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Region Between Amazon River and São Paulo
This pen-and-ink watercolor map shows the course of the Amazon River, including its minor tributaries and the towns located along its banks. Although much of the area along the Amazon was controlled by indigenous people through the early colonial period, settlers established towns along the riverbanks to support trade and exploration into Brazil’s interior. The largest of these towns was Belem, which appears on the map.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Java and Australia
This manuscript map of Java and the tip of northern Australia is a copy of an earlier work by the Malaysian-Portuguese cartographer Emanuel Godinho de Eredia (1563-1623). In the 16th century, Portugal sent several expeditions to explore the islands south of Malaysia; it is possible that they gained some knowledge about the geography of Australia from these missions. Some scholars have speculated that the Malays had a knowledge of Australia, which Eredia somehow absorbed. The first documented European sighting of Australia was by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606.
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National Library of Brazil
Fortress of Brum in Pernambuco
This 19th-century plan, made by a captain in the Brazilian Army’s inspectorate of fortresses, shows the fortress at Brum, which was constructed by the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 17th century.
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National Library of Brazil
Map of the Brazilian Empire
This detailed map of Imperial Brazil was drawn by Conrado Jacob Niemeyer (1788-1862) after an earlier map by Duarte da Ponte Ribeiro, the Baron of Ponte Ribeiro (1795-1878). After beginning his career as a doctor, Ponte Ribeiro became an important diplomat during the early years of Brazilian independence, representing his country in Portugal, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Niemeyer was an engineer best known for constructing, at his own expense, a major road connecting the different districts of Rio de Janeiro; this road now bears his name.
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National Library of Brazil
Fortress of Dio: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the fortress of Diu, located on an island off the northwest coast of India. In 1509, the Portuguese defeated the forces of the Sultan of Gujarat in the Battle of Diu, thereby securing dominance over trade routes in the Indian Ocean. Construction of this fortress-garrison complex began in 1535, under an agreement with the sultan, but the agreement fell apart and the sultan’s troops attacked the fort in 1537. The fortress was reconstructed in 1545 by João de Castro (1500-48), a Portuguese naval commander and the ...
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National Library of Brazil
Fortress of Chaul: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the fortress of Chaul, one of Portugal’s defense complexes along the western coast of India. The Portuguese first settled at Chaul in 1521 and constructed a fort, which was rebuilt several times. The structure shown in this drawing most likely is the one built in 1613, which featured expanded defense works.
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National Library of Brazil
Fortress of Ormuz: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the Portuguese fort at Ormuz, located on the Persian Gulf island of Hormuz. In its heyday, Ormuz was one of the most important ports in the Middle East, controlling trading routes between India and East Africa. Before coming under Portuguese control in the early 1500s, Ormuz was a city-state that flourished as an independent kingdom. Its prime location along trade routes made it one of the wealthiest cities in the world. The Portuguese controlled the city and its port from 1515 until 1622, when they were expelled ...
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National Library of Brazil
Map in Which the Rivers on Argentina, Parana and Paraguay are Described Most Exactly for the First Time, When a Beginning was Made by the New Colony as Far as the Mouth of the Jauru River
This atlas of colonial South America is by Miguel Antonio Ciera. A noted mathematician and professor of astronomy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, Ciera was part of an expedition sent to demarcate the border between Spanish and Portuguese holdings in South America following signature of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid and the 1756 Guarani War. The atlas focuses on the southern part of the continent, in the watershed of the Paraná River, where the borders were most disputed. The territory in the atlas includes present-day Argentina and Paraguay ...
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National Library of Brazil
The Lusiads
Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is the national epic of Portugal. Written by the poet, soldier, and sailor Luís de Camões (circa 1524–80) and first published in 1572, it celebrates the great Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469–1524) and the achievements of Portugal (known during the Roman Empire as the province of Lusitania, hence the title) and its people in venturing out into the Atlantic, rounding the tip of Africa, and forging a path to the East Indies. Manuel de Faria e Sousa (1590–1649) was a Portuguese historian ...
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Library of Congress
Isabel, Brazilian Princess
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II and, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1889, the heir to the Brazilian throne. It was taken by Joaquim José ...
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National Library of Brazil
Nova Friburgo Train Station
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the train station at Nova Friburgo, which was part of the Cantagalo Railroad that linked the city of Porto das Caixas in Itaboraí state with the ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Imperial Palace and Surroundings
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Summer Palace was a favorite residence of Pedro II, who initiated its construction in the Rio de Janeiro suburb of Petrópolis in 1845. In 1943, the Summer Palace ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Mother Church: Front View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Igreja Matriz (Mother Church) of Petrópolis was located on Imperatriz Street, now known as Sete de Setembro Street. The church was demolished in 1924, but one of its ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Emperor Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Nassau Street and Kopke College
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Artists Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Bourbon Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Praça da Confluência Park and Residence of the Barão de Mauá
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The neoclassical residence of the Barão de Mauá stands at the beginning of Rio Branco Avenue in Petrópolis. Irineu Evangelista de Souza, the Barão de Mauá (1813-89), purchased it ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Dom Afonso Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Joinville Street and Lane
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Rhenania Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil