42 results in English
The First Russian Book Printer, 1583
This book, published in Kiev in 1895, is a short biography of Ivan Fyodorov (circa 1510–83), intended for the general reader. Along with Schweipolt Fiol and Francysk Skaryna, Fyodorov was one of the fathers of printing in the East Slavic region. He graduated from Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, and later worked in Moscow, where he published liturgical works using movable type, the first books printed in Russia. He was driven from Moscow by scribes who feared competition from his innovation and fled to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ...
The Cultural and National Movement in Ukraine in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Mykhailo Hrushevs’kyi (1866–1934) was a professor of history and a leading political figure in Ukraine, who served as chairman of the Ukrainian Central Council at the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This work, published in 1912, is devoted to the national and cultural movement of Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries and the formation of a Ukrainian national consciousness. Much of the book deals with relations between Ukraine and Poland and their effect on the formation of a Ukrainian state. The author describes a decline ...
Carpathian Ruthenia
This album, probably published in about 1920, contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. The photographs depict the wooden churches that were central to the practice of Uniate Christianity (combining Roman Catholicism with the Eastern Rite), to which most Ruthenians converted from Eastern Orthodoxy ...
Compilation of Images of Ancient Objects from Private Collections in Kiev
This collection of images was put together by the Kiev amateur archaeologist Nikolaj Leopardov and numismatist Nikolaj Černev, who also collaborated in writing the introduction and explanatory texts. The images of crosses, icons, and other religious items and brief descriptions of them are included in Part I of the book. Part II contains the images of objects from the Bronze Age, mostly axes and knives, and Jewish Cabalistic amulets and coins. Part III contains the images and description of some of the thousands of medieval lead commercial seals from Drohiczyn ...
Torun'. Wooden Church
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Shown here is the bell tower of the Church of Our Lady at Torun` built in 1809. The town is in Mizhhiria District, in ...
Torun'. Village
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. This village scene shows the town of Torun` in Mizhhiria District, in eastern Carpathian Ruthenia. Both houses and churches have steeply pitched roofs with ...
Carpathian Ruthenia. Ceramics
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Ceramics have been one of the crafts of Carpathian Ruthenia for centuries, as the region has large deposits of kaolin (china clay). Decorated pottery ...
Map of Poland: Outlining Its Provinces and Voivodeships, 1772
Because the territory of present-day Belarus was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and, since the end of the 18th century, part of the Russian Empire, the history of the mapping of the Belarusian lands is closely connected with the development of cartography in Western Europe and in Russia. Józef Aleksander Jabłonowski, governor of the town of Novogrudok (present-day Belarus), was an avid collector of cartographic works. Under Jabłonowski’s supervision and with his financial support, the Italian cartographer Giovanni Antonio Rizzi-Zannoni created the ...
Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest lies partly in southwest Belarus and partly in eastern Poland and is situated on the watershed of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. As early as the late 14th–early 15th centuries, under Jogaila, grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland, Białowieża, which is still the largest primeval forest in Europe, became a protected natural territory. This book by Georgīĭ Kart︠s︡ov contains information about the location and size of the forest, its topography, vegetation, and the history of royal hunting from the 1500s to ...
Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the Originals in the Treasury Collection
Icones Familiae Ducalis Radivilianae ex originalibus in Ganzophylacio ordinationis desumptae (Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the originals in the Treasury Collection) is an album containing 165 portraits of the members of the Radzivill family from the period 1346–1780. The Radzivills produced more outstanding political, church, military, and cultural figures than any other family in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 15th century, the duchy ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and ...
Marie Curie
Marie Curie, neé Manya Sklodowska (1867–1934), was born in Warsaw. She immigrated to France in 1891 and studied at the Sorbonne. She worked with her husband, Pierre Curie (1859–1906), also a student and later professor at the Sorbonne, on magnetism and radioactivity. The Curies and French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852–1908) shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery of radioactivity. After her husband’s death, Marie succeeded to his university chair. In 1911 she won a second Nobel, the prize for chemistry, for her ...
Memoirs and Travels of Mauritius Augustus Count de Benyowsky: Consisting of His Military Operations in Poland, His Exile into Kamchatka, His Escape and Voyage from that Peninsula through the Northern Pacific Ocean, Touching at Japan and Formosa, to Canton in China, with an Account of the French Settlement He Was Appointed to Form upon the Island of Madagascar
Maurice Benyowsky (1741 or 1746-1786) was born near Trnava in present-day Slovakia, at the time part of Hungary and the Austrian Empire. After service in the Austrian Army, he joined a Polish nationalist movement fighting for freedom against Russia. He was arrested and exiled to Kamchatka in the Russian Far East. He escaped captivity and undertook an expedition to explore Kamchatka and the North Pacific. In 1772, he made his way to France, where he secured permission from King Louis XV to establish trading posts on Madagascar. In Paris, he ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Modern Geographic Table of Geography
Antoine du Pérac Lafréry (1512-77) was a French engraver who settled in Rome, probably in the early 1540s, where he became a celebrated publisher of maps. Lafréry assembled and bound collections of maps from various sources, which he sold under the title Tavole moderne di geografia...di diversi autori raccolte et messe secondo l’ordine di Tolemeo (Modern geographical maps...from various authors, collected and organized according to Ptolemy’s geographical order). This work dates from around 1575, a few years after Abraham Ortelius, working in Antwerp, published the first ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Map of the Russian Empire and the Neighboring Polish Empire and Grand Duchy of Finland: With the Distance in Versts on Postal Roads Between Provincial Cities; and in Boundary Provinces from the Provincial City
This 1827 map of the Russian Empire is from a larger work, Geographical Atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland (Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo), containing 61 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (five gradations by size), fortresses, redoubts, plants and factories, roads (four types ...
The Iron Bridge, Warsaw, Russia (i.e. Warsaw, Poland)
This photochrome print of Warsaw is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites Primarily in Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). It depicts the 512-meter bridge, previously known as the Alexander Bridge, constructed by Stanislaw Kierbedz (1810–99) in 1859–65. The first iron bridge to span the Vistula River, Kierbedz’s work was an early manifestation of Warsaw’s urbanization and industrialization. Baedeker’s Russia with Teheran, Port Arthur, and Peking (1914) described the structure as “an iron girder-bridge supported ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kingdom of Poland
This early-19th century playing card is from a set of 60 such cards, each devoted to a different province or territory of the Russian Empire, which at the time included the Grand Duchy of Finland, Congress Poland, and Russian America. One side of each card shows the local costume and the provincial coat of arms; the other side contains a map. This card depicts the Kingdom of Poland, located in part of present-day Poland, and bordered by Prussia to the northwest and the Austrian Empire to the south. Poland lost ...
Grodno Province
This early-19th century playing card is from a set of 60 such cards, each devoted to a different province or territory of the Russian Empire, which at the time included the Grand Duchy of Finland, Congress Poland, and Russian America. One side of each card shows the local costume and the provincial coat of arms; the other side contains a map. This card depicts Grodno Province, located in the western part of the empire, in present-day Belarus. To the southwest, the province bordered the Kingdom of Poland, which was then ...
Belostok Region
This early-19th century playing card is from a set of 60 such cards, each devoted to a different province or territory of the Russian Empire, which at the time included the Grand Duchy of Finland, Congress Poland, and Russian America. One side of each card shows the local costume and the provincial coat of arms; the other side contains a map. This card depicts the Belostok Region, located in the western part of the empire, bordering on Poland. Belostok was acquired by Russia from Prussia in 1807, under the terms ...
Following the Paths of Our Fathers in the Ranks of the Polish Army for Motherland and Freedom
This World War I poster shows a winged knight on a horse, heading into battle. The text, in English and Polish, encourages men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. Thus, there was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting Britain, France, and Russia against the Central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Don't Be Fooled, Stay with Germany!
This poster, published in Berlin in 1919, shows a Polish man sitting on a Polish border gate and gesturing to a couple to go to Poland. Behind him are clouds forming an image of a man with plenty to eat. The couple on the German side of the border walks by; the arm of the German man is raised as if to shield the couple from the image, and the text warns, “Don't be fooled, stay with Germany!” Following the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poles! Kościuszko and Pułaski Fought for the Liberty of Poland and Other Nations. Follow Their Example. Enlist in the Polish Army!
This World War I poster invokes the memory of two illustrious Poles who fought in the American Revolution, Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817) and Kazimierz Pułaski (1747–79), to encourage men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. There thus was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Polish Victims' Relief Fund. Most Holy Virgin of Częstochowa Help Us
This World War I poster, published in Britain in 1915, shows refugees outside a devastated town, gazing up at an apparition of Our Lady of Częstochowa. The text appeals for donations to help victims of the fighting in Poland. When the war broke out, Poland was part of the Russian Empire. Russia, at war with Germany, invaded the German enclave of East Prussia from Polish territory in August 1914, but after initial successes, was defeated at the August 26–30 Battle of Tannenberg. Germany and its ally Austria-Hungary launched an ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
This is What the Polish Emigrants Look Like
This 1919 poster was produced as part of the campaign to convince ethnic Germans in Upper Silesia to vote to keep the province German after World War I. The poster appeals to German voters by depicting destitute ethnic Germans leaving Poland. The complete text reads: “This is what the Polish emigrants look like, and you'll look like this too if Silesia becomes part of Poland. Upper Silesians! Stay with the new Germany!” Located in present-day southwestern Poland, Upper Silesia was originally a Polish territory that over the centuries passed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
This is What it Would Be Like for Us in Poland! We Farmers Vote for Germany!
Following the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I, the victorious Allies re-established an independent Polish state. Disputes arose between Germany and Poland about the demarcation of borders and the ownership of regions populated by both Poles and Germans. To resolve these disputes, the Allies mandated several popular referenda in which voters were asked to decide whether they wanted to be part of Germany or of Poland. This 1920 poster produced in Berlin was part of the German campaign to convince rural voters to opt for Germany. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Polish Victims' Relief Fund
This World War I poster, published in Britain in 1915, shows refugees with children, carrying their possessions as they flee past a burning village. The text appeals for contributions to the Polish Victims' Relief Fund with the words: “The homeless women and children of Poland are far, but need they be far from your hearts? Pray help us to help them!” The honorary secretary of the fund is listed as Miss Laurence Alma Tadema, the daughter of the painter Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912). Poland was part of the Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Map of the Polish Empire, Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Miles Between Them: According to the Latest Verified Data in St. Petersburg in 1820
This 1820 map of the Polish Empire, then part of the Russian Empire, is from a larger work, Geographical Atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland (Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo), containing 61 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations ...
Warsaw - Place Krasinski
This photograph of Warsaw is from the George Grantham Bain Collection at the Library of Congress. The collection contains approximately 40,000 glass plate negatives and 50,000 photographic prints, most dating from the 1900s to the mid-1920s. Bain, who was born in 1865 and died in 1944, founded the New York-based Bain News Service in 1898. Specializing in news about New York City, and to a lesser degree the eastern United States, Bain distributed its own pictures and those purchased from other commercial agencies to about 100 newspapers. While ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lublin Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Liublinskaia guberniia (Lublin Province) depicted ...
Radomsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Radomskaia guberniia (Radom Province) depicted ...
Warsaw Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Varshavskaia guberniia (Warsaw Province) depicted ...
Plotsk Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Plotskaia guberniia (Plotsk Province) depicted ...
Kingdom of Poland
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. The Kingdom of Poland depicted ...
Grodno Province
This card is one of a souvenir set of 82 illustrated cards–one for each province of the Russian Empire as it existed in 1856. Each card presents an overview of a particular province’s culture, history, economy, and geography. The front of the card depicts such distinguishing features as rivers, mountains, major cities, and chief industries. The back of each card contains a map of the province, the provincial seal, information about the population, and a picture of the local costume of the inhabitants. Grodnenskaia guberniia (Grodno Province) depicted ...
Ornaments of Domestic Industry: Ruthenian Peasant Metalwork
Vzory promyslu domashnogo vyroby metalevi selian na Rusi (Ornaments of domestic industry: Ruthenian peasant metalwork) is one of a series of books published by the Industrial Museum in L’viv (present-day Ukraine), this one appearing in 1882. The explanatory text appears in Polish, Ruthenian (a predecessor of modern Ukrainian), German, and French, and it highlights the art and aesthetic taste shown in everyday objects. The book’s focus is the Hutsuls, a people of the Carpathian Mountains, mainly in western and southwestern Ukraine, but also northern Romania and eastern Poland ...
East and West Prussia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. East and West Prussia is Number 39 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study deals with the two provinces of Prussia located along the coast of the Baltic Sea ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Upper Silesia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Silesia is Number 40 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Silesia, also known as Oppeln, was one of three government districts in the Prussian province of Silesia, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Austrian Poland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Austrian Poland is Number 46 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Austrian Poland, most of which was known as Galicia, came under the control of Austria with the first partition ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poland: General Sketch of History, 1569-1815
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Poland: General Sketch of History 1569−1815 is Number 43 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book provides an overview of the history of Poland from the 16th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Prussian Poland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Prussian Poland is Number 45 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Prussian Poland, also known as the province of Poznania or the Grand Duchy of Posen, was that part of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Russian Poland, Lithuania and White Russia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Russian Poland, Lithuania and White Russia is Number 44 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study deals with parts of the Kingdom of Poland acquired by Russia in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
What Crackle, What Thunder
This World War I propaganda poster by Kazimir Malevich refers to a battle near Lomza (present-day Poland), where despite initial success, the Russians suffered heavy losses. A heroic Russian peasant figure slashing German soldiers with his scythe dominates the view. His traditional dress and lapti (woven bark shoes) seem to epitomize Russia’s strength and invincibility. German soldiers are running away or lie dead. Under the picture is a verse by Vladimir Mayakovsky that reads: “What crackle, what thunder there was from the Germans at Lomza!” In the early stages ...
A Sausage Maker Came to Lodz. We Said to Him: "Welcome, Sir!...”
This World War I propaganda poster, by Kazimir Malevich in collaboration with Vladimir Mayakovsky, depicts a Russian peasant and the German Army he is portrayed as having defeated. The oversized peasant on the left panel is greeting the German emperor, who moves towards him with his army of cheerful soldiers, confident of victory. On the right side, the peasant walks away after having crushed the enemy. With his army destroyed, the emperor is dismayed. The verse by Mayakovsky below the images reads: “A sausage maker came to Lodz. We said ...