21 results in English
Quadruple Spectacle of Wonders
Admirandorum Quadruplex Spectaculum (Quadruple spectacle of wonders) is a book of cityscapes and landscapes by Jan van Call (1656−1703), an engraver and draftsman from the Dutch city of Nijmegen. Produced circa 1700, the book is one of the earliest experiments involving multicolor printing. Van Call had undertaken a long journey to Rome, in the course of which he traveled up the Rhine from Amsterdam to Schaffhausen, Switzerland. He made drawings of landscapes and cityscapes, which attracted the attention of Amsterdam-based publisher and engraver Pieter Schenk (1660−1718). Schenk selected ...
Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. Part 2
Books of hours are prayer books for the personal use of laymen, often beautifully illuminated, dating from the late-medieval period. The National Library of the Netherlands has a large collection of these works, one of the most beautiful of which is the Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. The illuminations in the manuscript are largely by artists whose identity is unknown and who therefore are referred to by a name derived from their work. The Book of Hours of Simon de Varie contains illuminations by the Master of Jean ...
Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. Part 1
Books of hours are prayer books for the personal use of laymen, often beautifully illuminated, dating from the late-medieval period. The National Library of the Netherlands has a large collection of these works, one of the most beautiful of which is the Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. The illuminations in the manuscript are largely by artists whose identity is unknown, and who therefore are referred to by a name that is derived from their work. The Book of Hours of Simon de Varie contains illuminations by the Master ...
The Flower of Nature
Jacob van Maerlant (circa 1235−1300) was arguably the most important Dutch poet of the 13th century. He produced a verse translation of the Bible (the Rijmbijbel) and an adaptation, Spiegel historiael, of the Speculum historiale by Vincent of Beauvais (died 1264), a history of the world to the year 1250. The manuscript shown here, Der naturen bloeme (The flower of nature), is an adaptation of De natura rerum (The nature of things) by the philosopher and theologian Thomas of Cantimpré (circa 1200−circa 1270). De natura rerum ultimately derives ...
Armorial of Cornelis van Aeken, or Beyeren Armorial
The Beyeren Armorial, also known as the Armorial of Cornelis van Aeken, was compiled by Claes Heynenzoon (also known as the Gelre Herald, circa 1345−1414), who was Ruwieren King of Arms, the chief herald of the Netherlands, around 1400.  Heraldry had steadily increased in importance throughout the Middle Ages. In tournaments and on the battlefield, knights were unrecognizable once they donned their helmet and armor, unless they used a coat of arms as an identifying symbol. The coats of arms also were used to indicate the noble lord to ...
A.B.C. For Soldiers on Leave
A.B.C. For Soldiers on Leave was written by Max Lowland (pseudonym for Max Schuchart, 1920−2005) and illustrated by Jos Ruting (pseudonym for Josef Bernard, 1908−87) as a humorous guide for Allied soldiers stationed in or visiting the Netherlands in the period after World War II. It was produced by Joh. M. Allis, a Dutch publisher of picture and children’s books. The book appealed to large numbers of Canadian soldiers engaged in the liberation of the Netherlands who were unable to return home straight away after ...
Adriaen Coenen’s “Fish Book”
In 1577, at the age of 63, Adriaen Coenen, from the Dutch fishing port of Scheveningen, started his Visboek (Fish book). Over a period of three years he collected all kinds of information about the sea, coasts and coastal waters, fishing grounds, and marine animals, in all producing 410 expert pages. Throughout his life Coenen had earned his living from the sea, as a fisherman, salvage master, and from 1574 as official fish auctioneer at Scheveningen. Coenen made nearly every page into a miniature work of art by framing his ...
The Album Amicorum of Jacob Heyblocq
In the days of Jacob Heyblocq (1623−90), friendship books (referred to by their Latin name, alba amicorum) were popular among students who traveled from university to university. Traveling scholars took the books with them on their university tours. When they met notable figures they wanted to remember, they asked these people to write a brief inscription in their book. The inscriptions usually consisted of short quotations and expressions of friendship, along with the date and a signature. Sometimes students had their portraits or their family coat of arms drawn ...
Trivulzio Book of Hours
The Trivulzio Book of Hours is one of the most important, and certainly the most costly, gifts ever presented to a Dutch cultural institution. Given in 2001 by a donor who wished to remain anonymous, the manuscript represents the return of a spectacular item of cultural heritage that had been presumed destroyed. The manuscript formerly belonged to the collection of the princes of Trivulzio in Milan, but by the early 20th century its whereabouts were no longer known. The manuscript was made in about 1470 in Flanders, probably in Bruges ...
Journal of New Netherland 1647. Written in the Years 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645, and 1646
Willem Kieft (1597–1647) was a Dutch merchant who was appointed by the West India Company as director-general of New Netherland in 1638. Kieft instituted a harsh policy toward the Indians of the colony, whom he attempted to tax and drive from their land. In 1643, a contingent of soldiers under Kieft attacked a Raritan village on Staten Island in a dispute over pigs allegedly stolen from a Dutch farm. This led to the bloody, two-year conflict known as Kieft’s war, which raged in parts of what is now ...
Complaint by Some Members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Living at Raritan, etc in [...] New Jersey [...] about the Behavior [...] of Dominie Theodorus Jacobus Frilinghuisen and his Church Council
In 1664, the Dutch colony of New Netherland ceased to exist when Governor Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender New Amsterdam--soon to be renamed New York--to an English fleet. Many residents of what became the British colonies of New York and New Jersey continued to speak Dutch and to worship in churches where services were conducted in Dutch. This pamphlet, published in New York in 1725, concerns a dispute within a Dutch Reformed congregation in Raritan, "in the Province of New Jersey, in North America, under the Crown of Great ...
Articles about the Transfer of New Netherland on the 27th of August, Old Style, Anno 1664
On August 27, 1664, a fleet of four British warships under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into the harbor of New Amsterdam (present-day New York City) and demanded that Peter Stuyvesant, the director-general of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, surrender the colony to the British. The out-gunned Stuyvesant had no choice but to comply, and under English rule Nicolls became the first governor of the renamed Province of New York. This document lists the articles of capitulation by which the colony was surrendered and that established the ...
Remonstration of the Administrators of the Dutch West India Company to their Lords the State General about Several Examples of Tyranny and Violence by the English in New Netherland
In the 1660s, colonists from the English colonies of Connecticut and Massachusetts to the east and northeast and Maryland and Virginia to the south and southwest increasingly infringed on the Dutch colony of New Netherland, which was located in parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut. This remonstrance, or complaint, published in Schiedam in 1663, was an appeal by the directors of the West India Company to the States-General, the ruling body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, for increased protection against the incursions of the ...
Brief and Concise Plan Intended to be a Mutual Agreement for Some Colonists Willing to go to the South River in New Netherland
Pieter Cornelis Plockhoy was a Dutch Mennonite and social reformer, born in the city of Zierikzee circa 1625. He moved to Amsterdam in 1648, where he became well known in the city’s intellectual circles. In 1658 he went to London where he tried unsuccessfully to gain the support of Oliver Cromwell, the antiroyalist Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, for the establishment of utopian settlements in England. Plockhoy returned to Netherlands in 1661 and in 1662 concluded a contract with the Amsterdam magistrates for the establishment of a settlement on ...
Short Story about New Netherland [...] and Special Possibilities to Populate
This pamphlet, published anonymously in Amsterdam in October 1662, concerns the establishment of a settlement on the South River (as the Dutch called the Delaware River) in New Netherland by the Dutch Mennonite and social reformer Pieter Cornelis Plockhoy. The pamphlet consisted of proposals sent to the magistrates of the city of Amsterdam to gain their support for the settlement, which Plockhoy intended to be for poor and needy families and based on reformist principles. The pamphlet was partly intended to reassure investors that the settlement would also be a ...
Conditions as Created by their Lords Burgomasters of Amsterdam
This pamphlet, published in Amsterdam in 1656, contains information about the patroonships offered by the West India Company to settlers in the Dutch colony of New Netherland, and in particular about the policies of the city of Amsterdam toward overseas colonization under the terms of the agreement between the city and the West India Company. Intended to help populate the colony, the patroonships were large grants of land made to Dutch investors who agreed to establish a colony of “fifty souls, upwards of fifteen years old.” The pamphlet was, in ...
Prosperity of the West India Company
This pamphlet of 1642 contains a number of proposals to increase the profits of the Dutch West India Company for the benefit of its shareholders. The company was established in 1621 under a charter granted by the States-General, the governing body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Similar to the Dutch East India Company, which was founded in 1602 to promote trade with Asia, the West India Company was granted a 24-year monopoly on all trade by Dutch merchants and inhabitants in a region that included the Americas and ...
Freedoms, as Given by the Council of the Nineteen of the Chartered West India Company to All those who Want to Establish a Colony in New Netherland
The Lords Nineteen, the governing body of the Dutch West India Company, established the patroon system as a way to encourage the settlement of New Netherland, the Dutch colony in North America that covered parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Delaware. Patroons were wealthy Dutchmen who were given extensive tracts of land, powers of local government, and some participation in the fur trade in exchange for settling colonists in New Netherland. In June 1629, the West India Company issued the Charter of Liberties and Exemptions, which declared ...
True History and Description of a Country in America, whose Inhabitants are Savage, Naked, Very Godless and Cruel Man-Eaters
Hans Staden was born in Hesse, Germany, sometime between 1525 and 1528. He made his first voyage to Brazil in 1547-48, serving as a gunner on a Portuguese ship. In 1550 he joined a Spanish expedition to the La Plata River but was shipwrecked and eventually captured by Tupinamba Indians, who were known as cannibals who ate their captives. Staden managed by various means to avoid being killed, but spent nine months as a captive of the Tupinamba. In February 1555 he escaped to a French ship. He returned to ...
Charter Given by the High and Mighty Lords of the States General on the Date of June the Third, 1621
On June 3, 1621, the States-General, the governing body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, issued a charter to a group of Dutch merchants to establish the Dutch West India Company. Similar to the Dutch East India Company, which was founded in 1602 in order to promote trade with Asia, the West India Company was granted a 24-year monopoly on all trade by Dutch merchants and inhabitants in a region that included the Americas and West Africa. The text of the charter, published in this 1623 pamphlet, contained 45 ...
Description of New Netherland (as it is Today)
This book, published in Amsterdam in 1655, is one of the most important sources for the study of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Adriaen van der Donck was trained as a lawyer at Leiden University. In 1641–43, he worked at the vast patroonship (estate) of Rensselaerswijck, surrounding present-day Albany, New York. He then applied for and received from the West India Company his own grant of land, a large tract located just north of Manhattan in present-day Westchester County, New York. (The city of Yonkers takes its name ...