61 results in English
Outline of Western Theories of the Human Body
The text of Taixi ren shen shuo gai (Outline of Western theories of the human body) was originally dictated by Deng Yuhan (Chinese name of the German Jesuit missionary Johann Schreck, also known as Johannes Terentius, 1576−1630), who translated and compiled the work. It was later edited by Bi Gongchen (died in 1644). Schreck was the earliest Western scientist to introduce Western works on physiology and anatomy into China. This is a manuscript edition in two juan, and was based on Theatrum anatomicum by Caspar Bauhin (1560−1624), a ...
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Hong's Collection of Effective Prescriptions, in Five Juan
The imperial court of the Song dynasty placed great importance on medicine. Even scholar-officials were engaged in compiling medical books. Hong Zun (1120−74), in his spare time after his working hours, sought and collected medical prescriptions and compiled this work, entitled Hong shi ji yan fang (Hong's collection of effective prescriptions). It contains 167 prescriptions, which were collected from his many years of research and which proved to be practical and effective. The work was engraved in the sixth year of the Qiandao reign (1170) and was printed ...
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New Edition of the Manual of Acupuncture Points on a Bronze Figure, in Seven Juan
One of the unique features of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine is acupuncture. During the Northern and Southern Song (960−1279), the science of acupuncture and moxibustion and the meridian and collateral theory flourished. This science consequently became gradually systemized and standardized. The work Xin kan tong ren zhen jiu jing (New edition of the manual of acupuncture points on a bronze figure) was actually a chapter dealing with acupuncture, called “Zhen jing,” included in Taiping sheng hui fang (Taiping imperial prescriptions for universal relief), an official standard textbook of ...
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Collection of the Essential Medical Herbs of Materia Medica
Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Collection of the essential medical herbs of materia medica) was compiled and illustrated by imperial order of Emperor Xiaozong (ruled 1487−1505) of the Ming dynasty. The manuscript was completed in the 18th and last year of his reign, called Hongzhi (1505). It was the only officially published work on materia medica. After Emperor Xiaozong died, the manuscript was kept in the imperial court and not printed for more than four centuries. However, a number of expertly copied manuscripts with color illustrations did appear ...
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An Illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian Materia Medica of Ayurveda of ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia
Dri med śel phreṅ nas bśad paʼi sman gyi ʼkhruṅs dpe mdzes mtshar mig rgyan (An illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian materia medica of ayurveda of ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia) is a Tibetan book of unbound loose-leaf pages in landscape format. It was written in the first half of the 19th century in Tibetan and Mongolian, with additional Chinese scripts, by ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje (also known as Ye-śes-don-grub-bstan-paʼi-rgyal-mtshan). The work is primarily a Tibetan-Mongolian book in the Indic ayurveda tradition, with some Chinese references as well, and some captions in Chinese. The book contains drawings and ...
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Illustrated Introduction to Countries over the Seas
Hai guo tu zhi (Illustrated introduction to countries over the seas) is a comprehensive and systematic history and geography of the world and the first great masterpiece of Chinese modern history. Its source was Si zhou zhi (Encyclopedia of four continents), written by Lin Zexu (1785−1850), a scholar official and prominent figure in the campaigns of the First Opium War (1839−42). The work was compiled after consulting historical records and gazetteers as well as materials published since the Ming, particularly relating to the islands and seacoast. The first ...
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Brief Records of the World
Ying huan zhi lue (Brief records of the world) by Xu Jiyu and Hai guo tu zhi (Illustrated introduction to countries over the seas) by Wei Yuan are the first two masterpieces of modern China on world history. They are great collected works on the geography of Asia produced during the mid-19th century. Xu Jiyu’s book was completed in the 28th year of the Daoguang reign (1848), in 10 juan and 200,000 characters. After its publication it became very popular and widely disseminated. The key feature is its ...
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Plan of the Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau
Shown here is the plan of the Jiangnan General Machinery Manufacturing Bureau located in Shanghai, with the title on the top, Jiangnan zhi zao zong ju ping mian tu (Plan of the Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau). The abbreviated names of the bureau were Jiangnan zhi zao ju (Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau) and Jiangnan zhi zao zong ju (Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau). It was also known as Shanghai ji qi ju (Shanghai Machinery Bureau). Established to produce military equipment during the Westernization movement of the Qing dynasty, the bureau was the most ...
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Biography of Zou Rong
Zou Rong (1885−1905), whose original name was Zou Shaotao, was also called Guiwen and had the style name Weidan. He was a native of Baxian, Sichuan. He changed his name to Zou Rong while studying in Japan. In 1903 he published a little book entitled Ge ming jun (The revolutionary army), calling for the Chinese people to carry out revolution, overthrow the Manchu regime, and establish the Chinese republic. Zhang Taiyan (1868−1936), a Chinese philologist, philosopher, and also a revolutionary, wrote the preface. It was published in the ...
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Calligraphic Rubbings of Jiangzhou
Jiang tie (Calligraphic rubbings of Jiangzhou) is an anthology of calligraphic rubbings, in 20 juan. The rubbings were made by Pan Shidan, a Song official in Jiangzhou, thus the title carries the name of the location. Pan was active during the reigns of Huangyou and Jiayou (1049−63) of the Northern Song. This is the earliest example of an anthology of calligraphic rubbings by a private person. The compilation was based on Chunha ge tie (The Chunhuage calligraphic rubbings), the oldest imperial anthology of calligraphic rubbings, but with additions and ...
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Illustrated Explanations of the Human Body, in One Juan
Ren ti tu shuo (Illustrated explanations of the human body) is a work on anatomy by Western authors. It is the continuation of Taixi ren shen shuo gai (Outline of Western theories on the human body), originally translated jointly by Deng Yuhan (Chinese name of the German Jesuit missionary Johann Schreck, also known as Joannes Terentius, 1576−1630) and Long Huamin (Chinese name of Nicola Longobardo, 1565−1655). It was continued and completed by Luo Yagu (Chinese name of Jacobus Rho, 1593−1638). The work presented here is a one-juan ...
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The Stele of Buddha Niches at Yique
Shown here are rubbings of the texts on the famous Yique fo kan bei (The stele of Yique Buddha niches), also known as the Stele of Three Niches or the Stele of Three Niches of Longmen. The tablet was erected in the 11th month of the 15th year of the Zhenguan reign (641) during the Tang dynasty, in the Binyang Cave of the Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang, Henan. The texts were composed by Cen Wenben (595−645) and written by famed calligrapher Chu Suiliang (596−658). The horizontal inscription in seal ...
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Essentials for Cold Damage Disorders and Prescriptions, in Two Juan
Li Cheng, style name Yuji, a physician during the Southern Song dynasty, was a native of Gushu (in present-day Anhui Province). Although he served as a secretary in the cabinet, Li was mainly known for his medical knowledge. He rearranged the work of the Han dynasty physician Zhang Zhongjing (active 168−96), entitled Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on cold pathogens and miscellaneous diseases). Zhang’s work was later organized by Jin and Song dynasty physicians into two books, one of them with the title of Shang han lun ...
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New Edition of Wang's Classic on Pulse, in Ten Juan
Wang Shuhe, the author of Xin kan Wang shi mai jing (New edition of Wang's classic on pulse), was an imperial physician during the Western Jin dynasty (265−316). Wang drew his material from a great number of ancient classics on pulse to compile this work. It is the earliest extant work focusing on diagnosis by pulse, and it played an important role in the history of Chinese medicine. After its completion, there were numerous later editions with varied contents. During the Northern Song, the court established the Bureau ...
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New Edition of Daoist Sun's Invaluable Prescriptions for Ready Reference
This work, Chong kan Sun zhen ren bei ji qian jin yao fang (New edition of Daoist Sun's invaluable prescriptions for ready reference), emphasizes that the life of a human being is as important and as precious as a thousand pieces of gold. Thus to save one's life with a prescription is to demonstrate one’s great virtue. That is why the title includes the words qian jin (invaluable, or 1,000 pieces of gold). This work covers a wide range of subjects, from treatment instructions to ways ...
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Arcane Medical Essentials from the Imperial Library
The book Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane medical essentials from the Imperial Library) records 69 medical classics published before the Tang dynasty (618–907) and contains 6,900 entries. Parts of original works that no longer exist thus are preserved in this compilation. It lists many diseases and methods of diagnosis, records methods of compounding medicines, and discusses acupuncture, bathing, medical exercises, artificial emergency aid, and other topics. Compiled by Wang Tao (670−755), the work represents an outstanding contribution to the preservation of traditional medical classics and summarizes ...
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Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency
Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified materia medica from historical classics for emergency), often abbreviated as Zheng lei ben cao, is an encyclopedic work on materia medica. The compiler, Song physician Tang Shenwei, systematically collected all 365 herbs recorded in Shennong ben cao jin (Shennong’s materia medica) of the Qin and Han. He also studied classics of the Liang and Tang, such as Ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of the classic of materia medica) by Tao Hongjing (452−536) and Xin xiu ben cao (Newly ...
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Revised Zhenghe Edition of Classified and Practical Basic Materia Medica Based on Historical Classics
Chong xiu Zhenghe jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Zhenghe edition of classified and practical basic materia medica based on historical classics) is an encyclopedic work on pharmacopeia by Song physician Tang Shenwei. Its origins range from Shennong ben cao jing (Shennong’s materia medica) of the Qin and Han dynasties to Zheng lei ben cao (Classified herbal medicine), also by Tang and published before this edition. The work lists 1,746 herbal medicines. It was widely known and recommended in medical circles for its rich contents ...
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Prescriptions of the Bureau of the Management and Administration of Pharmacy, in Ten Juan
Tai ping hui min he ji ju fang (Prescriptions of the Bureau of the Management and Administration of Pharmacy) is the earliest book of patent medicine in China and in the world. The work records prescriptions of patent medicines compiled by the official pharmacy of the Imperial Medical Bureau during the Northern Song dynasty (960−1127). It contains 788 prescriptions in 14 categories, and provides, under each prescription, details on the expected cure and components of the medicine. The work serves as a manual, making it easier for physicians and ...
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The Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals
Attributed to the Han dynasty scholar Dong Zhongshu (circa 179−circa 104 BC), Chun Qiu fan lu (The luxuriant dew of the Spring and Autumn annals) was an elaboration on the Spring and Autumn Annals, which date from about the 720s to the 480s BC. Dong’s work focuses on the Gongyang Commentary (On the Annals) and its school, which predated his work by a century or more, with references to the five elements theory (fire, earth, metal, water, and wood) and the interaction between heaven and mankind. Four different ...
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Colored Waterway Map of the Grand Canal from Yueyang to the Yangtze River Estuary and from Jiangyin to the Forbidden City of Beijing
The world-famous Beijing−Hangzhou Grand Canal is the oldest and longest artificial waterway in the world. Starting from Beijing in the north, it passes southwards to Hangzhou. Construction of the canal, which links some of China’s most important river networks, began in the fifth century BC. By the 13th century, the total length of the canal was more than 2,000 kilometers. Today, its length is 1794 kilometers. This map, executed in the traditional painting style, shows its entire length in a single long scroll. It is one of ...
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Book of Exhortation to Beneficence
Quan shan jing (Book of exhortation to beneficence), also known as Tai shang gan ying pian (Tract of Lord Laozi on actions and consequences; or Tract of Lord Laozi on rewards and punishments), has two parts. Part one is a translation of the Daoist classic Tai shang gan ying pian, a work associated with Laozi, one of the founders of Daoism thought to have lived in the sixth century BC. Part two is an exposition of the moral standards of the Yi people. (“Yi” is a term used for some ...
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Diagrams and Explanations of the Wonderful Machines of the Far West, in Three Juan
Yuan xi qi qi tu shuo lu zui (Diagrams and explanations of the wonderful machines of the Far West), often abridged as Qi qi tu shuo (Illustrations and explanations of wonderful machines), was the first book produced in China to introduce Western mechanical engineering. Written in a systematic manner, it is the work of Deng Yuhan, the Chinese name of Johann Schreck (also called Johannes Terentius, 1576−1630), a German-born Jesuit, and Wang Zheng (1571–1644). The book is in three juan. Juan one contains an introduction to the nature ...
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Hydraulic Machinery of the West, in Six Juan
Tai xi shui fa (Hydraulic machinery of the West) is the first work on Western agricultural hydraulic technology introduced to China. It gathers the essence of European classical hydraulic engineering. The author was Xiong Sanba (Sabatino de Ursis, 1575–1620), an Italian Jesuit missionary, who dictated the texts, which were translated into Chinese by Xu Guangqi (1562−1633) and edited by Li Zhizao (1565−1630). This copy, first published in 1612, has three prefaces at the beginning of the work, written by four Ming authors, one jointly by Cao Zibian ...
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Investigation into the Phenomena in the Atmosphere, in Two Juan
Kong ji ge zhi (Investigation into the phenomena in the atmosphere) is a scientific work by Gao Yizhi (Chinese name of Alfonso Vagnoni, 1566−1640). This work, in two juan, introduces in detail the Western theory of the four elements: earth, air, fire, and water, which are discussed in juan one. Juan two explains various natural phenomena related to the four elements, such as meteors, meteorites, thunder and lightning, comets, the Milky Way, colors of the sky, rainbows, wind, rain, clouds, fog, snow, hail, ice, dew, and frost.  Each juan ...
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The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting, in Five Juan
Jieziyuan hua zhuan (The Mustard Seed Garden manual of painting), also known as Jie zi yuan hua pu, was compiled in the early Qing dynasty. The work was commissioned by Shen Xinyou, son-in-law of the famous playwright Li Yu (1611−circa 80), whose mansion in Nanjing, was called Jieziyuan (Mustard Seed Garden). The compiler and editor was the local landscape artist Wang Gai (active 1677−1705), who was assisted by his brothers Wang Shi and Wang Nie. The manual systematically introduces basic techniques of Chinese painting, which are provided in ...
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Yangshi Lei Archives, 1. Vertical Plan of the Circular Gate at Lüxin Shuwu Library
Shown here is the vertical elevation of a circular decorative gate at the Lȕxin Shuwu library (Library of faith keeping), situated in a corner area in the Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. An imperial library often functioned as a place to collect books, give lectures, hold discussions, or administer civil examinations. It was also possible for the emperor to rest, read, work, or interview various people there. The circular-shaped shield or ...
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Yangshi Lei Archives, 2. Plan of Jiuzhou Qingyan at Yuanmingyuan
Shown here is the site plan of the Hall of Jiuzhou Qingyan, one of the 40 scenic spots in Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. It was situated between the front and back lakes and was the center of the Jiuzhou scenic region. Being the largest building group in the back lake area, it was originally a place for the lodging of the emperors and empresses. On a medial axis the plan ...
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Yangshi Lei Archives, 3. Site Plan of Paiyun Dian (the Cloud-Dispelling Hall) and Foxiangge (the Pavilion of the Fragrance of the Buddha) of the Summer Palace
Shown here is the site plan of two of the most important building complexes in the Summer Palace, the Paiyun Dian (Cloud-Dispelling Hall) and Foxiangge (The Pavilion of the Fragrance of the Buddha). The Summer Palace is a vast landscape of gardens, palaces, and lakes in imperial Beijing, and the Paiyun Dian and Foxiangge are the most complete architectural arrangements at the palace. They also represent the richest building group on a medial axis. The layout progresses upwards, layer by layer in an orderly way, from the Yunhui Yuyu Archway ...
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Painting of the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion during the Spring Purification Festival
This rubbing scroll combines two works: Lanting xu tie (Calligraphy of the preface to the poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion) by Wang Xizhi (321−79), and Liu shang tu (The floating goblets), originally a painting, by the Song artist Li Gonglin (1049−1106). Emperor Qianlong (reigned 1736−95) commissioned this scroll, which was reprinted from the Song rubbing with the missing parts added, based on the fragment of Lanting tu (Illustrations of Lanting) by Zhu Yiyin (1536−1603), Prince Yi of the Ming dynasty. The missing part of the ...
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Rubbings of the Stone-drum Inscriptions on a Stone Ink Slab
This scroll contains rubbings of the inscriptions originally found on ancient stone drums. During the Jiajing reign of the Ming dynasty (1522−66) Gu Congyi (1523−88) carved the inscriptions on a stone ink slab, following the exact number, the same order of the characters, and shape as they appeared in a Song rubbing. He proportionally reduced the size to fit the surface of the ink slab but preserved the original features of the Song rubbing of the stone-drum inscriptions. Because the Song copies are all in collections now overseas ...
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Rubbings of Inscriptions on Mao Gong Ding, the Duke Mao Tripod
Mao Gong Ding, the bronze tripod cauldron, was excavated at the end of the Daoguang period (1821−50) in Qishan County, Shaanxi. Dings were used widely as ritual vessels and became hierarchical symbols during the Zhou dynasty (circa 1046−256 BC). This is the most famous ding, originally belonging to Mao Gong. There are 497 characters on the inside of the vessel, the longest bronze inscription known to this day. The inscription records the history of the late Western Zhou (circa 1046−771 BC), specifically the reign of Emperor Xuan ...
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Laozi's Classic of the Way and the Virtue
Dao de jing (Classic of the way and the virtue) is also known as the Laozi. It is the key work of Laozi, a philosopher, poet, and originator of Daoism, thought to have lived in the sixth century BC. It has two parts: Dao jing (Book of Dao, the way) in 37 brief chapters and De jing (Book of De, the virtue) in 44 chapters. The entire book has 5,000 or so characters, thus it is also called Laozi wu qian wen (The 5,000-character Laozi). The nucleus of ...
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The Iron Brush of Ju Kungao, Two Juan
Ju Lühou (1723−86), style name Kungao, a native of Fengxian, Shanghai, was a seal artist. Seal carving was one of the four essential skills required of a scholar. Ju was also the author of a number of works, among which are Kungao tie bi (Iron brush by Kungao), in two juan, Kungao tie bi yu ji (Remaining works of Kungao), in five juan, and Yin wen kao lue (A brief study on inscriptions on seals), in one juan. This work is a manual about seals collected by Ju. On ...
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Collected Literary Works of Li Taibai
Li Bo (also called Li Bai, 701−762), courtesy name Taibai, style name Qinglian Jushi, was called, among his other nicknames, Shi xian (Immortal poet) and Shi xia (Poet-knight-errant). His work Li Taibai ji (Collected works of Li Taibai) has been handed down from generation to generation. The earliest edition was compiled by Wei Hao, Li Yangbing, and Fan Chuanzheng, three Tang scholars, but these works did not survive. The first printed edition dated back to the third year of Yuanfeng (1080) of the Song and was printed by Yan ...
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The Noble Knights-errant of the Water Margin, with Commentary by Li Zhuowu, in 100 Juan
Shown here is chapter one of an important version of one of the great classics of Chinese literature, Shui hu zhuan (The water margin), which is attributed to Shi Nai'an (circa 1290−circa 1365). The early editions of this work were issued in two kinds of format; one was unabridged and the other concise. The unabridged text appeared arranged in 70, 100, or 120 juan (chapters), the earliest being of 100 chapters. This edition, Li Zhuowu xian sheng pi ping Zhong yi shui hu zhuan, 100 juan (The noble ...
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Dream of the Red Chamber in 120 Chapters
Xin jian quan bu xiu xiang Hong lou meng (Newly printed complete illustrated edition of the Dream of the red chamber) is also known as the Cheng-A edition. It is the first printed edition of the classic novel written by Cao Xueqin (circa 1715−63), one of China’s greatest novelists. Included here are the preface and comments by Zhang Ruzhi at the tops of the pages, the table of contents, and three chapters. The book was in the collection of Zheng Zhenduo (1898–1958) before entering the collections of ...
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Explaining and Analyzing Characters, in 15 Juan
Shuo wen jie zi (Explaining and analyzing characters), often abridged as Shuo wen, was compiled by Xu Shen (circa 58−circa 147), a Confucian scholar and linguist of the Eastern Han dynasty. This is the first Chinese dictionary to use the principle of organization by sections with shared components, called bu shou (radicals), and to analyze the form, meaning, and pronunciation of each character, using the liu shu (six categories of Chinese characters) theory, to give the rationale behind them, as well as their interrelation. It is the forerunner of ...
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Gazetteer of Lin'an during the Xianchun Reign of the Southern Song
This work is a Southern Song local gazetteer, which was published in the fourth year (1268) of the Xianchun reign of the Song emperor Duzong. The author collected extensive material and, based on two earlier gazetteers, Qiandao Lin’an zhi (Gazetteer of Lin’an during the Qiandao reign) and Chunyou Lin’an zhi (Gazetteer of Lin’an during the Chunyou reign), he expanded the text and published the Lin’an gazetteer in 100 juan. The first 15 juan list imperial residences and record details concerning the imperial city (Lin’an ...
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"Jottings at the Dream Brook Studio," in the Family Collection of Chen Guyu, in 26 Juan
Mengxi bi tan (Jottings at the Dream Brook Studio) was written in encyclopedic form as a collection of hundreds of articles by Shen Kuo (1031−95), a Song polymath, scientist, statesman, and artist. The work was written at Mengxi (Dream Brook) Garden, his estate in Runzhou (near present-day Zhenjiang, Jiangsu), thus the title. This work’s extraordinarily broad coverage includes astronomy, physics, mathematics, geology, geography, biological medicine, contemporary politics, military affairs, economics, and anecdotes about the arts and literature. It is also a very important document in the history of ...
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Compendium of Materia Medica, 52 Juan; Illustrations, in Two Juan
Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) is a systematic encyclopedia of traditional Chinese medicine before the 16th century. The work, in 52 juan of text and two juan of illustrations, consists of 1,892 entries, 374 of them added by the author and compiler Li Shizhen (1518−93). Included are about 11,000 prescriptions. It is a priceless legacy of the treasury of Chinese medicine and still applicable. Li Shizhen completed the first draft of the text in 1578, but it was not published until the 21st year ...
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Winds of the Four Directions
This oracle bone from around 1200 B.C. contains 24 characters in four groups in a vigorous and strong style, typical of the Bin group of diviners in the reign of Wu Ding (circa 1200-1189 B.C.). It records the gods of the four directions and of the four winds. The winds of the four directions reflect the spring and autumn equinoxes, the summer and winter solstices, and the changes of the four seasons. The four winds are the east wind, called Xie; the south wind, called Wei; the west ...
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