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The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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Memoirs of an Arabian Princess: An Autobiography
Emilie Ruete (1844–1924), also known as Princess Sayyida Salme of Zanzibar and Oman, was born in Zanzibar (part of present-day Tanzania), the daughter of Saʻīd bin Sulṭān, sultan of Zanzibar and Oman. In 1867 she married a German merchant, Rudolph Heinrich Ruete (1839–70). The couple settled in Hamburg. Memoirs of an Arabian Princess is an account of Ruete’s royal youth in Zanzibar and Oman. First published in German in 1886, the book describes the culture and society of Zanzibar as experienced by an Arab girl growing to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Italian Somaliland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Somaliland is Number 128 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Italian Somaliland (part of the present-day Republic of Somalia) came under Italian control in early 1889, when the sultan ...
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The African West and Catholic Missions, Congo and Oubangi
In the late 19th century, France competed with the International Congo Association of King Leopold of Belgium for control of the vast Congo River Basin. Under the leadership of the Franco-Italian explorer and empire builder Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, between 1882 and 1891 France managed to conclude treaties with most of the rulers on the right bank of the river, placing their lands under French protection. In 1908, France organized its territories in the region into French Equatorial Africa, which included the colonies of Middle Congo (the present-day Republic of ...
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Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language, as Spoken at San Salvador, the Ancient Capital of the Old Kongo Empire, West Africa: Preface
William Holman Bentley (1855–1905) was born in Sudbury, United Kingdom, where his father was a Baptist minister. After working for a time as a bank clerk, he was accepted by the Baptist Missionary Society for its new Congo mission and, in April 1879, he sailed for the Congo with three other missionaries. In January 1881, Bentley and H.E. Crudgington became the first Europeans to establish a route inland from the mouth of the Congo River to Stanley Pool, site of present-day Kinshasa. While building mission stations and traveling ...
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The Colonial Expansion of French Congo
L’Expansion coloniale au Congo français (The colonial expansion of French Congo) is a study of the history, geography, population, administrative structures, and economy of Congo, published in 1906 in conjunction with the French Colonial Exposition in Marseille. In the years before World War I, France’s global empire, second in size only to Britain’s, was nearing its peak. The exposition was intended to glorify France’s civilizing mission as well as to highlight its profitable trade with the colonies, much of which passed through the port of Marseille ...
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German East Africa as a Settlement Region for Europeans, Taking into Consideration British East Africa and Nyassaland
As imperial Germany began creating an overseas empire in the late 19th century, many influential Germans sought to emulate the example of Great Britain, which had built its large and powerful empire in part by promoting the settlement of immigrants from the British Isles to British-controlled territories in other parts of the world, including East Africa and South Africa. Germany declared a protectorate in East Africa in 1885 and established the colony of German East Africa (present-day Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi) in 1891. In 1908, Friedrich von Lindequist, undersecretary in ...
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The Victoria Nyanza. The Land, the Races and their Customs, with Specimens of Some of the Dialects
Lake Victoria (in the Bantu language, Victoria Nyanza), is the largest lake in Africa and the second largest body of fresh water in the world, surpassed only by Lake Superior in North America. The lake is crossed by the equator, and is the chief source of the Nile River. The first European to reach the lake was the British explorer John Hanning Speke in 1858, who named it after Britain’s Queen Victoria. In 1890, at the height of the European scramble for colonies in Africa, Britain and Germany divided ...
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The Uganda Protectorate: Attempt to Give Some Description of the Physical Geography, Botany, Zoology, Anthropology, Languages and History of the Territories under British Protection in East Central Africa
This two-volume work by Sir Henry Hamilton (Harry) Johnston, a British explorer, writer, and colonial official who spent much of his career in Africa, is an encyclopedic compilation of information about Uganda, which became a British protectorate in 1894. Johnston was asked by the crown, in 1899, to spend two years in Uganda as a special commissioner, in order to establish civilian administration after a period of disastrous military rule. He concluded an agreement with the ruling chiefs of Buganda that helped bring stability to the country. During his term ...
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Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its Tributaries; and of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa. 1858-1864
Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone (1813–73) made three great African voyages: across the continent in 1852–56, up the Zambezi River in 1858–64, and the unsuccessful attempt to find the source of the Nile in 1866–73. Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi and Its Tributaries is Livingstone’s account of the second journey. It was on this voyage, in 1859, that Livingstone reached and named Lake Nyasa. In contrast to his first expedition, which made Livingstone a national celebrity, establishing him as an explorer, promoter ...
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Wedono of Banjaran near Bandung with His Following in Front of His House
This photograph shows the wedono of Banjaran (a region in present-day West Java near Bandung), in front of his house, with members of his entourage. In Dutch-administered Java, a wedono was a native regional administrator. The photograph was taken by the studio of Woodbury & Page, which was established in 1857 by the British photographers Walter Bentley Woodbury and James Page. The photograph is from the collections of the KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies in Leiden.
The Bunyoro Agreement 1955
This document, from the National Archives of Uganda, is the original of the Bunyoro Agreement of 1955 between Great Britain and the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, one of the traditional kingdoms of Uganda. The agreement, in both English and Lunyoro, was signed on September 3 by Sir Andrew Cohen (1909–68), governor of the Uganda Protectorate, on behalf of the British government in London and the government of the protectorate, and the Omukama (king), Sir Tito Gafabusa Winyi IV (1883–1971), on behalf of himself and his successors, the Rukurato (the ...
Members of a Royal(?) Family Gathered for a Group Portrait, Kenya
This photograph, taken in Kenya in the early 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
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Large Group of People Gathered Around Some Men with Musical Instruments, Mombasa, Kenya
This photograph, taken in Kenya some time in the early 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
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Street Scene, Nairobi, Kenya Photo by D.V. Figueira, Mombasa
This photograph, showing a general store in Nairobi, Kenya, sometime in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16 ...
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Portuguese Government Gunboat on the Zambesi River, Used to Preserve Order Among the Natives, Tete, Mozambique, Africa
This photograph, taken in the then-Portuguese colony of Mozambique sometime in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16 ...
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Bridge on the Uganda Railway Made of American Steel and Put in Place Under American Direction, Africa
This photograph, taken in east Africa in the first quarter of the 20th century, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7 ...
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Position of the UPC vis-à-vis Cameroon's Independence
This eight-page manifesto, issued by an outlawed Cameroonian political party, the Union des Populations du Cameroun (Union of the Peoples of Cameroon [UPC]), outlines the party's position vis-à-vis the independence of Cameroon. The manifesto was written in December 1959 and was signed by the party’s president, Félix-Roland Moumié. Cameroon is the only African country that, in the course of its history, was ruled by three different European colonial powers: Britain, France, and Germany. It became a German colony in 1884. After World War I, a League of Nations ...
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The Region of Chad and the Oudai; Ethnographic Studies, Toubou Dialect
Henri Carbou was a French colonial official and ethnographer who undertook pioneering studies of the peoples of Chad and Sudan and their languages. The groups discussed in this two-volume work include the Kanembou, the Toubou, the Ouaddai, the Arabs, and many others. Carbou’s sources included his own observations, works by Arab writers, and earlier works by Europeans, including the two great German explorers of central Africa, Heinrich Barth (1821-65) and Gustav Nachtigal (1834-85). Carbou’s works still are used by scholars interested in the dialects of Chad and Sudan.
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Message from President Hassan Gouled Aptidon to the Nation on the Occasion of May 8th, 1977: Peace-Unity-Fraternity
This booklet, published in Paris in March 1977, contains text excerpted from a declaration, signed by Hassan Gouled Aptidon (1916-2006), president of Djibouti’s leading political movement, the Ligue populaire africaine pour l'Indépendance (Popular African League for Independence). The declaration was aimed at the people of Djibouti on the eve of the historic referendum for independence from France, which took place in May 1977. Hassan Gouled Aptidon was one of Djibouti’s chief negotiators for independence during roundtable talks in Paris in 1977. He became the country’s first ...
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A Pilgrimage to My Motherland: An Account of a Journey Among the Egbas and Yorubas of Central Africa, in 1859-60
Robert Campbell (1829–84) was a Jamaican-born printer, journalist, and teacher who, along with Martin Robison Delany (1812–85), made up the Niger Valley Exploring Party of 1859–60, an expedition organized by free African Americans to explore the possibility of colonizing parts of West Africa with black immigrants from America. Campbell traveled first to England in early 1859. He sailed on to Lagos (present-day Nigeria) and traveled northwest to Abeokuta, where he met up with Delany, a journalist, political activist, and graduate of Harvard Medical School. Acting in their ...
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The Mailo System in Buganda: A Preliminary Case Study in African Land Tenure
The basic unit of the mailo system is a square mile, hence the derivation of mailo, which is also equivalent to 640 acres. The term is used in Uganda to describe a land tenure system that came into effect when the kingdom of Buganda signed an agreement with the British-administered Uganda Protectorate there in 1900. Buganda runs along the northwest shore of Lake Victoria, in present-day south-central Uganda. This work is by Henry W. West, who was assistant commissioner for lands and surveys in the early 1960s and the foremost ...
The Lango: A Nilotic Tribe of Uganda
This 1923 study of the Lango people of north-central Uganda narrates the origins and history of the group, which had a form of government based on minor clan chiefs, rather than a king or superior chief, before the arrival of the British rule. Jack Herbert Driberg (1888–1946) was a British official in the service of the Uganda Protectorate in 1912–21 and lived and worked among the Lango, for whom he had both sympathy and admiration. He describes the ethnology of the Lango nation; their environment, including the fauna ...
The Buganda Agreement, 1955
By the late 19th century, Buganda was a powerful East African kingdom, running along the northwest shore of Lake Victoria, in present-day south-central Uganda.  The Buganda Agreement of 1900, which gave Buganda a large degree of internal autonomy within the British-ruled Uganda Protectorate, was modified by this 1955 treaty. The Buganda Agreement, 1955 was made on October 18 of that year, between Sir Andrew Cohen, Governor and Commander in Chief of the Uganda Protectorate, on behalf of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...
The Ankole Agreement, 1962
The Ankole Agreement of 1901 consolidated Nkore and other states into the kingdom of Ankole, under the auspices of Britain’s Uganda Protectorate. The treaty was amended by further agreements between the governor of Uganda and the omugabe (king) of Ankole until this 1962 agreement. The Ankole Agreement, 1962 was made on August 30, 1962: “between Sir Walter Fleming Coutts, Knight Commander of the Most distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, Governor and Commander in Chief of the ...
The Somaliland Expedition. Colonel Plunkett's Disaster. Trapped. The Fight to the Death - near Gumbura
This pencil drawing and watercolor was created by Melton Prior (1845–1910) in British Somaliland (the northern part of present-day Somalia) in 1903. Prior had been sent by the Illustrated London News to cover a small conflict that had erupted between the British authorities and Mohammed bin Abdulla Hassan (circa 1856–1920), the “Mad Mullah” of Somaliland. On April 17, a small British force of some 230 British and Sikh troops, at left in the image, was surrounded by about 14,000 Somalis charging from all directions and completely destroyed ...
Contributed by Brown University Library