39 results in English
Table Mountain
This view of Table Mountain (Cape Town, South Africa) is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. This drawing, probably made from a ship moored off Robben Island, is one of the most accurate renderings of Table Bay from this period. The notes at the lower left, in Dutch, are keyed to the letters on the ...
Khoikhoi Fording a Stream
This view of a Khoi woman and child fording a stream with a Khoi man behind them is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The Khoikhoi were pastoralists who were derived from the aboriginal hunting population of southern Africa, the San. After establishment of the Dutch colony at Table Bay in 1652, the Khoikhoi were ...
Khoikhoi in a Storm
This view of a group of Khoi people in a storm is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing shows the traditional dress of the Khoi women: peaked hat, kaross (sheepskin cloak) across the shoulders, a small apron or fuller skin kaross around the waist, and leggings of dried raw-hide. The text on the ...
African Ox and Khoi Couple
These two sketches depicting an African ox and a Khoi couple are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The annotations provide details about African cattle and about the differing dress worn by Khoi men and women. The cattle owned by the Khoikhoi were of the Sanga breeds, which resulted from the interbreeding of the indigenous ...
Harvesting Scene
This view of a harvesting scene is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing shows a farming scene with the stacking of hayricks from ox wagons, with a Khoi matjieshuis (mat house) in the foreground and a farmhouse at the back. The Khoi are asking for tobacco from a colonist who is smoking as ...
Khoikhoi Yoking Oxen, and Other Sketches
These sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. Various activities are depicted in these vignettes: at the top, a Khoi man holding oxen while a colonist adjusts the yoke; in the middle, a woman milking a cow into a large ceramic pot; at bottom left, men dealing with a recalcitrant sheep; and at bottom ...
Khoi Women and Dutch Colonist
This view of a group of Khoi women in various costumes and poses, with a woman colonist holding a container, is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The annotations describe Khoi dress and ornamentation, explaining that Khoi women wear several strings of beads around the neck, with copper beads the most favored. The note remarks ...
Khoi Women
These sketches of Khoi women engaged in various activities are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The Khoikhoi were pastoralists who were derived from the aboriginal hunting population of southern Africa, the San. After establishment of the Dutch colony at Table Bay in 1652, the Khoikhoi were subjugated in wars with the Dutch in 1659 ...
Khoi Women Dancing
These depictions of Khoi women are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. In these drawings, the artist has caught the movement of the bodies, clothing, and beads. The annotation, in Dutch, refers to “five dancing Hottentot women,” the latter being the historic name given to the Khoikhoi at the time of white settlement, and now ...
Khoikhoi Drinking from Kaross
These two sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. On the left, Khoikhoi are being given a drink by a colonist, a kaross (a cape or blanket made from skins) serving as the receptacle into which it is poured. The right-hand drawing shows the sequel, with a man drinking from the kaross. The notes ...
Sketches of Khoikhoi
These two sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The sketch on the left depicts an older woman with a walking stick and poorly kept leggings; the sketch on the right depicts an elegantly dressed younger woman. The text, in Dutch, reads: “When the Hottentots are newly born their noses are pushed in, and ...
White Horsemen; Lion Hunt
These sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The top sketch shows armed colonists on horseback; the correction to the drawing suggests that there was only one acceptable way to carry a musket. The bottom sketch shows a trap set to catch a lion, which is being fired at from the undergrowth on the ...
Khoi Family
This sketch of a Khoi couple and child seen from behind is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The woman wears a pointed skin cap, large earrings, double kaross (a blanket or cape made of skins), and skin leggings. The man has ornaments in his hair, a skin bag as well as the roll sack ...
Khoi Groups
These two sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawings give details of Khoi activities and dress. The annotations, in Dutch, refer to the tobacco bag hanging on the back of the individual on the left of the left-hand sketch; to the ox-hide shoes fastened with leather thongs worn by the person shown ...
Lion Hunt
These vivid sketches of a lion hunt are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The note, in Dutch, at the upper right states: “The lions cause these people much loss in cattle, but they combat them bravely.” The longer note on the left concerns relations between the Khoi, who by this time lived a semi-settled ...
Khoi Dancers and Musical Instruments
This series of sketches is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The sketches show Khoi activities, including facial painting, drumming, and dancing. The annotations, in Dutch, provide details of the designs used in face painting and of the different drums played by men and women. The right side of the sheet is devoted to dancing ...
Khoi Arrows; Sketches of Farm Servants
These sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. Shown here are weapons used by the Khoi. The accompanying text, in Dutch, remarks on the smoothness and sharpness of the arrows and indicates the varieties of wood used by the Khoi to make the bows. Also shown is an assegai, a long spear that is ...
Khoikhoi Milking
This sketch is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing shows Khoi men and women milking large African cattle. Milk was a main means of sustenance for the Khoi, and African herders developed special techniques to make a recalcitrant cow produce milk, even if her calf had died. The note, in Dutch, describes these ...
Khoikhoi with Cattle
This sketch is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing at the top shows a Khoi family traveling with their domestic animals. The annotations note the walking stick carried by the man and the rings made of elephant tusks around his arms, designed to parry blows by enemies. In a reference to a known ...
Zulu Chief, South Africa
This 1895 photo of a Zulu chief in native dress standing in front of a thatched hut is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. The Zulu are southern Africa’s largest ethnic group. Zululand, where this photograph was taken, was absorbed into the British colony of Natal following ...
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Austral Africa: Losing It or Ruling It; Being Incidents and Experiences in Bechuanaland, Cape Colony, and England
John Mackenzie (1835–99) was a Scottish missionary who was sent by the London Missionary Society to South Africa in 1858. He lived at Shoshong in present-day Botswana in 1862–76. Mackenzie believed that the Ngwato and other African peoples with whom he worked were threatened by Boer freebooters encroaching on their territory from the south, as well as by politicians such as Cecil Rhodes who wanted to see extensive territories to the north annexed to the British Cape Colony. He thus began a campaign for the establishment of what ...
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The Transvaal and Bechuanaland
This pamphlet by Gavin Brown Clark (1846–1930), honorary secretary of the Transvaal Independence Committee, was part of the debate in Great Britain in the 1880s concerning policy toward South Africa and Bechuanaland (present-day Botswana). The Afrikaans-speaking Boers, descendants of the first Dutch settlers in South Africa, began migrating across the Vaal River in the 1830s and established the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal) in 1856. The Boers also settled and claimed neighboring Bechuanaland. Britain annexed the Transvaal in 1877, but the Boers rebelled and restored their ...
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Contributions to the Geography of South-West Africa
Fritz Jaeger and Leo Waibel were professors of geography in Germany who, in late 1913, were commissioned by the German colonial office to explore the northern part of German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia). They arrived in the colony in mid-1914 and soon were caught up in the events of World War I, which broke out in August of that year. Both men were drafted into the German Protection Force and fought in engagements with the South African forces entering German South-West Africa from the south. They were released from military ...
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Paul Kruger Street, Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows Paul Kruger Street, looking south towards Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, as it appeared around 1910. The railroad station was the work of Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946), a British-born architect who designed many important buildings in South Africa. The street was named in honor of Paul Kruger (1825-1904), the president of the South African Republic (Transvaal) who led the resistance of the Afrikaans-speaking Boers to Britain in the Boer War of 1899-1902. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services ...
Pretoria Station, South Africa, 1893
This photograph shows the arrival of the first train at Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, in 1893. Railroad construction in South Africa was spurred by economic development associated with the gold mining industry, following the discovery of gold near present-day Johannesburg in 1886. Pretoria, at the time the capital of the South African Republic, was connected by rail to Cape Town in 1893, and to Durban and Lourenço Marques (in the then-Portuguese colony of Mozambique) in 1895. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of ...
Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows the eastern facade of the Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa. These buildings, 285-meters long and built from light sand stone, were designed in the English monumental style by the architect Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946). The cornerstone was laid in November 1910, shortly after the Union of South Africa was formed. Construction was completed in 1913, at a cost of £1,310,640 for the buildings and £350,000 for the building site. The stamp on the back of the photograph reads: “Alan Yates, 240 Andries str ...
British Troops Marching in Market Street, Pretoria
This photograph shows British troops marching on Market Street, later called Paul Kruger Street, in Pretoria, South Africa, in 1877. In 1877-78, the British Army engaged in a series of punitive expeditions against the Basuto, Zulu, and Galeka peoples that resulted in the annexation of the Transkei to the Cape Colony. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The Van der Waal Collection forms part of an archive of South African architecture assembled by architectural ...
Church Square, Pretoria, South Africa, 1905
This 1905 photograph shows Church Square in Pretoria, South Africa, looking east. The cast iron fountain, known as the Sammy Marks Fountain, was imported from Ireland by businessman Sammy Marks (1843-1920) and moved from Church Square to the city zoo in 1910. Born in Lithuania, the son of a Jewish tailor, Marks came to South Africa in 1868. He began his career by peddling jewelry and cutlery, but soon became involved in the rapidly developing gold-, diamond-, and coal-mining industries. Behind the fountain is the recently completed Tudor Chambers, then ...
Natal, Rhodesia, and British East Africa
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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British Kaffraria and its German Settlements
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
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History of the Basuto, Ancient and Modern
David Frédéric Ellenberger (1835–1919) was a Swiss French Protestant missionary who left for Basutoland (present-day Lesotho) in 1860 as a member of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. Ellenberger spent more than 45 years collecting the oral traditions of the Basotho (also known as Sotho) people. His method was to gather “all the information which it was still possible to obtain from intelligent old men concerning the tribes, their origin, their manners, their form of government, their beliefs, the genealogy of the chiefs, etc.” His objective was to preserve, for ...
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Sketches Representing the Native Tribes, Animals, and Scenery of Southern Africa: From Drawings Made by the Late Mr. Samuel Daniell
Samuel Daniell (1775–1811) was an English painter and draughtsman who arrived in South Africa in December 1799. He was appointed secretary and artist for the expedition of 1801–2 from the Cape of Good Hope to Bechuanaland led by P.J. Truter and William Somerville. On his return to England, Daniell published, with the assistance of his uncle, the painter Thomas Daniell, and his brother, the painter and engraver William Daniell, African Scenery and Animals (1804–5). He later moved to Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka), where he made sketches ...
The Gentleman Digger: Being Studies and Pictures of Life in Johannesburg
The Gentleman Digger is a fictional work set in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1889. Following the discovery of gold in the 1880s, Johannesburg became a boomtown that attracted miners and prospectors from all over the world. The book depicts the rapid growth of the city and the squalor, glitter, drunkenness, and crime that characterized the early mining camps. The book’s author, the Comtesse de Brémont (1864–1922), was born Anna Dunphy to Irish parents in Cincinnati, Ohio. At the age of 17, she married the Comte de Brémont, a ...
Uncut Diamonds Gathered by Five Different Mines in Two Days, Kimberley, South Africa
This photograph is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. F.H. Hancox, a South African photographer ...
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Victoria Falls
This late 19th- or early 20th-century photograph of Victoria Falls is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. The falls lie on the Zambezi River that separates Zambia from Zimbabwe. David Livingstone, the British explorer and missionary who in 1855 became the first European to see the falls, named it in honor of Queen Victoria. The local Kololo tribe called the falls “Mosi-oa-Tunya,” meaning 'the smoke that thunders,' after the vast cloud of mist and spray created by the cascading water. The Zambezi is about ...
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Church Street and Town Hall - Maritzburg, South Africa
This photograph of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. Boer Voortrekkers (pioneers ...
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Republic of Malawi, July 4-7 1966, Souvenir Programme
This 1966 souvenir program celebrates the declaration of Malawi as a republic. Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) became an independent member of the British Commonwealth on July 6, 1964, and adopted a republican constitution two years later. The move to the republican form of government was primarily the work of Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896?-1997), who served as prime minister in 1964-66 and as the country’s first president from 1966 until 1994. Banda was trained as a doctor in the United States and the United Kingdom and practiced medicine in London ...
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German South-West Africa
German South-West Africa, or present-day Namibia, was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, when it was occupied by South African forces fighting on the side of Great Britain in World War I. The brief history of the colony was marked by a series of insurrections by the Khoekhoe and Hereros against German rule, insurrections that the authorities suppressed with extraordinary harshness. The German ambition was to populate the colony with large numbers of settlers from Germany, much as the British had done in other parts of ...
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Adventures in Swaziland: the Story of a South African Boer
The author of this work, Owen Rowe O’Neil, was a South African Boer (farmer) of Irish descent who grew up near the border between Swaziland and the Transvaal. As a child and an adult he made frequent trips to Swaziland. O’Neil’s book describes warfare, customs, political organization, and medicine in late-19th and early-20th century Swaziland, as well as recounts O’Neil’s numerous personal encounters with King Buno, his mother, Queen Labotsibeni, Crown Prince Sebuza, and other members of the royal family. Swaziland came under the control ...
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