- 1800 CE - 1849 CE (15)
- 1850 CE - 1899 CE (15)
- 500 CE - 1499 CE (5)
- 1900 CE - 1949 CE (4)
- 8000 BCE - 499 CE (3)
- 1500 CE - 1699 CE (3)
- 1700 CE - 1799 CE (3)
- History & geography (12)
- Religion (8)
- Social sciences (8)
- Language (5)
- Literature (5)
- Science (3)
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- Arts & recreation (1)
- Orthodox Eastern Church (5)
- Arabian Gulf (4)
- Arabian Peninsula (4)
- Balkan Peninsula (4)
- Bible. New Testament (4)
- Bulgarian language (4)
- Bulgarian literature (4)
- Calendars (4)
- Liturgies (4)
- Persian Gulf (4)
- Bulgarian Orthodox Church (3)
- Illuminations (3)
- Saints (3)
- Textbooks (3)
- Aprilov, Vasil Evstatiev, 1789-1847 (2)
- Bulgarian poetry (2)
- Education (2)
- Folk songs (2)
- Guerillas (2)
- Miniatures (Illuminations) (2)
- Schools (2)
- Account books (1)
- Aesop’s fables (1)
- Alphabet (1)
- Astrology (1)
- Auditing (1)
- Bible (1)
- Books of hours (1)
- Church Slavic language (1)
- Conversation and phrase books (1)
- Dream interpretation (1)
- Epic poetry, Bulgarian (1)
- Ethnography (1)
- Fables, Greek (1)
- Folk songs, Bulgarian (1)
- Games (1)
- Geography (1)
- Girls (1)
- Haiduks (1)
- Haiduks in literature (1)
- Horoscopes (1)
- Ierofei, Ieromonakh, Gabrovets (1)
- Ivanov, Petr, Gabrovets (1)
- Kings and rulers (1)
- Leap year (1)
- Lectionaries (1)
- Letter writing (1)
- Literature -- Terminology (1)
- Markets (1)
- Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint (1)
- Military maps (1)
- Miracles (1)
- Missions (1)
- Narrative poetry (1)
- Orthography and spelling (1)
- Palauzov, Nikolai Stepanovich (around 1776-1853) (1)
- Peasants (1)
- Poetry (1)
- Prayers (1)
- Protestant churches (1)
- Proverbs (1)
- Riddles (1)
- Science – Terminology (1)
- Sermons (1)
- Sheep (1)
- Shepherds (1)
- Silvestrii Penu, Diedo (born 1786) (1)
- Vrazhilov, Petr Ivanov (died around 1852) (1)
- Wills (1)
- Wit and humor (1)
- Women (1)
- Wool (1)
- World War, 1939-1945 (1)
- Writing (1)
- Īovchev, Teodosii Petrov (died around 1831) (1)
Type of Item
- Bulgarian (27)
- Church Slavic (9)
- Modern Greek (1453-) (2)
- English (2)
- French (2)
- Latin (2)
- German (1)
- Croatian (1)
The Apostle Lectionary, written on parchment in the second half of the 13th century, is one of the important linguistic sources delimiting the early (Preslav) from the later (Athonite) redaction of this liturgical book. The lectionary contains the portions of scripture, the lessons, to be read at divine service on particular days of the church calendar. This manuscript is remarkable for the completeness of the readings from the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles, and for its detailed menologion, a monthly calendar indicating the feast days of saints that ...
This parchment manuscript, of which only a part has survived, is from the first quarter of the 13th century. The year 1221 was written on the manuscript at a significantly later date and may have been copied from an original colophon by a later owner. Known as the Dobreisho Gospel, the manuscript is an important witness to the history and early development of the Bulgarian language. Of particular interest is the rich illumination, including two full-page miniatures of the evangelists Luke and John. The portrait of the latter is accompanied ...
The Banitsa Gospel, written on parchment in Church Slavonic in the late 13th century, is one of the manuscripts testifying to the end of the anonymity of Bulgarian men of letters at around this time. The colophon indicates that the scribe who made the manuscript was the priest Ioann at Saint Nicholas Church in the village of Banitsa (presumably in the Vratsa region of present-day northwestern Bulgaria). The characteristic script and the ornamental illumination, elaborated in black, red, and yellow ink, reflect a local manuscript tradition. The menologion (calendar) includes ...
Priest Puncho Miscellany of 1796
This intriguing manuscript was written in the vernacular Bulgarian of the late 18th century and was intended to be printed. The content of the manuscript consists of literary texts compiled from older manuscripts, Russian printed books, apocrypha, a reworked version of the first real Bulgarian chronicle, Paisiĭ Khilendarski’s Istoriia slavianobolgarskaia (Slaveno-Bulgarian history), as well as texts of unspecified or unknown origin. The illumination, although stylistically naive, is very rich. It includes two self-portraits of the scribe and compiler Puncho, together with numerous miniatures, some of them with unusual iconography ...
Bashkioi Copy of “Slaveno-Bulgarian History”
This handwritten copy of Paisiĭ Khilendarski’s Istoriia slavianobolgarskaia (Slaveno-Bulgarian history) was made in 1841 by the priest Vasilii Manuilov. In addition to the main text, the manuscript contains accounts of two miracles of the Holy Mother. First published in 1762, Paisiĭ’s history encouraged the Bulgarians, who had been under Ottoman rule for centuries, to discover their national consciousness and to embrace the Bulgarian language. The work was so influential that it was copied by hand and excerpted many times without Paisiĭ being identified as the author or his ...
This chasoslovets (book of hours or horologion) is the first book printed by the first Bulgarian printer, Iakov (Jacob) Kraikov. It is a collection of prayers, eulogies, saints’ lives, and apocrypha that both served as a daily handbook for priests and was valued by lay readers in search of knowledge and enlightenment. Kraikov printed the book in Venice, at the largest Slavic Cyrillic printing-house for Serbs and Bulgarians in the city, which he acquired in 1566. The selection of font, typesetting, pagination, and the rich artful decoration (more than 30 ...
Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean Sea
This map of southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean was made early in World War II by Fremde Heere Ost (Foreign Armies East), a unit of the German army general staff responsible for intelligence about the armies of the Soviet Union, Scandinavia, certain Balkan countries, Africa, and the Far East. The map shows country boundaries in bold, dark purple. Also shown are oil pipelines, wells and other sources of water, and important roads, railroads, and canals. Many of the countries of this region were involved in the war. Italian and ...
Kingdoms of the Successors of Alexander: After the Battle of Ipsus, B.C. 301
Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) died suddenly at the age of 32, leaving no apparent heir or appointed successor. Some 40 years of internecine conflict followed his death, as leading generals and members of Alexander’s family vied to control different parts of the vast empire he had built. The Battle of Ipsus, fought in Phrygia, Asia Minor (present-day Turkey) in 301 BC between rival successors, resulted in the empire’s irrevocable dissolution. This late-19th century map in Latin shows the four main kingdoms that emerged after the battle ...
The Historical Theater in the Year 400 AD, in Which Both Romans and Barbarians Resided Side by Side in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire
This map in Latin by the great French mapmaker Guillaume de L’Isle (1675–1726) shows the eastern parts of the Roman Empire circa 400 AD and the territory of adjacent tribes and kingdoms not under Rome’s control. The latter include the Sarmatians and the Scythians, peoples that the Romans regarded as barbarians. Arabia is shown divided into its three traditional divisions, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta. Qatar is indicated as “Catarei.” The eastern part of the map shows the empire of Alexander the Great, including Persia ...
Map of Asian-Eastern Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and Arabia
This map, published in Paris in 1842, shows the Asian provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and the Arabian Peninsula. The map appeared in Atlas universel de géographie ancienne et moderne (Universal atlas of ancient and modern geography) by the cartographer and engraver Pierre M. Lapie (1779–1850). Lapie was a member of the corps of topographical engineers in the French army, where he rose to the rank of colonel. He eventually became head of the topographical section in the Ministry of War. He was assisted by ...
Wills Concerning the School in Gabrovo
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This work contains the wills of several men associated with the Gabrovo School, including one of its co-founders, V. E. Aprilov. The wills appear in Bulgarian with the corresponding Greek translation on opposite pages. Printed at the end of the book are illustrations of the grave monuments of Aprilov and the school's other co-founder, N.S. Palauzov.
The Sunday Book is the first book published in modern Bulgarian. It was written by Bishop Sofronii, an associate of Paisii Hilandarski, the founder of the Bulgarian Renaissance movement. It consists of 96 sermons, and was intended to serve as a religious guide at a time when the Bible had not yet been translated from Old Bulgarian.
Primer with Various Instructions
Beron’s Primer with Various Instructions is the first modern Bulgarian primer. Used by children throughout the 19th century, it contained, in addition to the rules of grammar, general information about nature and basic arithmetic. The book is better known as the “Fish Primer” for the picture of the whale at the end. Beron is considered the father of modern Bulgarian.
Georgi Stoikov Rakovski (1821-67) was a famous Bulgarian revolutionary who drew inspiration from the haiduts, the traditional bandits who lived in the mountains of Bulgaria and robbed from the Ottomans. He intended to write a larger history of the haiduts in Bulgaria, but was able to send his publisher only the 39 pages that comprise Book I before he died of tuberculosis at the age of 46.
The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees is a history of the school’s early years, edited by Petko Slaveikov, one of Bulgaria’s most renowned 19th-century writers.
Brief Political Geography for the Instruction of Bulgarian Youth
The Brief Political Geography for the Instruction of Bulgarian Youth is the first general geography in Bulgarian. It was published in Kragujevac, Serbia, with the financial backing of the Serbian prince Miloš Obrenović.
Bulgarian Peasant Women in Market Place, with Piles of Black and White Wool
This photograph depicting a traditional peasant scene in Bulgaria is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and ...
Girl Shepherdess with Sheep, Bulgaria
This photograph of a young shepherd girl in Bulgaria is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and ...
Accounts of the Executors of V.E. Aprilov Submitted to N.N. Aprilov
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This volume provides the school's financial statistics and budgets for a number of years, and includes teachers' salaries and expenditures for books, newspapers, and school supplies, as well as income received from donations and other sources of revenue. The book complements a separate work, The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees, which was a history of the school’s early years, edited by ...
Notable as the first Bulgarian grammar, this book is also culturally significant because of the role that its author, Neofit Rilski (1793–1881), played in the promotion of secular education in Bulgaria and in the establishment of a modern Bulgarian literary language. Neofit, a priest associated with the Rila Monastery, was a leading figure in the 19th-century Bulgarian National Revival and its concomitant education reform. He was the first headmaster of the Gabrovo School, the first secular school in Bulgaria. In the midst of a national debate in the 1830s ...
Something for the Unlearned
Most famous for being the father of Bulgarian revolutionary Khristo Botev, Botio Petkov (1815–69) was an accomplished educator and writer in his own right. Among his students were the luminaries Ivan Vazov and Nikola Nachov. Born in the town of Karlovo, Petkov himself studied with a famous teacher, Raino Popovich. Petkov wrote for the early Bulgarian newspaper Tsarigradski vestnik (Constantinople Herald), and published several translations into Bulgarian from Russian, including this book. Petkov completed this translation while he was a seminary student in Odessa, a city in Russia (present-day ...