37 results in English
War Map of Egypt, Palestine, and Arabia
This German-language military map, published some time in the late-19th century, depicts Egypt, Palestine, and the Arabian Peninsula. It also includes parts of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (present-day Sudan), Ethiopia, and Eritrea. Railroads, caravan routes, telegraph lines, pyramids, fortifications, and ruins are indicated by symbols shown in the key at the lower left. The German equivalents of some Arabic topographic terms are given. An inset map in the upper right shows the Nile Delta and the Sinai Peninsula. Relief is shown by shading, and the heights of important mountains and passes are ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Southwest Asia
This map of Southwest Asia dating from about 1866 shows the possessions of the European powers in this region. The map extends from Libya, Egypt, and Sudan in the west to Mongolia, China (Tibet), and Burma in the east. Colored lines are used to indicate territories controlled by Britain, France, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire and to delineate what the map calls the kingdom of the imam of Oman. The names of provincial capitals are underlined. British territories in India are divided into six parts: Bengal, the Northwest Provinces, Panjab ...
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Middle East Countries: Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Saudi-Arabia
This map of the Middle East, originally published in August 1950 and revised in February 1955, was issued by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, Air Photographic and Charting Service, Military Air Transportation Service (MATS), of the United States Air Force. In addition to Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, it shows the eastern parts of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium of Sudan as well as parts of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Many borders on the map, particularly on the Arabian Peninsula, are shown as still undetermined. Territories shown ...
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Map of Asian-Eastern Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and Arabia
This map, published in Paris in 1842, shows the Asian provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and the Arabian Peninsula. The map appeared in Atlas universel de géographie ancienne et moderne (Universal atlas of ancient and modern geography) by the cartographer and engraver Pierre M. Lapie (1779–1850). Lapie was a member of the corps of topographical engineers in the French army, where he rose to the rank of colonel. He eventually became head of the topographical section in the Ministry of War. He was assisted by ...
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Johnson’s Turkey in Asia, Persia, Arabia, etc.
This map of the Middle East and Central and South Asia extending from the Nile Valley to the boundary of Afghanistan with British India is from Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas, published in New York in 1864. The map shows national capitals, provincial capitals, principal towns, and railroads. The Suez Canal, under construction at this time, is shown as proposed. The map provides a detailed overview of the towns and cities along the Nile in Egypt, Nubia (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan), and Sennar (present-day Sudan), and of ...
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Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map of Persia (present-day Iran), the Arabian Peninsula, and neighboring countries originally appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas. It extends from a part of Egypt (the Nile Delta) in the west to Afghanistan in the east and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th century America. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in ...
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Biographic Sketch of Mohammad Ali, Pacha of Egypt, Syria, and Arabia
Biographic Sketch of Mohammad Ali (1769–1849), composed by an unknown author, was published in Washington in 1837. Muḥammad ʻAlī was pasha and wali (governor) of Egypt within the Ottoman Empire from 1805 until his death. The book begins by comparing him to Napoleon, noting that they shared the same birth year and the same “insatiate ambition.” The author describes Muḥammad ʻAlī’s military service under the Ottoman governor of Kavalla in Rumelia (northeastern Greece). Muḥammad ʻAlī also became a tobacco dealer during this period, an experience that probably inspired ...
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Arabia
This mid-19th-century British map shows the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring parts of Africa, including Egypt, the Sudan, and Abyssinia. The traditional Greek and Roman division of Arabia into the three parts of Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix is used. Qatar is shown as Catura. Also indicated are Oman, Bahrain, and the territories of Mecca and Medina. The map emphasizes the vast, empty interior of the peninsula with such annotations as “great space covered with sand” and “deserts very barren and continued between Mekka and Oman.” Four different caravan ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A New Map of Arabia, Including Egypt, Abyssinia, the Red Sea, from the Latest Authorities
John Cary (circa 1754−1835) was a leading London engraver, map-, chart- and print-seller, and globe maker, active between 1787 and 1834. This map of 1804 shows the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring parts of Africa and the Middle East. Important caravan routes are marked, including the “route of the grand caravan of Sudan from the Niger to Cairo,” “route of the caravan from Batsora [Basra] to Aleppo,” “caravan of Darfowar [Darfur] to Mecca by Dongola,” “caravan of Sudan directly to Mecca by Suakem,” and several other caravan routes to Mecca ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Overview Map of Arabia. Based on C. Ritter's Geography Book III, West Asia, Parts XII−XIII
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1852 map of Arabia. As indicated in the title, it is based on “C. Ritter’s geography book.” The latter refers to Die Erdkunde im Verhältnis zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A New Map of Arabia: Divided into Its Several Regions and Districts
This map of Arabia, published in London in 1794, is an English translation of a map by the French cartographer and geographer Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782). Appointed the first geographer to the king of France in 1773, d’Anville was one of the most important mapmakers of the 18th century, known for the accuracy and scientific quality of his maps. The work presented here is said to contain “Additions and Improvements from Mr. Niebuhr,” a reference to Carsten Niebuhr (1733–1815), a German-born Danish explorer and civil engineer ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Northeast Africa and Arabia Drawn to the Scale of 1:12,500,000
This map of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula is from the sixth edition (1875) of Stieler's Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde (Stieler’s portable atlas of all parts of the Earth), edited by August Heinrich Petermann (1822−78) and published by the firm of Justus Perthes. The map reflects the high quality of German cartography in the latter part of the 19th century and the advances made by German mapmakers in incorporating into their work findings from geology, hydrography, ethnography, and other scientific fields. The map uses ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Arabia: According To Its Modern Divisions
“Arabia According to Its Modern Divisions” shows the Arabian Peninsula with the three-part division traditionally used in European sources into Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. Deserts, seaports, and the pearl beds along the coast are indicated. Qatar is shown as Catura. Four different distance scales—Arabian miles, Turkish miles, Persian parasangs, and British miles—are provided. Published in 1794, the map was compiled and drawn by Samuel Dunn (circa 1723−94), a teacher of mathematics and navigation who made original contributions to solving the problem of determining longitude ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Newest Map of Arabia
This color map in German appeared as plate 80 in Grosser Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde (Large portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by the Bibliographic Institute of Joseph Meyer (1796−1856). The map shows the Arabian Peninsula as well as neighboring parts of Africa, including Egypt, present-day Sudan, and Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia). Colored lines are used to demarcate kingdoms and other political entities. El Bedaa, an old city in Qatar (now the Al Bida area of Doha), is shown. Three inset maps in the upper ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Arabia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula appeared in the 1856 edition of the world atlas that was first published by James Wyld (1790−1836) in 1824 and in successive editions by his son, James Wyld the younger (1812−87). Political divisions are indicated by colored lines and the scale is in English miles. Cities, towns, wells, and caravan routes to Mecca are shown. An annotation on the map reflects the limited state of European knowledge about geography of parts of the peninsula: “The interior of Arabia is probably a high ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of the Arabian Coast, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf
This map of the coastlines of the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent regions is by the French hydrographer and cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office for more than 50 years and specialized in producing maritime maps. He also made most of the maps for Histoire générale des voyages: ou, Nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu'à présent dans les différentes langues de toutes les nations connues (General history of the voyages, or ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Recommended Facilities for Search and Rescue, Middle East Region
This map was prepared for the Middle East Region Air Navigation Meeting of the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO), which took place in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1946. It shows political borders and recommended facilities for search and rescue, including rescue-coordinating and rescue-alerting centers, bases for different types of search-and-rescue aircraft, and facilities for surface vessels. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was established under a convention signed by 52 countries at the November 1944 International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago. From August 1945 to August 1947, as the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Airlines of the Eastern Mediterranean and Adjacent Areas: As of October, 1947
This map of airline routes in the Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent areas was compiled and drawn by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency for the Department of State, based on information supplied by the Foreign Air Transport Division of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board. It presumably was for use by diplomats at the newly established International Civil Aviation Organization. Some of the airlines whose routes are shown exist to the present day; others have merged, gone bankrupt, or changed their names. Athens, Cairo, Lydda (Lod in present-day Israel; until ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Middle East Air Traffic Control Scheme
This map, produced in 1946 by the Survey of Egypt, shows a scheme for air traffic control in the Middle East. The International Convention on Civil Aviation, adopted by 52 countries in 1944, provided for the establishment of an international air-traffic control system aimed at preventing aircraft collisions. The world’s airspace was to be divided into contiguous regions, within each of which all traffic would be controlled by a designated air-traffic control authority. On longer flights, aircraft are passed by radio from the control of one region to another ...
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Map of the Near East
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1855 map of the Near East, which appeared in the Kiepert’s Neuer Hand-Atlas über alle Teile der Erde (Kiepert’s new portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by Dietrich ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Middle East
This map of the Middle East was made by the Führungsstab der Luftwaffe (the operations staff of the German air force) in 1943. The map is labeled “Secret.” Covering the region from the eastern Mediterranean to the border of Afghanistan with British India (present-day Pakistan), it shows the locations of first- and second-class air bases, operational bases, landing strips, and airfields under construction, as of March 15, 1943. Six inset maps—of Aden, Mosul, Cyprus, Baghdad, Gaza-Haifa, and Damascus-Aleppo—provide additional detail about locations with more well-developed aviation infrastructure. Railroad ...
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Marittima Italiana: Bombay Line
Marittima Italiana was an Italian shipping company, established in 1936 as an offshoot of the long-established firm of Lloyd-Triestino, which in the late 1930s operated shipping lines between Italy and east Africa, southern Africa, Asia, and Australia. Shown here is a map of Marittima Italiana’s line from Genoa to Bombay (Mumbai), India. Distances are given for the different sections of the route: from Genoa to Naples, Naples to Port Said, Port Said to Aden, and Aden to Bombay. Inset maps show these five ports and the Suez Canal, with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Part I of the Map of Asia: Including Turkey, Arabia, Persia, India below the Ganges River, and Tartary, which Borders Persia and India
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782) was an important French cartographer known for his scrupulous attention to detail and his commitment to accuracy. His method was to collect and compare as many sources of geographic information as possible and to correct and reissue maps as new information became available. His own personal collection of maps eventually totaled nearly 9,000 items. This map of 1751 by d’Anville shows the part of Asia from its border with Africa and Europe in the west to most of the Indian subcontinent ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Countries of the Ottoman Emperor in Asia, Persia, Uzbek Territory, Arabia, and Egypt
This 1740s map shows the possessions of the Ottoman Empire in Asia (including present-day Turkey, Iraq, and the Levant), the Persian Empire (shown to include present-day Iran, Afghanistan, much of Pakistan, and the Caucasus), the country of the Uzbeks, Arabia, and Egypt. The boundaries of these territories are hand colored on this copy. The desert to the south and west of present-day Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates is described as “without water and without habitation.” The pearl-diving region of the southern Persian Gulf is indicated by shading and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Western Asia, Circa 1918−20
This map of western Asia produced by the American Geographical Society (AGS) of New York dates from the period immediately after World War I. A similar map in the collection of the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is thought to have been made by the AGS for the use of the American delegation to the peace negotiations in Versailles in 1918−19. The map shows Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), and Afghanistan. Iraq is still shown as part of Turkey (the Ottoman Empire). The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Empire of Alexander the Great and his Campaigns in Europe, Africa, and Particularly in Asia
This map, published in Paris in 1712, shows the expeditions and empire of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC), in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The circular inset at the top shows the three continents. The numbered notes in the lower right refer to Alexander’s campaign on the banks of the Hyphasis River (now known as the Beas River) in northern India, which is shown on the far-right side of the map. The long note in Latin in the upper right-hand corner summarizes Alexander’s career and conquests, which are ...
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Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia; Or, Military Service Under the Khedive, in his Provinces and Beyond their Borders, as Experienced by the American Staff
William McEntyre Dye (1831–99) was a graduate of the United States Military Academy, a former colonel in the United States Army, and a veteran of the American Civil War. In late 1873, Dye entered the service of Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt and Sudan, who was recruiting, with the assistance of General William T. Sherman, American officers to serve as advisors in his army. Egypt was at that time formally still part of the Ottoman Empire, but it exercised a high degree of autonomy. Dye served as assistant ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cairo to Kisumu: Egypt-Sudan-Kenya Colony
Cairo to Kisumu: Egypt-Sudan-Kenya Colony was the fifth in a series of books known as Carpenter’s World Travels, written by Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) in the 1920s and published by the Garden City, New York, firm of Doubleday, Page & Company. Carpenter was an American author of books on travel and world geography whose geographical readers were popular in American schools in the early 20th century. Cairo to Kisumu is not an account of a single journey, but a composite based on the notes Carpenter made on several trips ...
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Journey to Ethiopia, Eastern Sudan, and Nigritia
Pierre Trémaux (1818-95) was a French architect, traveler, photographer, and amateur scientist who, in 1847-48, voyaged up the Nile to Nubia, Ethiopia, and eastern Sudan. Trémaux described the geology, flora and fauna, architectural monuments, and people of these countries in several works published in France in the 1850s and early 1860s. Some scholars consider his descriptions and sketches of Lower Nubia to be especially valuable, since much of this area now is covered by Lake Nubia, the extension into Sudan of Lake Nasser, created when the Aswan High Dam was ...
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A Drawing (with a Western Perspective) of the East Indies from the Promontory of Good Hope to Cape Comorin
This portolan map by the Dutch engraver, publisher, and map seller Frederick de Wit (1629 or 1630-1706) shows the Indian Ocean from the Cape of Good Hope to the west coast of India (Malabar). The map was first published in 1675 and was reprinted in 1715. It is oriented with east at the top. Kishm is placed in the present-day United Arab Emirates (UAE) and repeated as “Quaro” and “Quiximi.” The shape of the Arabian or Persian Gulf differs from that shown on other maps. There is a big island ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Map of the Great Forest Region, Showing the Routes of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, from the River Congo to the Victoria Nyanza
After his successful search for David Livingstone in 1871-72, the journalist Henry M. Stanley went on to become a celebrated African explorer in his own right. He led two further expeditions, an Anglo-American expedition in 1874-77, in which he explored the lakes of central Africa, and a relief expedition in 1887-90, ostensibly to rescue Emin Pasha (1840-92). Emin, a German explorer whose original name was Eduard Schnitzler, was the governor of Equatoria, the southernmost district of the Sudan, then ruled by Egypt. He was cut off from the outside world ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Camel Soldier of the Native Forces of the British Army
This early 20th-century photograph from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress was taken in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, a “condominium” established in 1899 in which Britain and Egypt exercised joint sovereignty. In 1898, the British and the Egyptians had joined forces to re-conquer the country after a Sudanese revolt against Egyptian rule, which had been established by force in 1821. The defense of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was the responsibility of the Egyptian Army, which stationed several regiments in Sudan. The army was under the command of the governor-general ...
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The Region of Chad and the Oudai; Ethnographic Studies, Toubou Dialect
Henri Carbou was a French colonial official and ethnographer who undertook pioneering studies of the peoples of Chad and Sudan and their languages. The groups discussed in this two-volume work include the Kanembou, the Toubou, the Ouaddai, the Arabs, and many others. Carbou’s sources included his own observations, works by Arab writers, and earlier works by Europeans, including the two great German explorers of central Africa, Heinrich Barth (1821-65) and Gustav Nachtigal (1834-85). Carbou’s works still are used by scholars interested in the dialects of Chad and Sudan.
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Map Showing the Colony of Eritrea and the Adjacent Regions, Scale of 1:250,000
Italy, a relative latecomer to the scramble by the European powers for African colonies, took control of coastal areas of present-day Eritrea in 1885. The Treaty of Wichale (Uccialli) of 1889, concluded with Emperor Menelik of Ethiopia, gave Italy sovereignty over the territory that the Italians called Eritrea, a name derived from Mare Erythraeum, the Roman designation for the Red Sea. The Italian government tasked the Florence-based Institute for Military Geography to produce detailed and precise topographical maps of the new colony. The institute published this map in 1896. The ...
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Sahara and Sudan: The Results of Six Years Travel in Africa
Sahǎrâ und Sûdân (Sahara and Sudan) is a detailed account of the six-year journey across the Sahara undertaken in 1869–75 by German explorer Gustav Nachtigal (1834–85). The son of a Lutheran pastor from the town of Eichstedt in Saxony-Anhalt, Nachtigal trained as a doctor and for several years practiced as a military surgeon in Cologne. After contracting a severe lung disease, in October 1862 he moved to Bona (present-day Annaba), Algeria, in hopes of regaining his health in the warm, dry climate. The following year he settled in ...
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Uganda in Transformation: 1876–1926
Herbert Gresford Jones (1870–1958) was an Anglican cleric and missionary to Uganda. He studied at Cambridge University and was ordained in 1895. After serving as a vicar at churches in England and as a chaplain with the British forces in World War I, he went to Uganda in 1920, where he was bishop suffragan of Kampala until 1923. Uganda in Transformation: 1876–1926 is Jones’s account of the development of the Anglican Church in Uganda since the arrival of the first British missionaries in 1877. In a series ...
Central Africa: Naked Truths of Naked People
Charles Chaillé-Long (1842–1917) was an American from the state of Maryland who enlisted as a private in the Union Army in the Civil War, fought in the Battle of Gettysburg, and rose to the rank of captain. In 1870 he was one of the approximately 50 former Union and Confederate officers recruited to assist the khedive of Egypt in developing a national army. He became chief of staff to General Charles (“Chinese”) Gordon when Gordon was governor of Equatoria Province in Sudan. In that capacity, in April 1874 Chaillé-Long ...