330 results in English
History of the Five Dynasties
Wu dai shi ji (History of the Five Dynasties) was the original title of this work by Ouyang Xiu (1007–72), statesman, historian, essayist, calligrapher, and poet of the Song dynasty. It traditionally has been called Xin Wu dai shi (The new history of the Five Dynasties) to distinguish it from another work entitled Jiu Wu dai shi (The old history of the Five Dynasties), by Xue Juzheng (912–81). This was the only authorized history compiled privately after the Tang dynasty and before the publication of Xin Yuan shi ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government
Zi zhi tong jian (Comprehensive mirror to aid in government) was a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, first published in 1084 in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 Emperor Yingzong (reigned 1064–67) of the Song ordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–86) to lead a group of scholars in compiling a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to complete and the finished work was presented in 1084 to the succeeding Emperor Shenzong (reigned 1068–85). Its subject is Chinese history from 403 BC ...
Contributed by National Central Library
The Veritable Records of the Song Emperor Taizong
Chinese court officials often recorded a reigning emperor’s daily activities and words spoken in court, especially those that affected the country. These records, such as Qi ju zhu (Diaries of activity and repose) and Ri li (Daily records), were sources for the compilation of shi lu (veritable records) by a committee. Other sources consisted of materials collected from provinces, ministerial papers, and other documents. The official histories were written based on these veritable records. Such records no longer exist from before the Tang dynasty (618–907). The only ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Supplement to the Local Gazetteer of Wu Prefecture
Wujun (Wu Prefecture) is an ancient name used during the Qin and Han (221 BCE–220 CE) for the seat of Guiji (situated in present-day Suzhou). The words tu jing in the title denote an older type of local gazetteer, which first appeared during the Eastern Han (25–220 CE). It was not until the Southern Song that such works were replaced by more formal gazetteers. This printed work is a very rare Song edition. The work goes back to 1099, the second year of Yuanfu era during the reign ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Newly Compiled Stories on the History of the Five Dynasties with Commentaries (Incomplete Copy)
One of the popular entertainments among the common people during the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127) was storytelling. Historical events were particularly popular subjects. Stories often were told with the commentaries of the storytellers and thus were called ping hua (stories with commentaries). Some ping hua were published after being polished by the literati, but not many are still in existence. The author of this work is unknown. It is a collection of popular literature containing stories from the Five Dynasties (907–60), prior to the Song dynasty. It begins ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Geographical Description of Tiantai Mountain
Tendaisan ki (Tiantaishanji in Chinese) is a geographical description of the Chinese holy mountain, Tendaisan (Tiantaishan in Chinese), located in Zheijiang Province. The author, Xu Lingfu, was a Taoist who lived in seclusion in order to discipline his mind and body. Xu lived on Tendaisan from 815 to 825, where he wrote this book. A Japanese monk studying in China may have copied the original in China or he may have brought a copy back to Japan, after which it was lost. This manuscript, held in the National ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Macao
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Macao is Number 81 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Macau was at that time a colony of Portugal, leased by China to the Portuguese as a trading port. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Korea
This photograph of a Korean woman and her daughter in traditional costume is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Biography of Zou Rong
Zou Rong (1885−1905), whose original name was Zou Shaotao, was also called Guiwen and had the style name Weidan. He was a native of Baxian, Sichuan. He changed his name to Zou Rong while studying in Japan. In 1903 he published a little book entitled Ge ming jun (The revolutionary army), calling for the Chinese people to carry out revolution, overthrow the Manchu regime, and establish the Chinese republic. Zhang Taiyan (1868−1936), a Chinese philologist, philosopher, and also a revolutionary, wrote the preface. It was published in the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Calligraphic Rubbings of Jiangzhou
Jiang tie (Calligraphic rubbings of Jiangzhou) is an anthology of calligraphic rubbings, in 20 juan. The rubbings were made by Pan Shidan, a Song official in Jiangzhou, thus the title carries the name of the location. Pan was active during the reigns of Huangyou and Jiayou (1049−63) of the Northern Song. This is the earliest example of an anthology of calligraphic rubbings by a private person. The compilation was based on Chunha ge tie (The Chunhuage calligraphic rubbings), the oldest imperial anthology of calligraphic rubbings, but with additions and ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Book of Exhortation to Beneficence
Quan shan jing (Book of exhortation to beneficence), also known as Tai shang gan ying pian (Tract of Lord Laozi on actions and consequences; or Tract of Lord Laozi on rewards and punishments), has two parts. Part one is a translation of the Daoist classic Tai shang gan ying pian, a work associated with Laozi, one of the founders of Daoism thought to have lived in the sixth century BC. Part two is an exposition of the moral standards of the Yi people. (“Yi” is a term used for some ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting, in Five Juan
Jieziyuan hua zhuan (The Mustard Seed Garden manual of painting), also known as Jie zi yuan hua pu, was compiled in the early Qing dynasty. The work was commissioned by Shen Xinyou, son-in-law of the famous playwright Li Yu (1611−circa 80), whose mansion in Nanjing, was called Jieziyuan (Mustard Seed Garden). The compiler and editor was the local landscape artist Wang Gai (active 1677−1705), who was assisted by his brothers Wang Shi and Wang Nie. The manual systematically introduces basic techniques of Chinese painting, which are provided in ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Yangshi Lei Archives, 1. Vertical Plan of the Circular Gate at Lüxin Shuwu Library
Shown here is the vertical elevation of a circular decorative gate at the Lȕxin Shuwu library (Library of faith keeping), situated in a corner area in the Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. An imperial library often functioned as a place to collect books, give lectures, hold discussions, or administer civil examinations. It was also possible for the emperor to rest, read, work, or interview various people there. The circular-shaped shield or ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Yangshi Lei Archives, 2. Plan of Jiuzhou Qingyan at Yuanmingyuan
Shown here is the site plan of the Hall of Jiuzhou Qingyan, one of the 40 scenic spots in Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. It was situated between the front and back lakes and was the center of the Jiuzhou scenic region. Being the largest building group in the back lake area, it was originally a place for the lodging of the emperors and empresses. On a medial axis the plan ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Yangshi Lei Archives, 3. Site Plan of Paiyun Dian (the Cloud-Dispelling Hall) and Foxiangge (the Pavilion of the Fragrance of the Buddha) of the Summer Palace
Shown here is the site plan of two of the most important building complexes in the Summer Palace, the Paiyun Dian (Cloud-Dispelling Hall) and Foxiangge (The Pavilion of the Fragrance of the Buddha). The Summer Palace is a vast landscape of gardens, palaces, and lakes in imperial Beijing, and the Paiyun Dian and Foxiangge are the most complete architectural arrangements at the palace. They also represent the richest building group on a medial axis. The layout progresses upwards, layer by layer in an orderly way, from the Yunhui Yuyu Archway ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Painting of the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion during the Spring Purification Festival
This rubbing scroll combines two works: Lanting xu tie (Calligraphy of the preface to the poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion) by Wang Xizhi (321−79), and Liu shang tu (The floating goblets), originally a painting, by the Song artist Li Gonglin (1049−1106). Emperor Qianlong (reigned 1736−95) commissioned this scroll, which was reprinted from the Song rubbing with the missing parts added, based on the fragment of Lanting tu (Illustrations of Lanting) by Zhu Yiyin (1536−1603), Prince Yi of the Ming dynasty. The missing part of the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Iron Brush of Ju Kungao, Two Juan
Ju Lühou (1723−86), style name Kungao, a native of Fengxian, Shanghai, was a seal artist. Seal carving was one of the four essential skills required of a scholar. Ju was also the author of a number of works, among which are Kungao tie bi (Iron brush by Kungao), in two juan, Kungao tie bi yu ji (Remaining works of Kungao), in five juan, and Yin wen kao lue (A brief study on inscriptions on seals), in one juan. This work is a manual about seals collected by Ju. On ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Collected Literary Works of Li Taibai
Li Bo (also called Li Bai, 701−762), courtesy name Taibai, style name Qinglian Jushi, was called, among his other nicknames, Shi xian (Immortal poet) and Shi xia (Poet-knight-errant). His work Li Taibai ji (Collected works of Li Taibai) has been handed down from generation to generation. The earliest edition was compiled by Wei Hao, Li Yangbing, and Fan Chuanzheng, three Tang scholars, but these works did not survive. The first printed edition dated back to the third year of Yuanfeng (1080) of the Song and was printed by Yan ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Noble Knights-errant of the Water Margin, with Commentary by Li Zhuowu, in 100 Juan
Shown here is chapter one of an important version of one of the great classics of Chinese literature, Shui hu zhuan (The water margin), which is attributed to Shi Nai'an (circa 1290−circa 1365). The early editions of this work were issued in two kinds of format; one was unabridged and the other concise. The unabridged text appeared arranged in 70, 100, or 120 juan (chapters), the earliest being of 100 chapters. This edition, Li Zhuowu xian sheng pi ping Zhong yi shui hu zhuan, 100 juan (The noble ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Dream of the Red Chamber in 120 Chapters
Xin jian quan bu xiu xiang Hong lou meng (Newly printed complete illustrated edition of the Dream of the red chamber) is also known as the Cheng-A edition. It is the first printed edition of the classic novel written by Cao Xueqin (circa 1715−63), one of China’s greatest novelists. Included here are the preface and comments by Zhang Ruzhi at the tops of the pages, the table of contents, and three chapters. The book was in the collection of Zheng Zhenduo (1898–1958) before entering the collections of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Gazetteer of Lin'an during the Xianchun Reign of the Southern Song
This work is a Southern Song local gazetteer, which was published in the fourth year (1268) of the Xianchun reign of the Song emperor Duzong. The author collected extensive material and, based on two earlier gazetteers, Qiandao Lin’an zhi (Gazetteer of Lin’an during the Qiandao reign) and Chunyou Lin’an zhi (Gazetteer of Lin’an during the Chunyou reign), he expanded the text and published the Lin’an gazetteer in 100 juan. The first 15 juan list imperial residences and record details concerning the imperial city (Lin’an ...
Contributed by National Library of China
"Jottings at the Dream Brook Studio," in the Family Collection of Chen Guyu, in 26 Juan
Mengxi bi tan (Jottings at the Dream Brook Studio) was written in encyclopedic form as a collection of hundreds of articles by Shen Kuo (1031−95), a Song polymath, scientist, statesman, and artist. The work was written at Mengxi (Dream Brook) Garden, his estate in Runzhou (near present-day Zhenjiang, Jiangsu), thus the title. This work’s extraordinarily broad coverage includes astronomy, physics, mathematics, geology, geography, biological medicine, contemporary politics, military affairs, economics, and anecdotes about the arts and literature. It is also a very important document in the history of ...
Contributed by National Library of China
South Korea, View of Palace in Seoul
This image, showing a view of a palace in Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk  between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “View of palace, section of Seoul looking east.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the only person ...
South Korea, Man Sitting in Library of American Diplomatic Residence
This image of a well-dressed man sitting in a chair in the library of the U.S. diplomatic residence in Korea is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Chung-Phyong-Ha, guest and friend in the library of the legation.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to ...
South Korea, Buddhist Rock Carvings
This image, showing a landscape and Buddhist rock carvings in South Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Buddhist remains, rock carving near Nani-Won; Choula-Do.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the only person ...
South Korea, Juhamnu Pavilion in Front of Buyongji Pond in Changdok Palace in Seoul
This image highlights the Juhamnu pavilion, part of the Changdeokgung, or Changdok palace, in Seoul, Korea. Standing in the foreground, a man identified as Lieutenant Milligan is seen rolling a cigarette. This is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Changdeokgung was built in the 15th century as a secondary palace after the primary palace of Gyeongbokgung. Both palaces were burned down during the Japanese invasion in 1592, and ...
South Korea, Man Standing in Front of American Diplomatic Residence
This image, showing a Korean man standing in front of the U.S. diplomatic residence in Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “I-Shiryom, a friend, Chusa of the F.O. [Foreign Office], taken at the U.S.L. [U.S. Legation], front of dwelling, July 1885.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat ...
South Korea, Man on Pony
This image, showing a man seated on a pony and surrounded by three other men, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Korea, Chin-Yong-Meuk, (interpreter) and attendants in street, marching order.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean ...
South Korea, Dancers Performing Tongyong Drum Dance (Victory Dance)
This image, showing four female Korean dancers, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Kisaing dancing girls of the Governors House at Chung Ju-Choula Province, taken as they were about to execute a drum dance for my edification.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to ...
South Korea, Visitors at American Diplomatic Residence in Seoul
This image, showing two men at the legation of the United States in Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The diplomatic residence, estimated to have been built prior to 1883, was the first foreign legation building erected in Seoul. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “I-Shi Ryon and Chung-Phyong-Ha; visitors at USL.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S ...
South Korea, Archery Practice in Pukhan Mountain Fortress
This image, showing a large group of men, some with archery bows, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Archery drill in the Puk-Han (mountain fortress); visited with commander-in-chief, May 31, 1885.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a ...
South Korea, City View in Seoul
This image, a landscape showing trees and the city walls of Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Middle section of Seoul.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the only person in U ...
South Korea, View of Countryside
This image, showing a view of the Korean countryside, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Rice paddies, country houses, and rice revenue shipping port, Kang Pyong-Po on Kum river.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation ...
South Korea, View of Northern Part of Seoul
This image, showing a landscape of trees and buildings in the northern part of Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Northern section, view of Seoul.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the ...
South Korea, Wait Staff at Diplomatic Residence
This image, showing a member of the wait staff at the U.S. legation, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Bob, table boy, Korean jewel of the legation.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as ...
South Korea, City View in Seoul
This image, showing a stone wall and beyond it, the city of Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “South of middle section, Seoul.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the only person ...
South Korea, American Legation Secretary and Staff
This image, showing William Woodville Rockhill and his staff, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Korea, Secretary Rockhill and staff; U.S. Legation, December 11, 1886.” Rockhill was a U.S. diplomat who served in China and was a leading scholar in Chinese and Tibetan studies. Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in ...
South Korea, Governor of Chula Province
This image, showing a group of Koreans surrounding one man who is prominently seated in the center, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “The governor (Kamsa) of Chula province, taken at Chong do, November 1884.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country ...
South Korea, View of Seoul From West to East
This image, showing a view of the city of Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “View over centre of Seoul, from west to east." Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the only ...
South Korea, Road to China in Seoul
This image, showing a road next to a group of homes in the city of Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Road to China from west gate, Seoul. At a point where king meets foreign ambassadors.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent ...
South Korea, Prince Min Yong Ik and Diplomats
This image, showing a group of Korean and American diplomats (including Prince Min Yong Ik, minister plenipotentiary), is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Special mission from Korea to U.S.A., 1883. Prince Min Yong Ik, minister plenipotentiary. From left to right, bottom row: Hong Yong Sik (vice minister), Prince Min Yong Ik (minister plenipotentiary), Soh Kong Pom (secretary to ...
South Korea, Great South Gate in Seoul
This image, showing the pagoda-style south gate in the stone wall surrounding the city of Seoul, Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The south gate, Sungnyemun, commonly known as Namdaemun, is designated as National Treasure Number One in South Korea. Completed in 1398, the gate was one of four main gates in the defensive stone wall surrounding the capital. Goods flowed into the city through the ...