands
This 16th-century pen-and-ink watercolor map, from an atlas of Madeira and the Azores, shows the island of Madeira. This island was discovered in 1419 by captains sailing for Prince Henry the Navigator and was colonized shortly thereafter. This detailed map shows the island’s many ports.
General Map of the City of Lisbon, 1785
This detailed map of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon, is the work of cartographer Franc D. Milient. In 1755, Lisbon was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake followed by a tidal wave. The chief minister at that time, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (1699-1782), also known as the first Marquis of Pombal, decided to raze what remained of the city center and rebuild it according to contemporary ideas about urban planning. The reconstruction can be seen in this map, which shows the orderly layout of the downtown along a grid ...
Map of the Fortress of Mozambique with New Works Projected for Better Defense
This manuscript map shows the fortress of San Sebastian on the Island of Mozambique, a small but strategic island off the coast of the African mainland. The fortress was built in the 16th century by the Portuguese, who developed the island into a major trading port. The structure was constructed in an Italianate style out of local materials, and incorporated an intricate system of collecting rainwater, needed to compensate for the island's lack of fresh water. This map was drawn in 1741, as the Portuguese were planning a renovation ...