39 results in English
Outline of Western Theories of the Human Body
The text of Taixi ren shen shuo gai (Outline of Western theories of the human body) was originally dictated by Deng Yuhan (Chinese name of the German Jesuit missionary Johann Schreck, also known as Johannes Terentius, 1576−1630), who translated and compiled the work. It was later edited by Bi Gongchen (died in 1644). Schreck was the earliest Western scientist to introduce Western works on physiology and anatomy into China. This is a manuscript edition in two juan, and was based on Theatrum anatomicum by Caspar Bauhin (1560−1624), a ...
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Hong's Collection of Effective Prescriptions, in Five Juan
The imperial court of the Song dynasty placed great importance on medicine. Even scholar-officials were engaged in compiling medical books. Hong Zun (1120−74), in his spare time after his working hours, sought and collected medical prescriptions and compiled this work, entitled Hong shi ji yan fang (Hong's collection of effective prescriptions). It contains 167 prescriptions, which were collected from his many years of research and which proved to be practical and effective. The work was engraved in the sixth year of the Qiandao reign (1170) and was printed ...
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New Edition of the Manual of Acupuncture Points on a Bronze Figure, in Seven Juan
One of the unique features of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine is acupuncture. During the Northern and Southern Song (960−1279), the science of acupuncture and moxibustion and the meridian and collateral theory flourished. This science consequently became gradually systemized and standardized. The work Xin kan tong ren zhen jiu jing (New edition of the manual of acupuncture points on a bronze figure) was actually a chapter dealing with acupuncture, called “Zhen jing,” included in Taiping sheng hui fang (Taiping imperial prescriptions for universal relief), an official standard textbook of ...
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Collection of the Essential Medical Herbs of Materia Medica
Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Collection of the essential medical herbs of materia medica) was compiled and illustrated by imperial order of Emperor Xiaozong (ruled 1487−1505) of the Ming dynasty. The manuscript was completed in the 18th and last year of his reign, called Hongzhi (1505). It was the only officially published work on materia medica. After Emperor Xiaozong died, the manuscript was kept in the imperial court and not printed for more than four centuries. However, a number of expertly copied manuscripts with color illustrations did appear ...
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An Illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian Materia Medica of Ayurveda of ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia
Dri med śel phreṅ nas bśad paʼi sman gyi ʼkhruṅs dpe mdzes mtshar mig rgyan (An illustrated Tibeto-Mongolian materia medica of ayurveda of ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje of Mongolia) is a Tibetan book of unbound loose-leaf pages in landscape format. It was written in the first half of the 19th century in Tibetan and Mongolian, with additional Chinese scripts, by ʼJam-dpal-rdo-rje (also known as Ye-śes-don-grub-bstan-paʼi-rgyal-mtshan). The work is primarily a Tibetan-Mongolian book in the Indic ayurveda tradition, with some Chinese references as well, and some captions in Chinese. The book contains drawings and ...
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Illustrated Introduction to Countries over the Seas
Hai guo tu zhi (Illustrated introduction to countries over the seas) is a comprehensive and systematic history and geography of the world and the first great masterpiece of Chinese modern history. Its source was Si zhou zhi (Encyclopedia of four continents), written by Lin Zexu (1785−1850), a scholar official and prominent figure in the campaigns of the First Opium War (1839−42). The work was compiled after consulting historical records and gazetteers as well as materials published since the Ming, particularly relating to the islands and seacoast. The first ...
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Brief Records of the World
Ying huan zhi lue (Brief records of the world) by Xu Jiyu and Hai guo tu zhi (Illustrated introduction to countries over the seas) by Wei Yuan are the first two masterpieces of modern China on world history. They are great collected works on the geography of Asia produced during the mid-19th century. Xu Jiyu’s book was completed in the 28th year of the Daoguang reign (1848), in 10 juan and 200,000 characters. After its publication it became very popular and widely disseminated. The key feature is its ...
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Plan of the Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau
Shown here is the plan of the Jiangnan General Machinery Manufacturing Bureau located in Shanghai, with the title on the top, Jiangnan zhi zao zong ju ping mian tu (Plan of the Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau). The abbreviated names of the bureau were Jiangnan zhi zao ju (Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau) and Jiangnan zhi zao zong ju (Jiangnan General Manufacturing Bureau). It was also known as Shanghai ji qi ju (Shanghai Machinery Bureau). Established to produce military equipment during the Westernization movement of the Qing dynasty, the bureau was the most ...
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Biography of Zou Rong
Zou Rong (1885−1905), whose original name was Zou Shaotao, was also called Guiwen and had the style name Weidan. He was a native of Baxian, Sichuan. He changed his name to Zou Rong while studying in Japan. In 1903 he published a little book entitled Ge ming jun (The revolutionary army), calling for the Chinese people to carry out revolution, overthrow the Manchu regime, and establish the Chinese republic. Zhang Taiyan (1868−1936), a Chinese philologist, philosopher, and also a revolutionary, wrote the preface. It was published in the ...
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Calligraphic Rubbings of Jiangzhou
Jiang tie (Calligraphic rubbings of Jiangzhou) is an anthology of calligraphic rubbings, in 20 juan. The rubbings were made by Pan Shidan, a Song official in Jiangzhou, thus the title carries the name of the location. Pan was active during the reigns of Huangyou and Jiayou (1049−63) of the Northern Song. This is the earliest example of an anthology of calligraphic rubbings by a private person. The compilation was based on Chunha ge tie (The Chunhuage calligraphic rubbings), the oldest imperial anthology of calligraphic rubbings, but with additions and ...
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Illustrated Explanations of the Human Body, in One Juan
Ren ti tu shuo (Illustrated explanations of the human body) is a work on anatomy by Western authors. It is the continuation of Taixi ren shen shuo gai (Outline of Western theories on the human body), originally translated jointly by Deng Yuhan (Chinese name of the German Jesuit missionary Johann Schreck, also known as Joannes Terentius, 1576−1630) and Long Huamin (Chinese name of Nicola Longobardo, 1565−1655). It was continued and completed by Luo Yagu (Chinese name of Jacobus Rho, 1593−1638). The work presented here is a one-juan ...
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The Stele of Buddha Niches at Yique
Shown here are rubbings of the texts on the famous Yique fo kan bei (The stele of Yique Buddha niches), also known as the Stele of Three Niches or the Stele of Three Niches of Longmen. The tablet was erected in the 11th month of the 15th year of the Zhenguan reign (641) during the Tang dynasty, in the Binyang Cave of the Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang, Henan. The texts were composed by Cen Wenben (595−645) and written by famed calligrapher Chu Suiliang (596−658). The horizontal inscription in seal ...
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Essentials for Cold Damage Disorders and Prescriptions, in Two Juan
Li Cheng, style name Yuji, a physician during the Southern Song dynasty, was a native of Gushu (in present-day Anhui Province). Although he served as a secretary in the cabinet, Li was mainly known for his medical knowledge. He rearranged the work of the Han dynasty physician Zhang Zhongjing (active 168−96), entitled Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on cold pathogens and miscellaneous diseases). Zhang’s work was later organized by Jin and Song dynasty physicians into two books, one of them with the title of Shang han lun ...
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New Edition of Wang's Classic on Pulse, in Ten Juan
Wang Shuhe, the author of Xin kan Wang shi mai jing (New edition of Wang's classic on pulse), was an imperial physician during the Western Jin dynasty (265−316). Wang drew his material from a great number of ancient classics on pulse to compile this work. It is the earliest extant work focusing on diagnosis by pulse, and it played an important role in the history of Chinese medicine. After its completion, there were numerous later editions with varied contents. During the Northern Song, the court established the Bureau ...
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New Edition of Daoist Sun's Invaluable Prescriptions for Ready Reference
This work, Chong kan Sun zhen ren bei ji qian jin yao fang (New edition of Daoist Sun's invaluable prescriptions for ready reference), emphasizes that the life of a human being is as important and as precious as a thousand pieces of gold. Thus to save one's life with a prescription is to demonstrate one’s great virtue. That is why the title includes the words qian jin (invaluable, or 1,000 pieces of gold). This work covers a wide range of subjects, from treatment instructions to ways ...
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Arcane Medical Essentials from the Imperial Library
The book Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane medical essentials from the Imperial Library) records 69 medical classics published before the Tang dynasty (618–907) and contains 6,900 entries. Parts of original works that no longer exist thus are preserved in this compilation. It lists many diseases and methods of diagnosis, records methods of compounding medicines, and discusses acupuncture, bathing, medical exercises, artificial emergency aid, and other topics. Compiled by Wang Tao (670−755), the work represents an outstanding contribution to the preservation of traditional medical classics and summarizes ...
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Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency
Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified materia medica from historical classics for emergency), often abbreviated as Zheng lei ben cao, is an encyclopedic work on materia medica. The compiler, Song physician Tang Shenwei, systematically collected all 365 herbs recorded in Shennong ben cao jin (Shennong’s materia medica) of the Qin and Han. He also studied classics of the Liang and Tang, such as Ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of the classic of materia medica) by Tao Hongjing (452−536) and Xin xiu ben cao (Newly ...
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Revised Zhenghe Edition of Classified and Practical Basic Materia Medica Based on Historical Classics
Chong xiu Zhenghe jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Zhenghe edition of classified and practical basic materia medica based on historical classics) is an encyclopedic work on pharmacopeia by Song physician Tang Shenwei. Its origins range from Shennong ben cao jing (Shennong’s materia medica) of the Qin and Han dynasties to Zheng lei ben cao (Classified herbal medicine), also by Tang and published before this edition. The work lists 1,746 herbal medicines. It was widely known and recommended in medical circles for its rich contents ...
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Prescriptions of the Bureau of the Management and Administration of Pharmacy, in Ten Juan
Tai ping hui min he ji ju fang (Prescriptions of the Bureau of the Management and Administration of Pharmacy) is the earliest book of patent medicine in China and in the world. The work records prescriptions of patent medicines compiled by the official pharmacy of the Imperial Medical Bureau during the Northern Song dynasty (960−1127). It contains 788 prescriptions in 14 categories, and provides, under each prescription, details on the expected cure and components of the medicine. The work serves as a manual, making it easier for physicians and ...
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Winds of the Four Directions
This oracle bone from around 1200 B.C. contains 24 characters in four groups in a vigorous and strong style, typical of the Bin group of diviners in the reign of Wu Ding (circa 1200-1189 B.C.). It records the gods of the four directions and of the four winds. The winds of the four directions reflect the spring and autumn equinoxes, the summer and winter solstices, and the changes of the four seasons. The four winds are the east wind, called Xie; the south wind, called Wei; the west ...
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The Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka
This edition of the Buddhist canon was printed between about the ninth year of the Huangtong era of Xizong of the Jin dynasty and sometime in the Dading era of Shizong, and for this reason is called the "Jin Tripitaka" by scholars. It is also called the “Jin Tripitaka from Tianning Temple in Xiezhou" because the woodblocks were carved at Tianning Temple on Jinglin Mountain, in Xiezhou, Shanxi (modern Xie County in the Jinnan district). In 1933, the work was rediscovered at Guangsheng Temple in Zhaocheng County, Shanxi, so its ...
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Yongle Encyclopedia
The Yongle Encyclopedia is a large-scale encyclopedia–the largest in pre-modern China--arranged by subject categories traditionally used in China. The entire work is comprised of 22,877 juan (sections) of text proper and a prolegomenon and index in 60 juan, all bound in 11,095 volumes, amounting to about 370 million characters in all. The encyclopedia preserved textual information from about 8,000 texts of all kinds, from pre-Qin times to the early Ming dynasty, covering the works of famous specialists in such areas as astronomy, geography, human affairs, famous ...
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The Complete Library in Four Sections (Siku Quanshu)
Siku quanshu (Complete library in four sections), compiled in the Qianlong period of the Qing dynasty, was the largest collection of texts in pre-modern China and has an important historical place in the histories of cultural texts and academic thought in China. The Wenjin ge edition is a manuscript written during the Qianlong reign. It includes a total of 36,304 volumes in 6,144 boxes placed on 128 bookshelves. They comprise 79,309 juan (sections) and were originally kept in the Wenjin Pavilion at the Summer Palace in Rehe ...
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The Exploitation of the Works of Nature (Tiangong Kaiwu)
Tiangong kaiwu (Exploitation of the works of nature), an integrated work on agriculture and handicrafts, is one of the most important works on science and technology in the history of China. A European scholar has called it a 17th-century version of the Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie published in France in the 18th century. The author was the noted Ming dynasty scientist Song Yingxing. While working as an instructor in Fenyi County in Jiangxi province, he researched agricultural and artisanal technology, which he then organized into a book. This work was ...
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Secret Edition of the Northern Western Wing Corrected by Mr. Zhang Shenzhi
The Yuan dynasty drama, Story of the Western Wing, by Wang Shifu, is the finest dramatic work of traditional China. It ranks with Tang Xianzu’s Peony Pavilion, Kong Shangren’s Peach Blossom Fan, and Hong Sheng’s Palace of Everlasting Life as one of the four great classical dramas of pre-modern China, and has had a far-reaching influence on the literature and theatrical history of China. The plot of the drama is a reworking of the short work, The Story of Yingying (also titled Encounter with an Immortal) by ...
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Office of Great Peace Album of Opera Faces
This album of pictures shows makeup for characters in the Peking opera. It is the work of a court painter in or after the Tongzhi reign (1851–74). In the Qing dynasty, an Office of Great Peace was established to manage the court dramatic troupe. When seasonal command performances and congratulatory ceremonies were held, this office was responsible for putting on plays. The makeup of the characters in the plays generally followed a set repertoire of faces and colors. The 97 paintings in this book show makeup for nine different ...
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Twenty-One Hymns to the Rescuer Mother of Buddhas
Also known as “Twenty-One Hymns to the Rescuer Saint Tārā, Mother of Buddhas,” this item is a sutra from Tibetan esoteric Buddhism. The copyist was Yong Rong (1744–90), sixth son of the Qianlong emperor and general editor of the Siku quanshu. In addition to being a poet, calligrapher, and painter, Yong Rong had a sophisticated understanding of astronomy and mathematics. On the top protective cover of this item is written, “Imperially commissioned translation of the hymn to the rescuer mother of Buddhas," in Manchu, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Chinese scripts ...
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Annals of Creation
The cover of this work by an unknown author bears the title Translation of the Entire Text of the “Yao Annals of Creation.” In this bilingual text, the Dongba text is in color and the Chinese text is in black. The Dongba glyphs are ancient characters that were used to record the dialect of the western Naxi nationality centered around the Li River in Yunnan. They were developed in approximately the seventh century. The Annals of Creation reflect the understanding of the Naxi people concerning the natural world and the ...
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Collected Works of Han Yu
Han Yu is chief among the eight major writers of the Tang and Song dynasties. His writings are rich in content, powerful, fresh, and lively. The 40-juan (section) Collected Works of Han Yu (Changli xiansheng ji [Collected works of the Master from Changli]) was compiled by his disciple Li Han, and is the most comprehensive compendium of Han Yu’s works. The “Outer Collection” and “Omitted Writings” were added by Song dynasty scholars who recovered lost works by Han. This edition was printed in the Jianchun era (late 13th ...
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The Su Wen of the Huangdi Neijing (Inner Classic of the Yellow Emperor)
Huangdi neijing (The inner classic of the yellow emperor) was created some time between the Warring States period and the Qin-Han period as a summation of Chinese medical knowledge up to the time of the Han dynasty. It is the earliest surviving work on Chinese medicine. The work is divided into two parts: the Su wen (Basic questions) and the Ling shu (Numinous spindle). After the Han dynasty, each part circulated separately. Su wen is written in a question-and-answer format involving the Yellow Emperor and various physicians of high antiquity ...
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The Xiping Stone Classics
These engravings of the seven Confucian classics were set up outside the National University Gate, located on the south side of Loyang, the capital city, in the Eastern Han dynasty. They were created between 175 and 183, after Cai Yong and a group of scholars successfully petitioned the emperor to have the Confucian classics carved in stone in order to prevent their being altered to support particular points of view. They are also called the “Han Stone Classics” and the “Single-Script Stone Classics." The seven classics -- The Book of Changes ...
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Stele of the Army of Inspired Strategy
This rubbing of a stone stele records the inspection of the Army of Inspired Strategy by the Tang emperor Wuzong (Li Yan). The text was composed by Cui Xuan and written by Liu Gongquan, both of the Tang dynasty. The stele was erected in the third year of the Huichang era (843 A.D.), but within a century was damaged by soldiers and soon disappeared. Because the stele was erected within the Imperial Palace, rubbings were not easily taken, even when it was still intact. These Song dynasty rubbings, also ...
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Stele of the Spread of the Assyrian Teachings of the Great Qin to the Central States
This stele was erected in the second year of the Jianzhong era of the Tang period (781 A.D.), by the Persian missionary Yazdhozid, in the Great Qin Temple. The text was composed by the Persian missionary Jingjing; the calligraphy is by Lü Xiuyan. The text of the stele describes the propagation of the “Luminous Teachings" (of the Assyrian Church of the East, sometimes erroneously referred to as Nestorians) in the Tang dynasty, including the translation into Chinese of the Assyrian religious text Sutra of the Teachings of the World-Honored ...
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Map of the Lands Where the Sage-Emperor Yu Left His Traces
This rubbing is of a Chinese map engraved in stone in the seventh year of the Fouchang era of the Qi state (1136). The stele survives in the Forest of Steles in Xi’an. The map is oriented with north at the top and south at the bottom. Over 500 place names are plotted on the map, which represents a panorama of China in Song times. The engraving of the hydraulic systems is especially detailed, with nearly 80 rivers named. The courses of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers are very ...
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Map of Jiangxi Province with Explanations
This lively and colorful volume contains a collection of 37 maps of Jiangxi province from the Ming dynasty: a general map (26 by 56 centimeters) and 36 maps of individual prefectures and counties (each 28 by 26 centimeters). The work is the earliest extant map of Jiangxi province and constitutes a valuable resource for researching pre-modern Chinese maps and the geography of Jiangxi. It also shows the quality of traditional cartography in Ming China. The maps employ traditional Chinese drawing methods to depict in precise detail mountain passes, rivers, lakes ...
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On the Fall of States
This complete scroll of a Tang dynasty manuscript was unearthed in Dunhuang, China. The text is written in ink on yellowish paper in a regular script, in well-spaced columns with beautiful characters. The scroll contains a work entitled On the Fall of States, by Lu Ji (261-303), a writer of the Western Jin dynasty. Modeled on Jia Yi’s On a Visit to Qin, it describes the rise and fall of the Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period, as well as the meritorious contributions of the Lu family. Famous ...
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Diamond Prajna Paramita Sutra
This complete scroll from the first year of the Yifeng era (676) of the Tang dynasty was unearthed in Dunhuang, China. The scroll contains the Diamond Prajna pāramitā sutra, a work that is an important sacred text in the prajñā line of Mahayana Buddhism as well as a foundational text in Chinese Chan (Japanese Zen) Buddhism. The text was transmitted to China in the Period of Southern and Northern Courts in many translations, but the translation by Kumārajīva is the most respected. For generations, it was felt that reciting the ...
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The Four Books in Chapter and Verse with Collected Commentaries
The Analects is one of the important classics for Ruist (Confucian) scholars. It was compiled by the disciples of Confucius and their disciples. It mostly records conversations and dialogs relating to Confucius and his disciples that reflect the views and principles of Confucius as applied to administration, ethics, morality, and education. The generally accepted version of The Analects has 20 sections. Zhu Xi (1130-1200) of the Song dynasty took “The Great Learning” and “The Doctrine of the Mean” from The Book of Rites and combined these extracts with The Mencius ...
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Partial Draft of the Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government (Zizhi Tongjian)
The Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government (Zizhi tongjian) is the first comprehensive, chronologically-organized history in China. It describes 1,362 years of history, from the 23rd year of King Weilie of the Zhou (403 B.C.) to the sixth year of the Xuande era (959 A.D.) of the Later Zhou dynasty. The entire book comprises 294 juan (sections), with a 30-juan index and a 30-juan “investigation of inconsistencies.” The compiler was Sima Guang (1019–86), assisted by others. Sima Guang (courtesy name Junshi, sobriquet Yusou, commonly called Master ...
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