52 results in English
The Holy Roman Empires Duchy of Antwerp and the Dominium of Malines: With the Eastern Flemish Areas and the Boundaries of Brabant Following from These
This late-17th century map shows the Duchy of Brabant, including the cities of Antwerp and Mechelen. The duchy consisted of the modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant, Antwerp, and Brussels, as well as the province of North Brabant in the present-day Netherlands. The map was published in Amsterdam by Karel Allard (1648-1706) who, with his brother Abraham, had taken over the business of their father, the Amsterdam map publisher Hugo Allard. The Allard family was known more for publishing atlases of maps by others than for original cartography.
The Dutch Republic, Enlarged and Edited: Produced with the Care and Work of Matthaeus Seutter
This map of the United Provinces of the Netherlands was engraved by Matthaeus Seutter (1678-1757), an engraver and publisher from Augsburg, Germany. Seutter studied printing in Nuremburg and in Augsburg, as an apprentice to Jeremias Wolff, before setting up his own printing house in 1710. Seutter generally enlarged and engraved the work of others but did very little drawing of original maps. This map was printed by Tobias Conrad Lotter (1717-77), Seutter’s son-in-law, who took over the business after Seutter’s death.
Belgian Ath, Called Aeth and Ath in French / F. de Witt
This map, showing the fortifications surrounding the city of Ath, is the work of Frederik de Wit (1630-1706), the founder of a dynasty of three generations of Dutch map publishers, all named Frederik. The de Wit firm produced many kinds of maps, but specialized in maps of cities and atlases of city maps. Located in present-day Hainaut province in French-speaking Belgium, Ath was conquered by the French under Louis XIV in 1667. The French later constructed massive fortifications around the city.
Negotiating Table of the Locarno Treaties
The Locarno Conference of October 1925, named for the small city in southern Switzerland where it was held, is remembered for the agreement known as the Locarno Pact. Signed by France, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy, the treaty guaranteed Germany’s western frontier, which the bordering states of France, Germany, and Belgium pledged to treat as inviolable. Britain and Italy promised to help in repelling any armed aggression across the frontier. The Rhineland, a part of Germany occupied by the victorious Allied Powers after World War I, was permanently ...
Locarno Treaties: Treaty between Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Italy
The document presented here is the archival copy of the treaty concluded by the governments of Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain, and Italy in the city of Locarno, Switzerland, on October 16, 1925. The final page contains the diplomatic seals and the signatures of the representatives of the five signatory powers, who included Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann of Germany, Foreign Minister Aristide Briand of France, and Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin of Great Britain. The text is in French. Also known as the Locarno Pact, the treaty guaranteed Germany’s western ...
General Business Ledger of the Plantin Press, 1563–67
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is the general business ledger of the press for the period 1563–67, when Plantin had to provide his financial partners with a ...
The Royal Bible. Missal. Accounts of the King of Spain, 1568–1578
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Antwerp was at that time under Spanish rule, and Plantin held the monopoly on printing religious works for the Spanish home and colonial market. Shown ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Jan Moretus I, 1572–1581
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing the copies of the letters sent by Plantin's son-in-law Jan Moretus I (1543–1610) during the years 1572 ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Christopher Plantin and Jan Moretus I, 1579–1590
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent by Christopher Plantin and his son-in-law Jan Moretus I (1543–1610) during the years ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Jan Moretus I, 1591–1602
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent by Jan Moretus I (1543–1610) during the years 1591–1602. Moretus, Plantin’s ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Balthasar Moretus I, 1598–1607
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent by Balthasar Moretus I (1574–1641) during the years 1598–1607. Plantin’s son-in-law ...
Drafts of Letters Sent by Various Members of the Plantin-Moretus Family, 1597–1617
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a volume containing copies of the letters sent during the years 1576-1617 by Jan Moretus I (1543-1610), his heir Balthasar Moretus I ...
General Ledger, 1590–1599
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a ledger that provides a summary of the daily journaux (account books) of the activities of the press in the years 1590 ...
General Ledger, Signed D., 1590–1614
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in Antwerp in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. This ledger contains a summary of the accounts of the press in the years 1590–1614 and of its transactions with family members and special ...
General Ledger, 1600–1608
The Officina Plantiniana, also known as the Plantin Press or Plantijnse Drukkerij, was established in 1555 by Christopher Plantin (1520–89), the greatest typographer and printer-publisher of his day. The Officina grew to become the largest printing and publishing house in Europe and helped to make Antwerp, along with Venice and Paris, one of the most important centers of printing in the West. Shown here is a ledger that provides a summary of the daily journaux (account books) of the activities of the press in the years 1600–1608 when ...
Holland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Holland is Number 25 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Holland, or the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it was formally known, remained neutral during the war. The book covers ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Belgium
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Belgium is Number 26 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. The section on geography ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brussels, Important City in the Netherlands, Capital of the Duchy of Brabant
This late-18th century French map shows Brussels, at that time an important city in the Spanish Netherlands and the capital of the Duchy of Brabant. The map shows the borders of the city and the Senne River. The location of the city on the river made it an important commercial center for trade between France and the Germanic states. In 1695, Brussels was attacked by the army of Louis XIV, and suffered heavy damage. It remained under siege off and on until it was captured by the French in 1746 ...
Flemish Paintings on Tables
In the late 15th and first half of the 16th centuries, the cultivation, refining, and marketing of sugar became a major part of the expanding economy of the Canary Islands. The main drivers of the sugar economy were landowners, agents, and traders from Flanders, which at that time was part of the Spanish Empire. Antwerp became the great receiving and distributing center for Canary Island sugar in Europe. One result of this economic activity was the introduction of Flemish art into the Canaries. Art became a means by which the ...
Merovingian Bees
The tomb of Childéric, king of the Salian Franks from 457 to 481 and the father of Clovis, was discovered by chance in 1653 by construction workers near the church of Saint-Brice in Tournai, in present-day Belgium. The treasure found was given to Archduke Leopold William of Habsburg (1614−62), governor of the southern Netherlands (at that time under Spanish rule). The archduke asked medical doctor and antique specialist Jean-Jacques Chifflet to write a study of the find, which was published in Antwerp in 1655 under the title Anastasis Childerici ...
Map Showing Wet Areas on Passchendaele Front
Overprinted in color in the field, this World War I map shows the Allied front line at the Ypres Salient on December 2, 1917. The notorious Battle of Passchendaele (also seen as Passendale) began in July 1917 and culminated in the capture by British and Canadian forces of the village of Passchendaele (West Flanders, Belgium) on November 6. Even though the battle had ended some weeks earlier, an action took place on the night of December 1−2 in the areas to the north and east of Passchendaele village shown ...
Contributed by The British Library
British Battles During 1918 (8th August to 11th November 1918)
This colorful map was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the UK War Office, printed by Waterlow & Sons, and made available for public sale shortly after the end of World War I. It provides a summary of the Hundred Days offensive by British, American, and British Empire troops that led to the German surrender on November 11, 1918. It shows the Allied advance as distinctly ordered phases, colored first yellow, then green, red, and blue. Diagonal stripes in these same colors show German withdrawals. The numbers ...
Contributed by The British Library
Swollen-headed William: Painful Stories and Funny Pictures after the German!
At the time of the First World War, the children’s book Struwwelpeter (Shock-headed Peter) was a familiar nursery classic in both Germany and Britain. In this British wartime parody, the original cautionary tales of naughty children and their fates are all turned against Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany. The “shock-headed Peter” of the title poem becomes “swollen-headed William,” while “fidgety Phil,” whose dinnertime antics knock over the table and ruin the food, becomes “fidgety Will,” who destroys his country’s prosperity. The last poem departs more from the original tale ...
Contributed by The British Library
Flemish Psalter
This Flemish Psalter from the library of the Irish College in Paris was made in Bruges (present-day Belgium) around 1500. The manuscript is written in Latin on vellum, and it has a 19th-century binding. Psalters are religious books, especially popular in the Middle Ages, containing the psalms (poems that are sung) from the Bible, often with other devotional texts. Richly decorated, the Psalter includes a fully illuminated page depicting the Tree of Jesse and a miniature of King David, the main author of the psalms. Twelve illuminations, each composed of ...
Contributed by Irish College in Paris
Hours of Notre Dame
Books of hours are collections of prayers used for private devotion. They were the most common illuminated works of the Middle Ages. Heures de Notre-Dame (The book of hours of Notre Dame) was made in Bruges (present-day Belgium) around 1470. The manuscript, written in Latin and on vellum, is most likely the work of William Wyelant or his studio. Wyelant, also known by the Flemish spelling of his name, Willem Vrelant, was an influential illuminator who was active in Bruges from 1449 until his death in 1481. The leaves of ...
Contributed by Irish College in Paris
Belgium as a Lion
In the 16th and 17th centuries, maps of the Low Countries frequently were drawn in the form of a lion, known by its Latin designation, Leo Belgicus. The “Belgian” lion usually included all of the 17 provinces variously referred to as the Netherlands or the Low Countries, even though the seven provinces of the north broke away in 1581 to form the Dutch Republic. Symbols of Dutch patriotism, these maps often appeared in 17th-century Dutch paintings, hanging on the walls of inns or private homes, as in Jan Vermeer’s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sketch of Equatorial Africa: Containing the Latest Information Collected by Agents of the International Society of the Congo
The Association Internationale du Congo (International Association of the Congo) was an organization established by King Leopold II of Belgium to lay the basis for creation of a central African colony. Between 1879 and 1884, Leopold employed the explorer Henry M. Stanley to acquire from local chiefs, by means of treaties they did not understand or were coerced into signing, tracts of land along the Congo River and its tributaries. The association also established posts along the river. At an international congress in Berlin that convened on November 15, 1884 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
La Grande Place, the Old Houses, Brussels, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Grande Place in Brussels is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This square is the traditional center of Brussels, the location of city hall and the city’s market place. Its present appearance has not changed since around 1695, when the French army under Louis XIV destroyed its older structures, which had been built in the Middle Ages. The houses shown here reflect a Gothic–Baroque style of architecture, popular in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Hubert's Gallery, Brussels, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Royal Galleries St. Hubert in Brussels is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located at the city center, this shopping arcade was designed by the architect Jean-Pierre Cluysenaar (1811–80) and opened in 1847 under the reign of King Leopold I to celebrate Belgium's independence in 1830. The arcade consists of two main sections, the King's Gallery and the Queen's Gallery, which are separated by a colonnade. With its ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Bavon Abbey, the Cloister, Ghent, Belgium
This photochrome print of the cloister in the St. Bavon Abbey is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). According to Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905), “the abbey, traditionally said to have been founded about 630 by St. Amandus and restored in 651 by St. Bavon (d. 654), was one of those bestowed upon Eginhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, and after its destruction by the Northmen (851) was restored with great splendour ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ghent Gate, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Ghent gate in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The gate, otherwise known as Gentpoort or Porte de Gand, is one of only four remaining medieval gates in Bruges. It was designed by the Flemish architect Jan van Oudenaarde (died 1412) and initially served as a fortification and as a point of exchange for merchants. Bruges was one of Europe’s major commercial centers from the 12th to the 15th ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Entrance to Port, Ostend, Belgium
This photochrome print of the port in Ostend is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located in West Flanders on the coast of the North Sea, Ostend is one of Belgium’s main port cities. Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905) called Ostend “the second seaport and the most fashionable sea-bathing resort of Belgium.” Visible to the right is the Western Pier, which was built in 1837 to accommodate the city’s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Calvary, St. Paul's Church, Antwerp, Belgium
This photochrome print of St. Paul’s Church in Antwerp is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Church of Saint Paul was built in 1540–71 on the site of a former 13th-century church that had been continually threatened by flooding. The Gothic-style church is known for its numerous sculptures, many of which are featured in the depiction of Calvary, the site where Jesus was crucified, on one side of the church. This composition, which consists ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brabo Monument, Antwerp, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Brabo Monument in Antwerp is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Dedicated to the legendary hero Salvius Brabo, the monument was designed by Jef Lambeaux (1852–1908) and is located on the Grand Place in Antwerp. As described in Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905), Brabo was “a mythical hero who defeated and cut off the hand of the giant Antigonus. The giant used to exact a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Beach and the Sea, Blankenberghe, Belgium
This photochrome print of the beach and sea in Blankenberghe, Belgium, is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Blankenberghe was known in the late 19th century as a seaside resort. Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905) noted: “As a sea-bathing resort, Blankenberghe has become a rival of Ostend, being visited by 35,000 persons annually, half of whom are Germans.” The wheeled beach cabins lining the shore were an innovation adopted from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maison du Franc, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Maison du Franc in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Maison du Franc, also known as Landhuis van het Brugse Vrije (Palace of the Liberty of Bruges) was built in the 1720s, on the basis of the designs of the architect Jan van der Cruycen, and stands at the center of Bruges on the site of an older, 16th-century building. The structure, whose architecture reflects classical and baroque elements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Library, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the municipal library in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The library, which houses the municipal archives of Bruges, was restored by the Belgian architect Louis de la Censerie (1838–1909) in 1877–81. Its neo-Renaissance architecture, which recalls a 17th-century aesthetic, is reflected in the use of the stepped-gable façades on the roof. According to Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905), “the Municipal Library, which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Croix Gate, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the St. Croix gate in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The St. Croix Gate, or Kruispoort, was originally built in 1366–68 and then rebuilt around 1402 by the Flemish architect Jan van Oudenaarde (died 1412), who is also credited with the Ghent Gate (Gentpoort). The gate, which was constructed with white sand–lime bricks, formed a section of Bruges’s defense wall and was the main entrance to the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Quai Vert, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Quai Vert (Green quay) in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Quai Vert is a picturesque waterway that flows through Bruges, alongside some of the city’s best-known buildings, including the Maison du Franc (Palace of the Liberty of Bruges). In his Land and People of the World, the British writer and explorer Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston (1858–1927) observed: "The Green Quay is well-named. It is a paradise ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Palace of the Nation, Brussels, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Palace of the Nation in Brussels is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Paleis der Natie, or Palais de la Nation, is a neoclassical building that faces the Royal Palace, or Palais Royal, and that has served as the seat of the Belgian parliament since the country’s independence in 1830. The building was constructed in 1779–83 for the assemblies of the old Council of Brabant, according to a design ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brouckere Place and Anspach Monument, Brussels, Belgium
This photochrome print of Brouckère Place and the Anspach Monument in Brussels is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The monument was erected in 1897 to honor Jules Victor Anspach (1829–79), a former mayor of Brussels who championed urban development to benefit the city’s working class, and who was one of the chief promoters of Brussels’s boulevards. The monument features a large fountain designed by Emile Janlet (1839–1919), with sculptures by Paul de ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Waterloo, the Tombs, Belgium
This photochrome print of the tombs at Waterloo is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located approximately 12 kilometers south-southeast of Brussels, Waterloo is the site of the great battle of June 1815 between the French army of Napoleon I and the armies led by the Duke of Wellington of England and General Blücher of Prussia. On February 26, 1815, Napoleon secretly left the Mediterranean island of Elba, where he had been exiled by the victorious allies ...
Contributed by Library of Congress