73 results in English
Why M.C.A.?: German Prisoners of War, World War One, before Y.M.C.A. Hut
This original ink-and-wash cartoon from World War I by Bruce Bairnsfather (1888-1959) depicts German prisoners of war lounging before a hut with a YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) sign. The cartoon is on a grey board. The witty holograph caption is on the back. Bairnsfather was a British army officer who was trained as an artist; while serving on the Western front in 1914-15, he made drawings of war scenes that were published in British magazines. He is best known as the creator of “Old Bill,” a fictional character ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Retreat of Napoleon from Leipzig, 1813
This original watercolor drawing by John Augustus Atkinson (1775-1833?) shows Napoleon seated in a tent shelter, surrounded by soldiers and members of his staff. Atkinson was an English painter and printmaker who specialized in military themes. He produced sets of engravings showing British military uniforms, and was also known for his watercolors of historical events. In 1815, Atkinson was commissioned to collaborate with the British artist Arthur William Devis (1762-1822) on a painting of the Battle of Waterloo. In 1819, John Burnet, the first engraver to specialize in the reproduction ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
European Cavalry Battle Scene
This is the first in a pair of original gouache paintings by F. Oetinger showing a violent cavalry battle during the Seven Years' War (1756-63), a conflict that involved all the major European powers and was fought on the European continent as well as in the colonies; it became known as the first global war. As a result of the conflict, France lost most of its North American colonies, Prussia reemerged as the dominant power in Europe, and Great Britain emerged as the world’s most powerful nation. The painting ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Fencing Lesson
This original ink-and-watercolor caricature shows a petite, prancing Napoleon dueling with a heavy, domineering Gerhard Leberecht von Blücher, while a British sailor judges the match. The participants in the duel are backed by supporters: Napoleon’s faction includes French generals, while von Blücher’s includes German peasants and a Russian cossack. The caricature parodies political conditions at the time. Following Napoleon’s retreat from Russia, the Germanic states, led by Prussia, reentered the wars against Napoleon. At the time the caricature was made, Prussian incursions were the primary threat to ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Departure of Soldiers to a Battle
Originally, this unsigned wash drawing of soldiers leaving for battle was attributed to Johann-Philipp Lembke, but it is now considered to be the work of Jacques Courtois (1621-76). Courtois was a French painter who lived most of his life in Italy; he is also known as Il Borgognone. Following his training as an artist, Courtois served in the French military. He is widely recognized for his depictions of battles, often done in wash drawing. This style, which is produced by applying a series of monochrome washes over a pen or ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Attack on a Barricade in Paris, 1848
This unsigned early pencil sketch by British artist John Everett Millais (1829-96) shows the chaos of the February 1848 revolution in Paris that ended the reign of Louis-Philippe and established the French Second Republic. In February 1848, the French merchant classes erected barricades throughout Paris to protest their lack of political rights and the difficulties caused by an extended economic depression. In an incident outside the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a soldier fired into a crowd, inciting a riot. By the end of February, Louis-Philippe had fled and the opposition ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Indian Demons Attacking Fort Defended by European Troops
This unsigned watercolor by an unknown Indian artist depicts the events of the Third Mysore War (1790-92). The Anglo-Mysore wars were a series of conflicts in the late 18th century that were fought between the Kingdom of Mysore, located in southwestern India, and the British East India Company. After victories in the first two wars, Mysore, led by Tipu Sultan, invaded the nearby coastal state of Travancore, which was a British ally. This led to the Third Mysore War, which the British won. Although the royal family of Mysore was ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Royal Farewell to the Imperial Yeomanry: the Prince of Wales Shaking Hands with the Officers
This wash drawing on paper, mounted on board, is by Henry Marriott Paget (1856-1936), who created it for the British illustrated weekly newspaper, the Graphic, where it appeared on February 3, 1900. The drawing shows Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII), saying farewell to the soldiers of the Imperial Yeomanry, a volunteer cavalry regiment established to fight in the Boer War. The first contingent of soldiers left for South Africa in February 1900. Paget was one of three brothers--Henry, Sidney Edward (1860-1908), and Walter Stanley ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Relieving Guard at the Vatican
This pencil caricature depicts King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Napoleon III as soldiers changing guard, while Pope Pius IX peers around the corner. The caricature relates to the intricate maneuvering in the mid-19th century among France, Austria, the Papal States, and Italian nationalists that preceded the unification of Italy. French and Austrian troops had been in Rome to protect the Papal States since 1850, when Pius IX began to fear the rise of anti-papal nationalists. In 1858, the Sardinians entered into an agreement with Napoleon III to fight ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Military Procession
This is the first of a pair of unsigned watercolors by the German artist Georg Emanuel Opitz (1775-1841). It shows a procession of cossack soldiers marching through Paris during the occupation of the city in 1814. Opitz, who focused on portraiture and caricature, traveled to Paris in 1813 and witnessed the arrival of Russian and Prussian forces in the city following the Battle of Paris. Until this battle, no foreign army had entered Paris in 400 years. The French defeat led to the abdication of the Emperor Napoleon. The watercolor ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
England Plate 2nd
This unsigned wash drawing is presumed to be the original by William Hogarth (1697-1764) for the etched plate, The Invasion, Plate 2, England. Hogarth was a major English pictorial satirist and social critic. He was also one of the first artists to draw subjects in a series. One of his best-known works is the series The Rake’s Progress, which shows the downfall of a young man of means who squanders his inheritance. The Invasion series, consisting of two plates, depicts the French plotting an invasion of England while the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Colonel John Whitehead Peard: Commonly Known as Garibaldi's Englishman
This original watercolor, signed and dated August 22, 1860, by Thomas Nast (1840-1902), originally was thought to be of Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi, but later was identified as showing Colonel John Whitehead Peard. Known as “Garibaldi’s Englishman,” Peard was an Oxford-educated lawyer and the son of a British admiral. He joined Garibaldi in 1860, ostensibly because of the brutality of the officials he witnessed during a visit to Naples. Peard fought in the wars of Italian unification and was awarded the Cross of the Order of Valour by King ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Forest. Anita Dying
This painting depicting Italian patriots during the wars of Italian independence is excerpted from a multi-scene, “moving” panorama that is more than 1.2 meters tall and 110 meters long. Giant paintings such as these were a popular form of entertainment in the 19th century. The panorama scroll would be unrolled slowly as a narrator described the action. In its entirety, this panorama chronicles the life and exploits of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian freedom fighter. The work is attributed to John James Story (1827-1900), an artist from Nottingham, England, but ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Soldiers on a March: "To Pack up Her Tatters and Follow the Drum"
This hand-colored etched caricature is by British caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756?-1827). Rowlandson was trained as an artist in both England and France, but seems to have seen his profession as a way to make money rather than as an art form. As a result, he produced works that would sell – including pornographic images and illustrations of poems, as well as cartoons. Rowlandson produced his works by first drawing an image, then washing it with color, etching it on copper, having it engraved by a professional engraver, and then hand ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Going to Work
This watercolor on heavy board, showing military personnel of the Women’s Army Corps in New Guinea in 1944, during World War II, is signed and dated by the artist, John Cullen Murphy (1919-2004). Murphy was an American cartoonist best known for drawing the Prince Valiant comic strip. Murphy joined the armed forces in 1940 and spent the war years in the Pacific, where he was an anti-aircraft officer, and drew illustrations for the Chicago Tribune. The battle for New Guinea was one of the major military campaigns in the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Military Transport Boats at Iwo Jima
This impressionistic painting of military transport boats approaching Iwo Jima is the work of Harry Reeks (1921-82), an official Marine Corps combat artist who sketched battles in the Pacific during World War II. He arrived at Iwo Jima with the invasion force and spent 30 days there drawing the campaign. The battle for Iwo Jima, from February 19, 1945, to March 26, 1945, was one of the fiercest in the Pacific campaign of the war, and is best remembered for the iconic photograph of Marines raising the flag on the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Britain Infantry Uniform Sketch (Rutland Militia?)
This sketch is the 14th of 15 original unsigned pencil and ink drawings attributed to Philip James de Loutherbourg (1740-1812). De Loutherbourg, an English artist of French descent, painted many large scenes of English naval victories, including The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. This sketch includes drawings of a uniformed infantryman with a rifle, a head with a cap, and notes on uniform coloring. The uniform may be that of the Rutland Militia, a British regiment founded in 1759. De Loutherbourg sketched these soldiers during mock battles held at Warley ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Military Exercises
In the summer of 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy visited Japan, bearing a letter from U.S. President Millard Fillmore demanding certain concessions from the Japanese court. Perry’s visit was followed by the conclusion of the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa, which opened Japanese ports to U.S. trade. This painting by an anonymous Japanese artist shows visiting U.S. troops conducting military exercises. It is the fourth panel of a 12-panel silk-bound scroll from the collections of the Brown University Library, and is similar ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
British Artillerymen Pulling a Gun
This unfinished ink sketch by Benjamin West (1738-1820) shows British artillerymen from the Napoleonic Wars straining at a rope to drag a canon. The tenth child of a Pennsylvania innkeeper, West became one of the foremost artists of his day, despite having had very little formal education. In 1763, he moved to London, where he became a co-founder of the Royal Academy of Arts. He was a close friend of Benjamin Franklin, and was commissioned by King George III to paint portraits of the royal family. West later became the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Soldiers in Uniform
This watercolor from the American War of Independence is by Jean Baptiste Antoine de Verger (1762-1851), a French artist who himself fought in the war as a sub-lieutenant in a French regiment and who kept an illustrated journal of his experiences in the war. The watercolor, which appears in the journal, shows the variety of soldiers fighting for American independence, depicting, from left to right, a black soldier of the First Rhode Island Regiment, a New England militiaman, a frontier rifleman, and a French officer. An estimated 5,000 African-American ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Scene upon the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda
This watercolor by Lieutenant Joseph Moore of Her Majesty’s 89th Regiment, British Army, depicts the scene upon the terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda (Shwedagon Pagoda), in Rangoon, Burma. It was one of a series of pictures drawn by Moore that were subsequently published in London in 1825–26 as aquatint plates under the title Eighteen Views Taken at and near Rangoon. The prints depict various scenes from the First Anglo–Burmese War (1824–26), which the British fought to halt Burmese expansionism and incursions into British India. Rangoon ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Amir. A Dogcart Drive
This pencil drawing by Melton Prior (1845–1910) was published in the Illustrated London News on January 21, 1905 under the title “The Amir’s favour for English ways: A dog-cart drive, one of his Highness’s favourite pastimes.” According to the caption, the artist created the picture from material supplied by an official in the service of the amir, Habibullah Khan (born 1872), the ruler of Afghanistan from 1901 until his death in 1919. In this drawing, the amir is shown driving down a street with an escort of ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Somaliland Expedition. Colonel Plunkett's Disaster. Trapped. The Fight to the Death - near Gumbura
This pencil drawing and watercolor was created by Melton Prior (1845–1910) in British Somaliland (the northern part of present-day Somalia) in 1903. Prior had been sent by the Illustrated London News to cover a small conflict that had erupted between the British authorities and Mohammed bin Abdulla Hassan (circa 1856–1920), the “Mad Mullah” of Somaliland. On April 17, a small British force of some 230 British and Sikh troops, at left in the image, was surrounded by about 14,000 Somalis charging from all directions and completely destroyed ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Moroccan State Trumpeters, 1864
This original gouache painting of 1864 is by the celebrated British artist, Sir John Gilbert (1817–97). It originally was thought to depict Moroccan state trumpeters, but many of Gilbert’s paintings are indistinct in terms of time and place and their exact subjects difficult to determine. Gilbert never traveled beyond Europe, but like many Victorian painters he was attracted to exoticism and to tales from Arabia, such as the story of Aladdin, and this piece reflects this interest in the exotic. One of the most prolific painters of his ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
The Taking of Constantine, Algeria, 1837
This unsigned 1837 watercolor depicts French and native forces advancing across cliffs and through a breach in the wall of the fortified city of Constantine in Algeria. France was attempting to secure control of Algeria but was opposed by local tribes under Abd el Kader (circa 1807–83), the emir of Mascara. In October 1837 the French besieged and conquered the city, a victory that enabled them to secure a number of ports, but that still left them with no control over the interior of the country. Little is known ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Soldiers with Cannon Gathered outside Village, Circa 16th Century
This 1564 engraving is a print from an original work by the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528). It depicts mercenary troops known as Landsknechte, literally “servants of the country,” gathered near a large cannon on a road outside a village in the valley. These figures have been identified as Ottoman Turks, who began to appear with increasing frequency in European engravings of the late 15th–early 16th century, following the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. The Dürer print includes heraldic symbols of Nuremberg on the ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
American on Horseback, 1862
This ink and color wood-block print by Utagawa Yoshikazu (active 1848–63) was published in Edo (Toyko) in 1862. It depicts an American naval officer in black coat and top hat on a rearing brown horse, a dog in the foreground and civilians nearby. Along the top edge is a caption in Japanese which reads Kita Amerika shû no uchi Gasshûkoku mata Kyôwa seiji shû (On the North American Continent, the United States, also called the Republic). It comes from a series known as Foreigners from the Five Nations. The ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Adoo Quamina, 1820
This 1820 hand-colored aquatint after William Hutton (1797–1860) depicts Adoo Quamina, a captain and courtier to the Ashanti king. It forms the frontispiece to Hutton’s book A Voyage to Africain the Year 1820, which was published in London the following year. Hutton was formerly the British acting consul to Ashanti, a powerful West African state in the region of present-day Ghana, and an officer serving in the British African Company of Merchants. He described the warrior as appearing “in his war-dress, with his body covered with fetishes ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
North African Brigands and Arab, Circa 1845
This watercolor was painted by Frédéric Goupil-Fesquet (1817–78), a French artist of genre and history and a pioneer in photography. In 1839–40, he accompanied his uncle, the great French painter Horace Vernet (1789–1863), on a visit to North Africa and the Middle East. In 1843, Goupil-Fesquet published an account of their travels entitled Voyage d’Horace Vernet en Orient, which included 16 plates after Goupil-Fesquet. During the trip Goupil-Fesquet took some of the earliest known daguerreotype photographs of the region and its monuments. This watercolor, although it ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Zulu Soldiers of King Panda’s Army, 1847
This lithograph is based on a drawing by the British-born artist, George French Angas (1822–86). Angas traveled to Australia and New Zealand in 1844–45, where he painted some of the earliest views of both countries. Upon his return to England, he showed his paintings to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. In 1846, Angas left for South Africa, where he spent two years in Natal and the Cape. In 1849, the London firm of J. Hogarth published The Kafirs Illustrated, which included 30 lithographs based on drawings and watercolors ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Emperor Aurangzeb at the Siege of Golconda, 1687
This gouache painting was created by an unknown Indian artist sometime in the mid-to-late 18th century, but it depicts an earlier event: the siege of the city of Golconde in south-central India by the last great Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707). Golconde was famous for its fort, palaces, factories, and ingenious water-supply system, as well as the legendary wealth from the city’s diamond mine. Aurangzeb was Sunni, while the rulers of the Deccan were Shia who accepted the suzerainity of the shah of Persia and resisted Mughal expansionism ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Military Exercises of Yemen
This hand-colored engraving of a work by Andrea Bernieri (flourished 1826–42) depicts Yemeni horsemen with lances exercising in the courtyard of a fort. The horsemen are watched by a soldier holding a musket, and civilians are looking on in the foreground. Bernieri was one of the Italian artists who contributed works to a 15-volume set by Giulio Ferrario (1767-1847) entitled Il costume antico e moderno, o, storia del governo, della milizia, della religione, delle arti, scienze ed usanze di tutti i popoli antichi e moderni (Customs old and new ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Cuba Shall Be Free
This chromolithograph is an allegorical composition. It shows a Cuban soldier holding the national flag on the left, the winged figure of Victory at the right, a coat of arms at lower center with cannonballs and military band instruments, and ships in the background. The title reads Cuba Sera Libre (Cuba shall be free), with the dates October 31 to November 4, 1873 indicated on the banner at the bottom. The title and the dates refer to the Virginius Incident, in which the Virginius, a blockade runner previously employed in ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
View of Santo Domingo under Siege, 1585-1586
This hand-colored engraved plate by Johann Theodor de Bry (born in Liège in 1561, died in Frankfurt-am-Main in 1623), is from the German edition of de Bry’s Grands voyages (Great voyages), an enterprise begun by de Bry’s father, Theodor de Bry (1528–98). The work ultimately consisted of ten illustrated volumes on the colonization of the Americas. This 1599 engraving is a bird's-eye panoramic view showing the city, harbor, and river of Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic), with the fleet of the English privateer Sir Francis Drake ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Chinese General’s Wife
This work is one of a pair of original unsigned gouache watercolors, painted by an unknown hand and dating from the early 19th century, depicting a Chinese general and his wife. Shown here is the general’s wife, seated outside a row of tents. Near her is a staff with an oval shield bearing an animated and fearsome face. The same shield appears in her husband’s portrait, but with a different banner above it. The wife’s lady-in-waiting is kneeling at her right. Both women wear finely detailed costumes ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Chinese General, Circa 1810
This work is one of a pair of original unsigned gouache watercolors, painted by an unknown hand and dating from the early 19th century, depicting a Chinese general and his wife. Shown here is the general, who is seated outside his tent. He is wearing an elaborate gown and holds a spear. The tent pole bears an oval shield with an animated and fearsome face above which a standard banner flutters in the breeze. To the left is a standard bearer standing with a command flag. The same shield appears ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
A Galla Woman
In 1868, The Illustrated London News commissioned the Scottish artist William Simpson (1823–99) to cover a military campaign launched by Britain against Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia) to rescue several British officials and missionaries held by the Emperor Theodore (also called Tewodros II, ruled 1855–68). The commission was Simpson’s first major work for the Illustrated London News and the beginning of a long relationship with the paper that ended only with his death. Although Simpson’s primary task was to document the campaign, he was also interested in people ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Theodore, Negus Hegyst, of Abyssinia
In 1868, The Illustrated London News commissioned the Scottish artist William Simpson (1823–99) to cover a military campaign launched by Britain against Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia) to rescue several British officials and missionaries held by the Emperor Theodore (also called Tewodros II, ruled 1855–68). The commission was Simpson’s first major work for the Illustrated London News and the beginning of a long relationship with the paper that ended only with his death. This watercolor is Simpson’s depiction of Theodore. After the hostages were freed, the British forces ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Behar - "Rich and Poor" or "The Rajah and the Beggars"
This watercolor is from a collection of 18 paintings of Indian subjects by William Tayler (1808–92) dating from around 1842–45. Tayler was a civil servant of the East India Company who lived in India from 1829 until 1867. He became commissioner of Patna in 1855 and in 1857 was involved in the suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion. His measures against the local people were regarded as excessively harsh by his superiors, and he was suspended and given an appointment of lower rank. An enthusiastic amateur artist, Tayler sketched ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Nepal - "First Halting Place on the River Raptee”
This watercolor is from a collection of 18 paintings of Indian subjects by William Tayler (1808–92) dating from around 1842–45. Tayler was a civil servant of the East India Company who lived in India from 1829 until 1867. He became commissioner of Patna in 1855 and in 1857 was involved in the suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion. His measures against the local people were regarded as excessively harsh by his superiors, and he was suspended and given an appointment of lower rank. An enthusiastic amateur artist, Tayler sketched ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Bengal - Tank
This watercolor is from a collection of 18 paintings of Indian subjects by William Tayler (1808–92) dating from around 1842–45. Tayler was a civil servant of the East India Company who lived in India from 1829 until 1867. He became commissioner of Patna in 1855 and in 1857 was involved in the suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion. His measures against the local people were regarded as excessively harsh by his superiors, and he was suspended and given an appointment of lower rank. An enthusiastic amateur artist, Tayler sketched ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Arrah Shahabad - "The Young Rajah"
This watercolor is from a collection of 18 paintings of Indian subjects by William Tayler (1808–92) dating from around 1842–45. Tayler was a civil servant of the East India Company who lived in India from 1829 until 1867. He became commissioner of Patna in 1855 and in 1857 was involved in the suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion. His measures against the local people were regarded as excessively harsh by his superiors, and he was suspended and given an appointment of lower rank. An enthusiastic amateur artist, Tayler sketched ...
Contributed by Brown University Library