15 results in English
The Collection of Symbols: Explanation on Prevention in Matters of Guidance
Jāmi’ al-Rumūz: Sharh Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya (The collection of symbols: explanation on prevention in matters of guidance) by Shams al-Dīn Muhammad al-Quhustānī (died circa 1546) is a commentary on Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya fi Masa‘il al-Hidaya (Brief explanation of the book on prevention in matters of guidance to the true path) by Ubayd Allāh ibn Masūd Mahbūbī, who died in 1346–47. Al-Quhustānī was a scholar of the Hanafi Madhab (one of the four Sunni schools of fiqh, or religious jurisprudence) and a mufti in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The work ...
Tales of the Prophets
Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyā’ (Tales of the prophets) is the title of the various collections of tales originating in the Qur’an and embroidered by different authors. Shown here is one of the best known, attributed to Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Kisa’i, who is thought to have lived in the 11th century AD. The lives of the prophets were not covered in detail in the Qur’an, so al-Kisa’i and other writers added more elaborate storylines. The Qiṣaṣ begin with God’s creation of the world and descriptions of angels, the ...
A Book of Religious Precepts and Stories
Risālah-yi ‘Azīzah (A book of religious precepts and stories) discusses the establishment and spread of Islam. The literal meaning of the title is “Tales of the Almighty.” The book covers the sources of the ideas contained in hadith (the collective body of traditions relating to the Prophet Muhammad) and compares them with the text of the Qur’an. It also explores the commandments in the sacred books of other religions and relates them to the Qur’an. The works considered include the Injil (the New Testament of the Bible, or ...
The Essence of Matters and the Role of Facts
Khulāṣat al-masā’il wa-muhimmat al-dalā’il (The essence of matters and the role of facts) covers a wide range of issues of importance to Islam: the main trends and interpretations, explication on the precepts laid down in the Qur’an, religious and legal norms, and other factors guiding the believer’s life. Published in Kazan, Russia in 1890, the book is written in Chagatai, an extinct Turkic language that was once widely spoken in Central Asia and that remained the literary language of the region until the early 20th ...
Report of the Expedition in 1892 to the Trans-Ural Steppe of the Urals Region and to Ust-Urt
In 1892, the shareholders of the Ryazan–Uralsk Railroad Company sponsored an expedition to the Trans-Ural steppe region of the Urals and to Ust-Urt for the purpose of determining the type and volume of cargo that could be carried on a projected rail route from Ryazan to Uralsk. The engineer and geologist S.N. Nikitin directed the expedition and prepared this report. Nikitin also investigated the deposits of oil, common salt, and other minerals found along the route. When completed in 1894, the Ryazan–Uralsk Railroad linked the center of ...
Essays on Northwestern Mongolia: Results of the 1879–1880 Travels for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society
Grigorii Nikolaevich Potanin (1835–1920) was a Russian scholar and public figure, a pioneer of regional studies, and an expert on the cultural life of Siberia. Learned as a geographer, historian, ethnographer, and naturalist, he traveled extensively to parts of present-day Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China, beginning with his military service. He studied mathematics and physics at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1859–61. He and a friend, Nikolai Yadrintsev (1842–94), were accused of fostering Siberian separatism, convicted, and sentenced to hard labor and exiled to Siberia. Rehabilitated in ...
Perovsky’s 1839 Campaign to Khiva and the Russian Embassy to Khiva in 1842
Beginning in the early 18th century, tsarist Russia made several unsuccessful attempts to bring under its control the Khanate of Khiva, an independent state in Central Asia that had been ruled since 1511 by successive Uzbek dynasties, except for a period of indirect rule by Persia in 1740–47. By the 1830s, Khiva had become an object of the “Great Game,” the rivalry between Britain and Russia for commercial and strategic dominance in Central Asia. In November 1839, General Vasily Alexeevich Perovsky (1794–1857), commander of the army garrison at ...
Explanation of “The Reward of the Omnipotent”
This volume includes a commentary on Fatḥ al-Qadīr (The reward of the omnipotent) by Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Waḥid ibn al-Humām (circa 1388–1459) and several other works. Ibn al-Humām was a well-known scholar of the Hanafi Madhab (one of the four Sunni schools of fiqh, or religious jurisprudence) from Alexandria, Egypt. He was an imam and expert in the principles of fiqh and of hadith (the body of traditions relating to the Prophet Muhammad). The other works in the volume include Kashf al-Rumūz wa-al-Asrār (The exploration of signs and secrets ...
Commentary on "The Intersections of the Seas", Volume 2
Majma` al-Anhur fī Sharh Multaqā al-Abḥur (Commentary on "The intersections of the seas") is a commentary by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad Shaikh-Zādeh (died 1667) on Multaqā al-Abḥur (The intersections of the seas) by Muhammad bin Ibrahim al-Halabi al-Hanafi (died 1549), an important Islamic jurist who was born in Syria and studied and worked in Cairo and Istanbul. The work deals with issues of jurisprudence disputed among scholars of the Hanafi Mahdab (one of the four schools of law within Sunni Islam). The commentary analyzes the terms and concepts, explains their ...
Brief Explanation of the “Safeguards of Transmission” of Guidance to the True Path
Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya fi Masa‘il al-Hidaya (Brief explanation of the “Safeguards of transmission” [of hadith] of guidance to the true path) by Ubayd Allāh ibn Masūd ibn Mahmud ibn Ahmad al-Mahbūbī (also known as Sadr al-Šhari’a; died 1346) is an abridgement of Wiqayat al-Riwayah (Safeguards of transmission), by Sadr al-Šhari’a’s grandfather, Mahmud ibn Sadr al-Shari'ah al-Awwal, Ubayd Allah al-Mahbūbī (died 1274). Al-Mahbūbī was an eminent scholar of natural science, religion, and jurisprudence who died in Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan. The book describes the daily practices of ...
Lyric Poems of Hāfiz
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī (known as Hāfiz; circa 1320–90) is considered by many to be the greatest lyric poet of Persia (present-day Iran) and one of the most remarkable Eastern poets. Born to a poor family in Shiraz, where he lived most of his life, Hāfiz enjoyed the patronage of Shah Shujah for many years and in his last years that of Timur (Tamerlane). This work presents ghazals (lyric poems) of Hāfiz. As in all Sufi poetry, the ghazals are layered with meanings, from the most basic to the ...
The Keys to the Heavens: An Explanation of “Islamic Law”
Mafâtîh al-Jinân: Šharh Šhir’at al-Islam (The keys to the heavens: An explanation of “Islamic law”) is a commentary on the work Šhir’at al-Islam (Islamic law) by Mohammad ibn Abu Bakr al-Jughi (1098–1177). Al-Jughi was known as Imam Zadeh, a scholar and an imam in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The commentary, by Ya’kub ibn Sayyid ali al-Burssawi (died circa 1524), is an extensive book that discusses belief, manners, and daily practices in an Islamic framework. The work consists of 61 sections, called books. Special attention is paid ...
Book of Wisdom
Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi (died 1166) was a philosopher, Sufi mystic, and the earliest known poet to write in a Turkic dialect. He was born in the city of Isfijab (present-day Sayram, in Kazakhstan) but lived most of his life in Turkestan (also in southern Kazakhstan). He was a student of Arslan Baba, a well-known preacher of Islam. At a time when Farsi dominated literature and public life, Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi wrote in his native Old Turkic (Chagatai) language. Iassavi’s Dīvān-i ikmet (Book of wisdom) is not just a ...
Book of Wisdom
Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi (died 1166) was a philosopher, Sufi mystic, and the earliest known poet to write in a Turkic dialect. He was born in the city of Isfijab (present-day Sayram, in Kazakhstan) but lived most of his life in Turkestan (also in southern Kazakhstan). He was a student of Arslan Baba, a well-known preacher of Islam. At a time when Farsi dominated literature and public life, Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi wrote in his native Old Turkic (Chagatai) language. Iassavi’s Dīvān-i ikmet (Book of wisdom) is not just a ...
Asiatic Russia, Volumes 1 and 2
This work, commissioned by the Resettlement Department of the Land Regulation and Agriculture Administration in Saint Petersburg, contains some of the best research of the early 20th century on what in the Russian Empire was commonly referred to as Asiatic Russia. Volume I covers the gradual resettlement of Russian peoples beyond the Ural Mountains, to Siberia, the steppe areas, Turkestan, and the Far East, a migration that was encouraged by the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890s. It includes essays on the history of Russian settlement, ethnography, and ...