40 results in English
Nomadic Kirghiz. Golodnaia Steppe
This remarkable photograph shows a nomadic Kyrgyz family resting in the steppe grasslands. The Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group widely spread over the area of eastern Turkestan. The man, with weathered face, is dressed in a skullcap and a frayed traditional striped coat. He is burdened with padded blankets and probably a small tent. The woman, with brilliant white turban, wears a tattered cloak and carries smaller bundles of blankets and clothes. Their small boy wears a colorful skullcap and a sparkling green silk jacket in the Chinese style ...
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Camel Caravan Carrying Thorns for Fodder. Golodnaia Steppe
The Russians developed an irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) in Turkestan a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Despite such projects, life adhered to ancient traditions for most of the local ethnic groups. This photograph shows a camel driver in a tattered cloak leading a small caravan in the midst of the vast steppe grasslands. The camels are carrying cut thorn bushes for fodder. The severe continental climate—cold in the winter and extreme arid heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden ...
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Nazar Magomet. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. This photograph shows a local inhabitant, Nazar Magomet, on horseback near a simple settler’s hut in the grasslands. The hut is of adobe brick surfaced with mud, while the roof consists of log ...
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Sart Cemetery near Syr-Darya. Golodnaia Steppe
Seen here is a Sart cemetery in the steppe near the Syr-Darya River (just visible in the right background). “Sart” was a term with various ethnic meanings in the late 19th century, and was often used to refer to inhabitants of this area before the coming of Uzbek tribes in the 16th century. The burial mounds were a widespread practice not only in the country but also in cities such as Samarkand. On the right the burial place of a venerated sage is marked by a mazar (ancient shrine) covered ...
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Camel Grazing in the Steppe. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. This photograph shows a dromedary camel (with a single hump) grazing in the midst of the steppe grasslands. The harsh continental climate of Golodnaia Steppe—cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden in this area. In the background is a cow. In the hazy distance is the Turkestan Range. The image ...
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Volyn Levee on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Volyn Bridge in the Distance. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows the Volyn embankment, with water regulator, on the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I. In the background is a wooden bridge near the Volyn settlement. The ...
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Chapel in the Settlement of Spassky. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of initiatives, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Conditions in the region were harsh, and it was sometimes difficult to attract Russian settlers by providing arable land. Shown here is the primitive structure of an Orthodox chapel at the settlement of Spasskii ...
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Pashazada Irrigation Canal, Supplying Water to the Estate of the Grand Duke Nikolai Konstantinovich. Golodnaia Steppe
Shown here is the Pashazada aryk (irrigation canal, in Turkic languages), which served the estate of Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, in Golodnaia Steppe (Hungry Steppe), located in present-day Uzbekistan. Exiled from Saint Petersburg in 1874 because of a family scandal, Nicholas settled in 1881 in Tashkent, which had been taken by Russian forces in 1865. There he sponsored a number of philanthropic and entrepreneurial projects. Among the latter was a vast irrigation scheme intended to provide arable land to Russian settlers and to ...
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Testing Field of the Ministry of Agriculture and State Property. Golodnaia Steppe
One of the main initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Exiled from Saint Petersburg in 1874 because of a family scandal, Nicholas settled in Tashkent in 1881, where he sponsored philanthropic and entrepreneurial projects. Foremost among them was a model agricultural estate that involved a vast irrigation scheme in Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”). The long-term goal of the project was to provide arable land to Russian settlers and make Golodnaia Steppe a productive area for raising cotton and ...
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Migrant Farmstead in the Settlement of Spassky. Golodnaia Steppe
This photograph shows simple stuccoed brick structures of a farmstead at the settlement of Spasskii (“Savior”) in present-day Kazakhstan. In the foreground a line of poplar trees has been planted to provide shade and shelter from the steppe winds. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 ...
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Receiving Room in the Settlement of Spassky. Golodnaia Steppe
One of the main initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. In 1881 Nicholas settled in Tashkent, where he sponsored philanthropic and entrepreneurial projects. Foremost among them was a model agricultural estate that involved a vast irrigation scheme in Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”). The long-term goal of the project was to provide arable land to Russian settlers. Seen here is the reception center of the settlers’ organization at the new village of Spasskoe. The brick building shows careful design ...
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Triple Sluice Rusalka and Liubki on a Reservoir between the Settlements of Nadezhdinsk and Romanov. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows an outflow canal between the settlements of Nadezhdinsk and Romanov. In the middle is a wooden gate at what the caption identifies as a triple sluice with the names ...
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Volyn Bridge on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers to this land where living conditions were harsh. This photograph shows a wooden bridge over the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I near the Volyn settlement. On the right ...
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Konnogvardeiskii Bridge on the Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows the wooden Horse Guards Bridge over the irrigation canal named in honor of Tsar Nicholas I. The grand duke named this modest bridge after one of the most privileged ...
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Main Sluice of the Tsarevna Reservoir. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. There he sponsored a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract settlers. This photograph shows the head sluice and wooden gate at the Tsarevna (literally “daughter of a tsar”) outflow canal. The grand duke often chose place names that reflected his memories of Saint ...
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Outlet from Emperor Nicholas I Canal to the Main Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This photograph of canal embankments gives some idea of the massive earthworks involved in creating the irrigation system. Shown here is the outlet of the Tsar Nicholas I Canal (which served the grand duke’s estate) from the mainline canal, begun in 1907 ...
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Lake Alkakul and a Bridge over the Main Canal. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This photograph shows a dilapidated wooden bridge over the mainline northern canal, constructed in1907-13. The top of the levee was used as a road along the arc of the canal. The canal was reconstructed and enlarged in the Soviet period, when it was known ...
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Filtering Reservoir and Main Road. Ermachit. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River.This view near the Ermachit settlement of a component in the irrigation system includes part of the mainline canal, constructed in 1907–13, and a reservoir used to purify the Syr Darya water by sedimentation. The thick growth of reeds in the foreground channel ...
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Road and Deep Excavation. Kiat. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This view of an excavated portion of the mainline canal near the Kiat settlement reveals the massive earthworks involved in creating the canal, constructed in 1907–13. The high banks show the enormous depth of the soil layer. Although some machinery was used ...
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Sloping Portion of Emperor Nicholas I Canal near Government House. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr-Darya River. This view, taken from a nearby house used for government administration, reveals the massive earthworks involved in creating the irrigation works. The system included the mainline canal (1907–13) and the Tsar Nicholas I Canal, which served the grand duke’s estate. Visible in ...
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Engineer Morgunenkov's Water-Raising Machine on Emperor Nicholas I Canal near Government House. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This view, taken from a nearby house used for government administration, shows construction work on the Tsar Nicholas I Canal, which served the grand duke’s estate. The large circular metal device partially submerged in the muddy water is identified as a pumping ...
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General View of Steppe from the Government House. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. This view, taken from a nearby house used for government administration of the irrigation system, shows the vast expanse of the steppe plain. The landscape is treeless. Plant growth in this arid region depended on irrigation. In some areas the steppe had pockets of ...
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Nikolsk Settlement from Kiata across from Lake Lebed. Golodnaia Steppe
In the late 19th century Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, initiated a development project in Russian Turkestan to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. The long-term goal was to provide arable land to Russian settlers in villages such as Nikolsk, named after Saint Nicholas. This view of Nikolsk taken from Kiat near Swan Lake shows fields of hay. Also visible are mounds of earth with white salt ...
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Sluice and Regulator at the First Verst on Emperor Nicholas I Canal with a Temporary Bridge. Begavat. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. A related goal was to provide arable land to attract Russian settlers. This photograph, taken near Begavat village, shows the sluice and water regulator at the first verst of the main canal, which the ...
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Cotton Picking in Begavat. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. This photograph shows workers picking cotton at a large field near Begavat village. Behind the field are mounds of earth that form the levee for one of the canals. In the background are barns ...
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Koksaraiskaia Dam at the Head of Emperor Nicholas I Canal. Intake from the Syr-Darya River. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Shown here is the Koksaraisk Dam at the head of the Emperor Nicholas I Canal, which provided intake from the Syr-Darya River. A viaduct on wooden piles leads up to the dam, where a ...
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Bridge beyond the Rapid, over the Syr-Darya. From the Right Bank. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Shown here is the Zaporozhskii Bridge over the rapids porogi (channel) of the Syr-Darya River near the Koksaraisk Dam. The bridge is composed of uniform trussed segments resting on wooden supports that are based ...
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Palace of Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich on the Bank of the Syr-Darya. Golodnaia Steppe
Seen here is the palace on the estate of Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850-1918; grandson of Nicholas I) in Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”), in present-day Uzbekistan. Exiled from Saint Petersburg in 1874 because of a family scandal, Nicholas settled in 1881 in Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of philanthropic and entrepreneurial projects. Among the latter was a vast irrigation scheme connected to the Syr Darya River and intended to make Golodnaia Steppe a productive area for Russian settlers to raise cotton and wheat. Photographed across the river and against ...
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Tsar-Dam. General View from the Top. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of Russian development projects in Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Tsar Nicholas I, who in 1881 moved to Tashkent. There he sponsored a number of ventures, including a vast irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe,” present-day Uzbekistan) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. There he sponsored an irrigation scheme to make Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) a productive area for raising cotton and wheat. Seen here is the “Tsar Dam” on the Syr-Darya River in the area of ...
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Dzhugara. Golodnaia Steppe
In Russian Turkestan, large irrigation projects, such as those sponsored by Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850-1918; grandson of Nicholas I), were intended to provide arable land to Russian settlers. Shown here is a field of dzhugara (white durra, or Sorghum cernuum) in Golodnaya Steppe, or “Hungry Steppe.” Dzhugara is a drought-resistant species of grass that can be used both as edible grain and as feed for livestock. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used a special color photography process to create a visual record ...
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Camel Grazing in the Steppe. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. Shown here is a dromedary camel (with a single hump) grazing in the midst of the steppe grasslands. The harsh continental climate of Golodnaia Steppe—cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer—made camels the primary beast of burden in this area. Central Asia is more commonly associated with the Bactrian camel (with two humps). In the hazy ...
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Young Eagle. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. The region, some 10,000 square kilometers in size, has a harsh continental climate: cold in the winter and extremely hot in the summer. Shown here is a young eagle with talons firmly anchored in closely cropped grass, perhaps where sheep have grazed. In the background (blurred because of the focus on the eagle in the foreground) are clumps of poplars ...
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Fat Sheep. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for grass and small shrubs under semi-arid conditions. The region, some 10,000 square kilometers in size, has a harsh continental climate: cold in the winter and extreme heat in the summer. Shown here are fat-tailed sheep, which were well-adapted to the local conditions. They could be bred both for meat and for wool used in carpets and blankets. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii ...
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Fat Sheep. Golodnaia Steppe
Located to the southeast of the Kyzyl Kum Desert, Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) is composed of the loess variety of soil suitable for growing grass and small shrubs in semi-arid conditions. The region, some 10,000 square kilometers in size, has a harsh continental climate: cold in the winter and extremely hot in the summer. Shown at this steppe farmstead are fat-tailed sheep, which adapted well to the local conditions and were a source of meat as well as wool. The shepherd is protected against the winter cold by a ...
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At Work on the Upper Reaches of the Syr-Darya. Golodnaia Steppe
Among the primary initiators of development in Russian Turkestan was Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich (1850–1918), grandson of Nicholas I, who moved to Tashkent in 1881. The grand duke sponsored a project to create an area for raising cotton, wheat, and livestock in the Golodnaia Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”) by diverting water from the Syr Darya River. Shown here is a group on an inspection trip along the upper reaches of the river. The man in cap and uniform on the right is probably a state engineer or overseer. The man ...
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Young Eagle. Golodnaia Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Cotton Plants, Probably in Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
This is not an image from the Mugan Steppe. The original caption is incorrect. Seen here is a mature cotton plant with bolls on the Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were acquired by the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. Irrigation was essential for agriculature in this semi-arid region. One such irrigation project was at the Murgab estate, whose main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms ...
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Cotton Plants, Probably in Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
This is not an image from the Mugan Steppe. The original caption is incorrect. These cotton plants in bloom were photographed on the estate of Murgab near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were acquired by the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. Irrigation was essential for agriculture in this semi-arid region. One such irrigation project was at the Murgab estate, whose main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part ...
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Cotton Field, Probably Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find areas in the empire that were warm enough for the cultivation of this crop. Shown here is a cotton field, probably located on the Mugan Steppe in present-day Azerbaijan. This area of the eastern Caucasus was acquired by Russia from Persia in 1813 under the terms of the Treaty of Gulistan. Bounded on the east by the Caspian ...
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Cotton Field, Probably in Golodnaia Steppe or Mugan Steppe
This is not an image from the Mugan Steppe. The original caption is incorrect. This view shows a cotton field on the estate of Murgab near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan).  The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were acquired by the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. Irrigation was essential for agriculture in this semi-arid region. One such irrigation project was at the Murgab estate, whose main source of water was the Murgab (Morghab) River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress