1,709 results in English
Map of Greenland
This map of Greenland is by Hans Poulsen Egede (1686–1758), the Norwegian-born Lutheran clergyman and missionary known as the “Apostle of Greenland.” Egede made two journeys, in 1723 and in 1724, to explore the west coast of Greenland with the goals of mapping the coastline and obtaining information about the ancient Norse settlements on the island. Egede lived and worked in Greenland from 1721 to 1736. Upon his return to Denmark, he had this map made and published a book, Omstændelig og udførlig relation, angaaende den grønlandske missions begyndelse ...
Map of Bolivia
This 1894 map of Bolivia highlights the country’s main geographic features, including the Andes Mountains in the west and the lowlands in the east. The map shows major towns and cities, the capitals of departments, departmental borders, completed and projected railroads, highways, and navigable rivers. Mines for copper, gold, silver, and tin are indicated, reflecting Bolivia’s role as a major mineral producer. Neighboring parts of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, and Peru are shown. Territory in the northeastern part of the country, near the border with Brazil, is identified ...
Map of Sweden
This map shows the Kingdom of Sweden as it appeared at the end of the 18th century. At the time, the kingdom included present-day Sweden as well as Finland, which, however, was lost to the Russian Empire in 1809. The map is the work of Samuel Gustaf Hermelin (1744-1820), a Swedish industrialist and diplomat who also practiced cartography. Hermelin studied mining at the University of Uppsala before traveling to the United States to study industrialization. While in North America, he was instrumental in establishing diplomatic relations between Sweden and the ...
Afghanistan: A Map
This map, published in New York in 1879, appears to have been made to inform American audiences about the war then underway in Afghanistan. The conflict, which became known as the Second Anglo-Afghan War, began in November 1878, when Great Britain invaded Afghanistan from British India in order to check what it perceived as the growth of Russian influence in the country. The map was compiled, drawn, and published by Captains Jackson and Wyndham, who are identified only as “Late, H.B.M. Service,” meaning recently in the service of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Kafiristan
Kafiristan, or “The Land of the Infidels,” was a region in eastern Afghanistan where the inhabitants had retained their traditional culture and religion and rejected conversion to Islam. In 1896 the ruler of Afghanistan, Amir 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (reigned 1880−1901), conquered the area and brought it under Afghan control. The Kafirs became Muslims and in 1906 the region was renamed Nuristan, meaning the “Land of Light,” a reference to the enlightenment brought by Islam. Kafiristan was visited by British expeditions and survey missions in the 1870s and 1880s and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Havana
Estéban Pichardo (1799−1879) was one of Cuba’s most important figures in the area of scientific research in the 19th century and its leading representative in the fields of geography and cartography. Plano de la Habana (Map of Havana) is part of a larger work in 35 sheets, Carta Geo-hidro-topográfica de la Isla de Cuba (Geo-hydro-topographic map of the island of Cuba) that Esteban published in 1874–75. Esteban adopted a set of geographic symbols very similar to those used in contemporary maps. His maps also reflected a high ...
Map of the Sea
The Carta marina of the Swedish geographer and historian Olaus Magnus is one of the earliest accurate cartographic depictions of the Scandinavian peninsula. Drafted in Rome in 1539, by one of the more prominent Scandinavian Catholics in higher ecclesiastical service, it contains detail that is lacking in many other early maps of the region. Originally intended for his Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (A description of the Nordic peoples), the map was published some 15 years before the appearance of this majestic work. Olaus Magnus is generally regarded as the first ...
Map of Indochina
This map of Indochina, published under the auspices of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Colonies, was compiled by Pierre-Paul Cupet (1859-1907), Jean-Baptiste Friquegnon (1858-1934), and Joseph de Malglaive (1862-1914), all officers in the French Army and members of the Pavie Mission. Auguste Pavie (1847-1925) was a French naval officer, explorer, and colonial administrator who, between 1879 and 1895, led a series of expeditions in Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and southern China. These expeditions undertook cartographic surveys and ethnographic studies, producing a large body of maps, photographs, and written documentation ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Sigüenza Map
This map is a cartographic history of the migration of the Aztec from Aztlán to Tenochtitlan. Created in the pictographic style typical of the central Mexican and Puebla valleys during the Post-Classical period, it is the only map of its kind known to exist. It is thought to date from the 16th century. The map shows the path of the migration, along with the story of the places passed and of the migration itself. Alongside the glyph for each location are symbols representing the amount of time spent in each ...
Annotations to Maps
The original inscription of this work reads: “Compiled by Li Rihua of Jiahe; supplemented by Lu Zhongmin of Qianjiang; and edited by Qian Weiqi of Gulin.” Si ku quan shu zong mu (General catalog of the imperial Siku collection) records three of Li Rihua’s works, but not this title, which leads to the conclusion that Li may not have been its author. However, the prefaces of several other reference works claim that Li Rihua was the author of this work and that it was edited and supplemented by Lu ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Africa
This 1820 map of Africa by Adrien Hubert Brué (1786-1832), one of the leading French cartographers of the day, shows the state of European geographic knowledge of Africa in the early 19th century. Unlike many sedentary mapmakers, the Parisian Brué had traveled widely from a young age, on long sailing voyages to Mauritius in the Indian Ocean and as a midshipman on a French naval expedition along the Australian coast. These voyages damaged Brué’s health, however, so that he returned to Paris where he began to draft maps under ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Australia
Adrien Brué (1786-1832) accompanied the French explorer Nicolas Baudin on his 1803 voyage to Australia. Baudin described Brué as “a young man of good disposition and with a zeal for geography,” and named the Brué Reef off Australia’s northwestern coast in his honor. Brué returned to France to become the royal geographer and an important publisher of high-quality maps. The detailed notes on this 1826 map identify its sources. Brué calls Australia “New Holland,” the name first given to it in 1644 by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman. Only ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the World
While under nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact during the Edo period (1600-1868), the Japanese people still maintained a curiosity in foreign cultures. World maps in particular are indications of how the Japanese perceived their country and its position in the international community. Many were published in the port city of Yokohama and popularized for both informational and entertainment purposes. This map, a woodcut dating from the second half of the 19th century, depicts an enormous archipelago representing Japan at the center of the world. Images of a Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the World
This late 18th-century Latin map of the world by the Augsburg map publisher Tobias Lotter (1717-77) is based on an earlier map by the French cartographer Guillaume de l'Isle (1675-1726). De l'Isle was among the group of French cartographers who wrested mapmaking preeminence from the Dutch in the late 17th century. De l’Isle was a child prodigy, having drawn his first map at age nine. He was trained in history and geography, as well as in mathematics and astronomy. He drew extensively on classical Arabic and Persian ...
Map of Bahia
This early-18th century manuscript map by an unknown cartographer shows the interior of the Brazilian state of Bahia, still largely uncharted at that time. The Portuguese began to explore this region as early as 1501, and soon developed it into a center for growing and processing sugar. The sugar was exported from several of Bahia's coastal cities, the most important of which was Salvador.
Map of Florida
David H. Burr (1803–75) was a surveyor and cartographer, who served as topographer to the United States Post Office Department in 1832–38 and as geographer to the House of Representatives in 1838–47. Under the direction of the postmaster general, Burr compiled information from postmasters throughout the country about transportation routes—post roads, railroads, and canals—and the location of post offices to produce a large set of state and regional maps. Published in 1839 by the prominent London mapmaking firm of John Arrowsmith, Burr’s The American ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maps of the Japanese Coastal Areas (Ino Maps)
Inō Tadataka (1745−1818) was a famous Japanese surveyor and cartographer during the Edo period. He is known for completing the first map of Japan based on actual measurements, which he himself made by traveling throughout the country over a period of many years. Dainihon enkai yochi zenzu (Maps of the Japanese coastal areas) was compiled as a final version of Tadataka’s many maps and was presented to the shogunate in 1821. The work, which covers almost the entire country, is composed of three sets of maps of different ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Map of Lesser Antilles
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Santiago Bay
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Peninsula of Florida
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This circa 1639 map of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Brazilian Empire
This detailed map of Imperial Brazil was drawn by Conrado Jacob Niemeyer (1788-1862) after an earlier map by Duarte da Ponte Ribeiro, the Baron of Ponte Ribeiro (1795-1878). After beginning his career as a doctor, Ponte Ribeiro became an important diplomat during the early years of Brazilian independence, representing his country in Portugal, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Niemeyer was an engineer best known for constructing, at his own expense, a major road connecting the different districts of Rio de Janeiro; this road now bears his name.
The Oztoticpac Lands Map
Dated at approximately 1540, this map, a Mexican pictorial document with writing in Spanish and Nahuatl, relates to a lawsuit concerning the estate of Don Carlos Ometochtli Chichimecatecotl, an Aztec lord and one of the many sons of Nezahualpilli, ruler of Texcoco. Don Carlos was charged with heresy and publicly executed by the Spanish authorities on November 30, 1539. Litigation began on December 31, 1540, when a man identified as Pedro de Vergara petitioned the Inquisition to return to him certain fruit trees taken from the property of Don Carlos ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Mayance Nations and Languages
This circa-1934 map, prepared for Maya Society Quarterly and printed by the National Printing Office, Guatemala, shows the distribution of the Mayance (Mayan) nations and languages in present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, and western Honduras in the period from about 1000 to 1500. The map is based on the research of William E. Gates (1863–1940), an American Mayanist and collector of Mesoamerican manuscripts who worked for many decades on deciphering Maya hieroglyphic writing. Among the languages mapped by Gates are Maya (now known as Yucatec Maya), Cholti, Q'eqchi', and ...
Map of the Argentine Railways
Between 1880 and 1915, the Argentine railroad network expanded from 1,388 miles (2,234 kilometers) to 22,251 miles (35,809 kilometers) in length, making it the longest on the continent of South America and the eighth longest in the world. Railroads played a key role in economic development and national consolidation and made possible Argentina’s emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of ...
Map of the Republic of Colombia
This 1891 map of Colombia depicts the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. It shows national and departmental borders, the capitals of departments, other cities, villages, railroads (completed and projected), and highways. Present-day Panama, which did not become independent until 1903, is still shown as a department of Colombia. The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, from Colón to Panama City, is indicated, but the Panama Canal has not yet been built. The eastern part of the country is shown as thinly settled and not well mapped ...
Map of the Republic of Costa Rica
This 1891 map of Costa Rica shows the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. The key, in the upper-right-hand corner, is in Spanish and English. Indicated on the map are the national capital, San José; provincial capitals; principal cities; minor cities; and railroads (in operation, under construction, projected, and “contracted for and soon to be built”). The highest mountains, volcanoes, and craters are indicated by the numbered key, and their heights given (inaccurately) in both feet and meters. The country’s seven provinces—Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia ...
Map of the Dominican Republic
The division of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola into the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic and French-speaking Haiti goes back to the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, under which Spain transferred the western third of what was then the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo to France. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777, the French and Spanish empires defined precisely the border between their respective territories on the island. Part of the present-day border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic still follows the line negotiated in 1777, but adjustments to the border ...
Railway Map of Jamaica
This map, produced in the 1920s by the Transportation Department of the United States Department of Commerce, shows the railroads and rail stations of Jamaica, at that time a crown colony within the British Empire. Also shown are the island’s main roads and its three counties—Cornwall, Middlesex, and Surrey—and their borders. The scale of the map is in statute miles (1 mile = 1.61 kilometers). The Western Jamaica Connecting Railway was built in 1845. Running from Kingston to Angels, a distance of some 23 kilometers, it was ...
Railroad Map of British Honduras
This map, produced in the 1920s by the Transportation Department of the United States Department of Commerce, shows the railroad network of British Honduras (present-day Belize). Under the Treaty of Versailles of 1783, the Spanish Empire granted Britain the right to harvest timber in the region between the Hondo and Belize Rivers. In 1862 the crown colony of British Honduras was established. Apart from British Guiana, it was the only British possession on the mainland of Latin America. The colony was important to Britain chiefly as a source of logwood ...
Railroad Map of Trinidad
This map, produced by the Transportation Department of the United States Department of Commerce in 1925, shows the railroad network of Trinidad. The main rail line in Trinidad was the Trinidad Government Railway, which originally was built in 1876 to connect the major city of Port of Spain with Arima. It later was extended to other inland towns. In addition to railroad lines and tramways, the map shows towns and counties and county boundaries. Originally claimed for Spain by Christopher Columbus in 1498, Trinidad was seized by Britain in 1797 ...
Map of the Colonies of Suriname and Berbice
This 18th-century map shows the Dutch plantations in Suriname and Berbice. The map is oriented with the north at the bottom. The names ascribed to locations outside the neatly demarcated plantations suggest resistance to Dutch domination by local Indians, indentured servants, and slaves imported from Africa. They include several places marked “rebel villages,” “village of runaways,” and “village of rebel slaves.” The inset map in the upper right gives a detailed view of Paramaribo, the chief city and port of Suriname.  The numbered key lists the main streets, along with ...
Sketch Map of British Guiana
Robert Hermann Schomburgk (1804–65) was a British naturalist and surveyor known for his pioneering surveys of British Guiana (present-day Guyana). Born and educated in Germany, he traveled to the West Indies in 1830 where he completed a survey of one of the Virgin Islands that was published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1835–39, under the direction of the Royal Geographical Society, he explored the Essequibo and Berbice Rivers in northern South America and completed a survey of British Guiana. Upon returning to Europe, he ...
Maps of Shazhou in Jiangyin County
The land on which Shazhou, Jiangyin County, Jiangsu Province (present-day Zhangjiagang) is located was formed by alluvial deposits of the Yangtze River over a period of thousands of years. As the land grew and changed, local people made paintings of the area, which they petitioned the authorities to acquire. Measurements of the narrow strip of land formed by the river deposits differed, and those seeking to obtain land often conspired with officials, resulting in lawsuits and disorder. Two officials, Wu Heng and Xie Cunbin, together with the magistrate of Jiangyin ...
Contributed by National Central Library
The Complete World Map
The author of this work is unknown. The name of the person who copied the manuscript appears at the end of the work, signed Zhou Yousheng. Some have attributed authorship to Ai Nanying (1583–1646), a late-Ming essayist and literary critic, who wrote a work entitled Yu Gong tu zhu (Explanatory text to the map of the Yu Gong), the central concept of which was the traditional Chinese view on geography. According to that view, Yu of the Xia dynasty (circa 2070–circa 1600 BC) divided the Middle Kingdom into ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Map of the Lone Star Route
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1922, shows the proposed Lone Star Route from Chicago, Illinois, to Brownsville, Texas, through the states of Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. To increase the commercial and ...
Map of the Meridian Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the proposed Meridian Route, running from the U.S.–Canada border in North Dakota to Galveston, Texas, and the U.S.–Mexico border at Laredo. The ...
Map of the Pacific Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Pacific Highway, proposed by the Pacific Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Blaine, Washington, to San Diego, California, a ...
Map of the Rocky Mountain Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Rocky Mountain Highway, proposed by the Rocky Mountain Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Glacier National Park in Montana ...
Map of the Dixie Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Dixie Highway, proposed by the Dixie Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Mackinaw City, Michigan, to Miami, Florida. In ...
Map of the Sunshine Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Sunshine Highway, proposed by the Sunshine Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border in Washington ...
Map of the Mississippi Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Mississippi Highway, proposed by the Mississippi Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to New Orleans, a distance ...
Map of the Great Plains Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Plains Road, proposed by the Great Plains Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border ...