31 results in English
Convention on the International Status of Refugees
This document is the original typewritten text of the Convention on the International Status of Refugees, which was concluded on October 28, 1933, by five countries—Belgium, Bulgaria, Egypt, France, and Norway—and subsequently adhered to by a number of others. The convention was the most far-reaching attempt on the part of the League of Nations to define the responsibilities of states towards refugees. It grew out of four multilateral League arrangements that were adopted between 1922 and 1928 in response to refugee problems caused by World War I and ...
Negotiating Table of the Locarno Treaties
The Locarno Conference of October 1925, named for the small city in southern Switzerland where it was held, is remembered for the agreement known as the Locarno Pact. Signed by France, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy, the treaty guaranteed Germany’s western frontier, which the bordering states of France, Germany, and Belgium pledged to treat as inviolable. Britain and Italy promised to help in repelling any armed aggression across the frontier. The Rhineland, a part of Germany occupied by the victorious Allied Powers after World War I, was permanently ...
Locarno Treaties: Treaty between Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Italy
The document presented here is the archival copy of the treaty concluded by the governments of Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain, and Italy in the city of Locarno, Switzerland, on October 16, 1925. The final page contains the diplomatic seals and the signatures of the representatives of the five signatory powers, who included Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann of Germany, Foreign Minister Aristide Briand of France, and Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin of Great Britain. The text is in French. Also known as the Locarno Pact, the treaty guaranteed Germany’s western ...
The League of Nations: A Pictoral Survey
The League of Nations: A Pictoral Survey is a small book, published in 1925 by the Information Section of the League Secretariat and updated in 1928, intended to educate the general public about the nature and purpose of the League. It explains the organizational structure of the League and its main institutions—Assembly, Council, and Permanent Secretariat—and associated bodies such as the International Labour Organisation and the Permanent Court of International Justice. A flow chart on page nine shows the relationship between the executive and legislative bodies of the ...
International Conference Regarding the Use of Esperanto
Esperanto is a synthetic language devised by Polish eye doctor Ludwik Lazar Zamenhof (1859–1917), who in 1887 published a pamphlet in Russian, Polish, French, and German describing Esperanto and proposing it as an easy-to-learn second language. An international Esperanto movement developed in the 1890s, culminating in the first world congress of Esperanto speakers in 1905. After World War I, the League of Nations considered adopting Esperanto as a working language and recommending that it be taught in schools, but proposals along these lines were vetoed by France. The League ...
Disarmament Conference, Geneva, 1933
Sixty countries sent delegates to the Disarmament Conference that convened in Geneva in February 1932 to consider reductions in armaments, with particular emphasis on offensive weapons. Germany, whose army and navy already were limited by the Treaty of Versailles, demanded that other states disarm to German levels and, in the event they refused to do so, claimed a right to build up its armed forces. France, which feared the revival of German power, argued that security must precede disarmament and called for security guarantees and the establishment of an international ...
Transfer of the League of Nations to the United Nations, Ceremony with Sean Lester and Wlodzimierz Moderow
By the end of World War II, 43 countries technically were still members of the League of Nations, but the organization, which had been established after World War I to prevent another great war but had failed in this mission, for all practical purposes had ceased to exist. A new international organization, the United Nations, came into being with the signature, in San Francisco on June 26, 1945, of the Charter of the United Nations. At the initiative of the British Foreign Office, the League held a final Assembly (the ...
The Austrian Circle
The Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) was organized, beginning in the early 1500s, into ten Imperial Circles, each of which had its own diet or parliament, and which had certain responsibilities with regard to defense, tax collection, and other functions. (Some territories of the empire, for example, Bohemia and parts of Italy, were not grouped in circles.) This late-18th century French map shows the Austrian Circle, which largely coincided with those lands ruled by the House of Habsburg from Vienna. In addition to Austria proper, the Austrian Circle included parts of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tonhalle: Exhibition of Works by German Prisoners of War Interned in Switzerland
This poster advertises an exhibition of artwork by interned German prisoners of war at the Tonhalle in Zurich, Switzerland, in May–June 1918. The location, times of opening, and the entry fee of 20 pfennigs are indicated. Exhibition proceeds were to benefit a Bavarian organization that assisted prisoners of war. The poster features the image of a German soldier who seems to be lost in thought, seated in front of the symbol for the Red Cross. Under arrangements worked out by the Red Cross in late 1914 and implemented starting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chalet Suisse, Bernese Oberland, Switzerland
This photochrome print of a Swiss chalet in the Bernese highlands is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The chalet style of lodging was typified by its rustic, unpainted wooden architecture, which usually included a second-story balcony made of flat boards with cut-out designs. Traditionally 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 stories, chalets were designed to accommodate not only a farm family, but the family’s livestock, which were kept on the ground level. These chalets were typically surrounded by trees to protect ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lucerne, Hotel du Lac, Pilatus, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the Hotel du Lac in Lucerne is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The hotel was situated on the left bank of Lake Lucerne, which Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) characterized as “unsurpassed in Switzerland in magnificence and variety of scenery.” The hotel stood against a backdrop of mountains, in particular the imposing Pilatus, which Baedeker described as “the lofty mountain rising boldly on the W. side of the lake ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Clock Tower, Berne, Town, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the clock tower (Zeitglockenturm) in Bern is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This tower, with its gilded face, was constructed in 1191 as the old city’s western gate. Over time, the tower also came to function as a city guard tower and a prison. The tower was rebuilt in the 15th century, at which point baroque embellishments were added. The tower’s signature astronomical clock was constructed by Kasper Brunner in 1527. Baedeker’s Switzerland and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Spalenthor, Basle, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the Spalenthor in Basle (Bâle) is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) characterized this tower, which was built around 1400, as “the handsomest of the remaining gates of Bâle.” Located in the St. Paul suburb near the border between Switzerland and France, this tower, with its tiled roof, was one of the two main gates of Basle. It originally served as an outer city defense ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tonhalle, I., Zurich, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the Tonhalle in Zurich is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This concert hall was constructed to house the Tonhalle Orchestra, which was founded in 1868. The 1913 edition of Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol described the hall as “[an] effective building erected in 1893-95, with café-restaurant, open-air terraces, and large concert-rooms." Cook’s Tourist Handbook for Switzerland (1908) described it as “a palatial establishment, near the lake, with restaurant, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
From Peter Church, with Fraumünster and Alpenkette, Zurich, Switzerland
This photochrome print of Zurich as seen from the St. Peter’s Church is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The church dates from the Middle Ages and, according to Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913), had “[a] massive tower and large electric clock.” The print shows a small section of Zurich, with a view of the Alps in the background, the Limmat River, which flows into Lake Zurich, and two bridges, including the four-arched ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Town Hall, Berne, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the town hall in Bern is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) described the building as the “Rathaus or Cantonal Hall, erected in 1406-16 in the Burgundian late-Gothic style, with a modern facade approached by a covered flight of steps, and adorned with the arms of the Bernese districts.” This structure still serves as the seat of the cantonal Grand Council in Bern.
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Gall, from Rosenberg, Switzerland
This photochrome print of St. Gall (St. Gallen) from the Rosenberg district is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). St. Gall is a hilly, historic city located in the canton of the same name in northeastern Switzerland. Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) informed readers that St. Gall was "one of the highest of the larger towns of Europe, capital of the canton, and an episcopal see,” and also “one of the chief industrial ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Grindelwald, Hotel Eiger, Bernese Oberland, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the Hotel Eiger in Grindelwald is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) characterized Grindelwald, a town located in the Bernese highlands, as "[an] excellent starting-point for excursions and a favorite summer and winter retreat." Baedeker marveled at the view of Grindelwald with its “grand ampitheatre of mountains and glaciers.” Among the mountains surrounding the town is the Eiger, the imposing 3975-meter peak for which the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chillon Castle, Montreux, Geneva Lake, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the Chillon Castle is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located in southwestern Switzerland on the shore of Lake Geneva in Montreux, this castle was first mentioned in written sources in the 12th century. Its exact date of construction is unknown. Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) informed readers that “[the] Castle of Chillon, with its massive walls and towers . . . stands on an isolated rock [1.8 meters] from the banks ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wengern Alp, Cheese Dairy, Cowkeeper Milking Cow, Bernese Oberland, Switzerland
This photochrome print of a cowkeeper at a cheese dairy in the Wengern Alp is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located in the Bernese highlands near Wengen in central Switzerland, the Wengern Alp is an elevated meadow that in the 19th century was a popular attraction where tourists marveled at the view. The Wengern Alp was also a summer cattle-grazing ground. Farmers would lead their cows to the meadow and keep them there for about one hundred days. Farmers and hired ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Winter Scene with Log Structure, Grisons, Switzerland
This photochrome print of a chalet in Grisons is part of “Nineteenth Century Travel Views of Europe" from the catalog of the Photoglob Company (1895). Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) noted that Grisons “consists of an immense network of mountains . . . and it is remarkable for the variety of its scenery, climate, and productions." Located in the eastern region of the country, Grisons borders Italy and Liechtenstein and is the largest canton in Switzerland. The chalet depicted here is traditionally Swiss, as typified ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lugano, San Salvatore, Tessin, Switzerland
This photochrome print of Mount San Salvatore in the canton of Ticino (Tessin) is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This 912-meter peak is located near Lugano, the largest town in Ticino. Baedeker’s Northern Italy including Leghorn, Florence, Ravenna and routes through France, Switzerland, and Austria (1913) advised travelers that “the curiously shaped summit to the S. of Lugano commands a celebrated panorama” and that the finest excursion from Lugano was to the mountain.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lausanne, General View, Geneva Lake, Switzerland
This photochrome print of Lausanne is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located in southwestern Switzerland, Lausanne is the second largest city on the shore of Lake Geneva after Geneva itself. It is also the capital of the canton Vaud. Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) characterized Lausanne as “picturesquely situated on the hillside." The site of a Roman military camp in around 15 BCE called Lousanna, the city evolved over time, with a large ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lugano
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lugano
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lugano
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panoramic View of Lake Geneva and Monument of Duke of Brunswick
This panoramic photograph shows Lake Geneva, Switzerland, as it appeared in the early 20th century. Panoramic photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. The Boston office of the Notman Photo Co. copyrighted the photograph in 1909. The Notman firm was founded by William Notman (1826-91), a Scottish-born Canadian photographer who opened a studio in Montreal in 1856. Notman eventually became the largest photographic business in North America, with, at one time or another, seven studios in Canada and 19 in the northeastern United States ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lake Lucerne
This panoramic photograph shows Lake Lucerne, Switzerland, as it appeared in the early 20th century. Panoramic photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This view is comprised of three photographs spliced together to provide a broader image than would be possible with a single photograph. The Boston office of the Notman Photo Co. copyrighted the photograph in 1909. The Notman firm was founded by William Notman (1826-1891), a Scottish-born Canadian photographer who opened a studio in Montreal in 1856. Notman eventually became the largest ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gospel Book
This manuscript originated in the monastery of Saint Gall in eastern Switzerland in the late-ninth or early tenth century. Because of its typical style of decoration, it has been ascribed to the "Sintram Group" of manuscripts, after the scribe and calligrapher Sintram, who was active at Saint Gall in the ninth century and whose handwriting was known and admired in much of Europe. This decoration consists of an impressive script in monumental (square) capitals, the interspaces of which are filled with gold and silver, two-line rustic capitals, and uncial script ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Psalter from the Nonnberg Convent, Salzburg
This psalter originated in the Upper Rhine region in around 1250–60. It exemplifies the art of representing saints within psalter initials. Because the saints are not accompanied by descriptions, only a few of those portrayed can be identified with certainty based on their attributes, such as Saint Catherine holding her wheel and Saint George slaying the dragon. In accordance with tradition, David is displayed with his harp inside the initial at the beginning of the psalter; above him is the symbol of the Holy Spirit, the dove. Gold and ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
The Qur’an in the Earliest Printed Version, with the Life and Teachings of Muhammad and Other Works
This volume contains the first-ever printing of the Qur’an, presented in the 12th-century Latin translation by the English scholar Robert of Ketton. This translation was commissioned by Abbot Peter the Venerable of the monastery of Cluny in France, who was also responsible for monasteries in Spain. Islam was still a strong presence in Spain in the 1300s, although Muslim control of the Iberian Peninsula was waning. When this edition was printed 400 years later, Islam was again a pressing concern for Christian authorities: in 1529 the Ottoman Turkish sultan ...