37 results in English
Clark's Map of 1810
When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in April 1803, the extent and character of the land was uncharted. On May 14, 1804, Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out on an expedition to explore the new territory that would fundamentally change Americans’ conceptions of their country. Clark served as the expedition’s principal cartographer. After completing the three-year journey from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean and back, Clark worked at compiling a comprehensive map of the American West, using his personal knowledge and information gleaned from ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Arabic Primer of Calligraphy
Muhammad Shafiq (died 1879) was a major Ottoman calligrapher who excelled in instructional calligraphic pieces. This particular work, filled throughout with intricate arabesque floral designs typical of the late Ottoman period, is in a notable Arabic calligraphic style, the naskhi script, which connects the Arabic letters to one another in a harmonious way. Of interest in this particular work is the binding, which reveals the origins of the manuscript. The typical flap is a hallmark of most valuable Islamic bindings throughout history. The covers are richly gilt in floral decorations ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Fuli
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Kimbo
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Little Kale
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Marqu
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Pona
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Saby
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Boro
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Fargina
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Farquanar
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Malhue
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Sar
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Grabo. The Armistad [sic] Negroes, Drawn from Life, by Wm. H. Townsend.
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Bana
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Bar
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Pona
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Unidentified Man
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Bungair
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Fuli
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Kezzuza
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Suma
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Yuang
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Unidentified Young Man
In 1839, the Spanish slave ship Amistad set sail from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. The ship was carrying 53 Africans who, a few months earlier, had been abducted from their homeland in present-day Sierra Leone to be sold in Cuba. The captives revolted against the ship’s crew, killing the captain and others, but sparing the life of the ship’s navigator so that he could set them on a course back to Africa. Instead, the navigator directed the ship north and west. After several weeks, a U.S ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Seventy-two Specimens of Castes in India: "All people, nations and languages shall serve Him." ... Presented to the Reverend William Twining as a Token of Obligation by His...Friend Daniel Poor...
This illustrated manuscript made in southern India in 1837 consists of 72 full-color hand-painted images of men and women of the various castes and religious and ethnic groups found in Madura, India, at that time. As indicated on the presentation page, the album was compiled by the Indian writing master at an English school established by American missionaries in Madura, and given to the Reverend William Twining. The manuscript shows the Madura region's Indian dress and jewelry adornment, as they appeared before the onset of Western influences on South ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Journal of Magellan's Voyage
This manuscript volume, dating from around 1525, details Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world in 1519-22. The work is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, a Venetian scholar who was born in Vincenza, Italy, around 1490 and who accompanied Magellan on the voyage. Pigafetta kept a detailed journal, the original of which is lost. However, an account of the voyage, written by Pigafetta between 1522 and 1525, survives in four manuscript versions: one in Italian and three in French. This version, in French, is from the library of Yale University, and ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Illustrations of China and Its People: A Series of Two Hundred Photographs, with Letterpress Descriptive of the Places and People Represented
John Thomson (1837-1921) was the first known photographer to document the people and landscape of China for publication and dissemination to the Western world. Between 1868 and 1872, he traveled over 6,500 kilometers with his camera, equipment, and darkroom, capturing all aspects of Chinese life. The photographs in these four volumes show the many sides of China: sweeping landscapes, royalty and ruling classes, merchants and economic activity, everyday life, and the faces of men, women, and children. Thomson was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of a tobacco spinner ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
A Treasury of Medicine
Thābit ibn Qurrah al-Ḥarrānī (died 901) was born in Harran, present-day Turkey, and died in Baghdad. A member of the Sabian religious sect, he was an astronomer, physician, mathematician, and fluent in Syriac, Arabic, and Greek. Kitāb al-Dhakhīrah fī ʻilm al-ṭibb (A treasury of medicine) contains 31 chapters, starting with hygiene and ending with sexual intercourse. This manuscript was probably copied in the 16th century and is bound with Sharḥ Urjūzat Ibn Sīnā fī al-ṭibb by Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (1126–98), known also by the Latinized version of ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Farah’s Encyclopedia of Nature
This Persian manuscript contains the text and accompanying illustrations of Faraḥ nāmah (Farah’s encyclopedia of nature), also known by the title Ajayib al-dunya (Wonders of the world). The work is a treatise on natural history by al-Muṭahhar ibn Muḥammad al-Yazdi (flourished circa 1184). The manuscript was copied in the 17th century in a large Taliq script, and is illuminated with detailed multicolored illustrations of animals, birds, plants, rocks, and humans. Persian miniature painting was becoming a fine art genre in the 12th–13th centuries, and portrayal of the ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
On Anatomical Procedures
The Greek physician Galen (Jālīnūs in Arabic, circa 131–201) was one of the greatest medical writers in classical times, and one of the most prolific. He was born in Pergamon, in present-day Turkey, and spent much of his life in Rome, where he promoted the ideas of Hippocrates. He emphasized dissection (of apes and pigs), clinical observation, and thorough examination of patient and symptoms. Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-ʻIbādī (circa 809–73), a renowned translator of Greek medical texts, translated Galen's major work, On Anatomical Procedures, from Greek into ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Tables of the Body for Treatment
Between 1050 and 1150, a new medical literary form was espoused by several physicians living in different cities in the Arab world—the tabular form. One of these physicians was Yaḥyá ibn ʻĪsá ibn Jazlah, a Christian born in Baghdad, who converted to Islam in 1074 and died in Baghdad in 1100. In this work, Taqwīm al-abdān fī tadbīr al-insān (Tables of the body for treatment), Ibn Jazlah divides diseases into 44 categories. Each category comprises eight conditions, and each condition is discussed in 12 columns, with the following titles ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
The Sea of Gems
Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf al-Harawī, who flourished in the late 15th–early 16th centuries, was a physician and author of at least two medical treatises, including this lexicon Baḥr al-jawāhir (The sea of gems). It is a medical dictionary arranged alphabetically, covering anatomical and pathological terms and concepts and medicinal substances. The colophon gives the composition date as 924 AH (1518 AD). This manuscript was copied in 1601 in a clear medium-sized naskh script with some rubrication. The manuscript was a gift of Harvey Cushing (1869–1939), a Yale-educated neurosurgeon, whose ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
The Comprehensive Book on Medicine
One of the earliest pioneers in the history of medicine, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā al-Rāzī  (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Rhazes or Rasis, circa 865–circa 925) was a Muslim Persian polymath, physician, and philosopher. He was born in the city of Rayy, near present-day Tehran, Iran, and spent most of his life between his birthplace and Baghdad, the capital city of the Abbasid caliphate. He taught medicine and was the chief physician in both cities. He made major and lasting contributions to the fields ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
The Complete Art of Medicine
Kitāb Kāmil al-ṣināʻah al-ṭibbīyah: al-maʻrūf bi-al-Malaki (The complete art of medicine) is the only known work by Ali Ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi (died 994), also known by his Latinized name, Haly Abbas. Al-Majusi was born near Shiraz, Persia (present-day Iran), early in the 10th century. Little is known about his background, but his nickname, al- Majusi, suggests that he or his father was originally a Zoroastrian. He trained as a physician and served King Adud al-Dulwa (died 983), to whom the Kitab Kamil is dedicated. The work consists of 20 treatises ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
A Compendium of Medicine
The author of this untitled medical treatise is unknown. The introduction states that the work consists of four chapters: 1) on the basic principles of classification of medical sciences; 2) on medication and nutrition; 3) on diseases that infect certain parts of the body; and 4) on diseases that infect other parts of the body. The main text is in Arabic, and some notes are in Persian. The manuscript, written in a Nastaliq script with nine lines per page, is difficult to date because the colophon is missing. A printed ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
The Canon of Medicine
Al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sīnā (980–1037), commonly known by the Latinized version of his name Avicenna, was born near Bukhara in Persia (present-day Uzbekistan). He was the most famous and influential of the many Islamic scholars, scientists, and philosophers of the medieval world. He was foremost a physician but was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, psychologist, philosopher, logician, mathematician, physicist, and poet. His Al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb (The canon of medicine) became the authoritative reference on medicine in the Middle Ages, not only in the Islamic world but ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
Manṣūr’s Anatomy
The Persian physician Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Ilyās, who flourished around 1384, came from a family of physicians and other intellectuals living in the city of Shiraz in present-day Iran. Tashrīḥ-i badan-i insān (The anatomy of the human body), usually known as Tashrīḥ-i Manṣūrī (Manṣūr’s anatomy), is his best-known work. It contains the earliest surviving Islamic anatomical illustrations of the whole human body. They include full-page figures, drawn in pen using various colors of ink. The treatise consists of an introduction followed by chapters on the bones, nerves, muscles ...
Contributed by Yale University Library