254 results in English
The Cultural and National Movement in Ukraine in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Mykhailo Hrushevs’kyi (1866–1934) was a professor of history and a leading political figure in Ukraine, who served as chairman of the Ukrainian Central Council at the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This work, published in 1912, is devoted to the national and cultural movement of Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries and the formation of a Ukrainian national consciousness. Much of the book deals with relations between Ukraine and Poland and their effect on the formation of a Ukrainian state. The author describes a decline ...
Ukrainian Culture: A Short History of the Cultural Life of the Ukrainian People
In the summer of 1918, Ivan Ogienko (1882–1972), a Ukrainian scientist and political, public, and ecclesiastical figure, became a founder and the first president of Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi state university (subsequently renamed after him). He later gave a course of lectures on Ukrainian culture at the university, on which this book is based. Part I concerns the history of the culture until the 17th century. It describes the territory of Ukraine, along with song, epic (Cossack) poems and other major literary works, the language, and architecture. Also ...
Yasinya. Wooden Churches
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. On the right in this picture is the Church of the Ascension of Our Lord in Yasinya, built in 1824 and typical of the ...
Yasinya. Wooden Church
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Shown here is the Church of Saints Peter and Paul and its bell tower in the Plytovate area of Yasinya, across the Tisza River ...
Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest lies partly in southwest Belarus and partly in eastern Poland and is situated on the watershed of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. As early as the late 14th–early 15th centuries, under Jogaila, grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland, Białowieża, which is still the largest primeval forest in Europe, became a protected natural territory. This book by Georgīĭ Kart︠s︡ov contains information about the location and size of the forest, its topography, vegetation, and the history of royal hunting from the 1500s to ...
Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the Originals in the Treasury Collection
Icones Familiae Ducalis Radivilianae ex originalibus in Ganzophylacio ordinationis desumptae (Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the originals in the Treasury Collection) is an album containing 165 portraits of the members of the Radzivill family from the period 1346–1780. The Radzivills produced more outstanding political, church, military, and cultural figures than any other family in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 15th century, the duchy ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and ...
Design of the Monument to Alexander I, by Sculptor Martos, 1828
The monument to Tsar Alexander I (1777−1825) was unveiled on October 23 (October 11, Old Style), 1831, to commemorate Alexander’s visit to and death from illness in Taganrog, a village in southern Russian located on the north shore of the Sea of Azov. The tsar’s widow, Elizaveta Alekseevna, chose the site for the monument. Most of the money for its construction was donated by the imperial house of Romanov; the rest was raised by the residents of Taganrog. The bronze figure of the emperor at full height ...
Design of the Medal and Token Commemorating the Construction of the Monument to Nicholas I in Kiev, Kiev Province, 1895
This ink and watercolor document contains designs for the medal and the token issued to commemorate the construction of the monument to Tsar Nicholas I (1796−1855, reigned 1825−55) in Kiev. The designs are by the academician in architecture Vladimir Nikolaev (1847−1911), who also designed the pedestal for the monument. Nikolaev was the municipal and eparchial (diocesan) architect of Kiev at the time and designed many churches and mansions in the city. The statue of Nicholas was by the sculptor Matvei Afanas’evich Chizhov (1838−1916). The monument ...
Emperor Alexander II with the Children: Sergei and Maria
This photograph, taken in 1860 or 1861, shows Tsar Alexander II (1818−81, ruled 1855−81), with two of his eight children: Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (born 1853) and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (born 1857). Alexander is seated in a chair, three-quarters to his left, wearing a military uniform. The grand duchess is leaning on her father’s right knee, facing forward; the grand duke is sitting on his father’s left leg.  Alexander was most respected for his emancipation of the serfs in 1861, and his domestic reforms included ...
Family of Emperor Alexander III
This photograph of the family of Tsar Alexander III (1845−94) was taken about a year before his death from nephritis. Also shown in the photo are Empress Maria Fedorovna (1866−1928), Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich (1868−1918), Grand Duke George Alexandrovich (1871−99), Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna (1875−1960), Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (1882−1918), and Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich (1878−1918). Empress Maria Fedorovna, also called Princess Dagmar, fled Russia in 1919 with other members of the Romanov family aboard the British battleship HMS Marlborough. She settled and ...
Russian Royal Family at Borodino, 1912
This photograph shows Tsar Nicholas II (1868−1918) and Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna (1872−1918) with their daughters and other notables, walking on the train platform after arriving at Borodino Station on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino. The second individual from the right is Baron Vladimir Borisovich Frederiks (1838−1927), a minister of the imperial court who was close to Nicholas II. During Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, Russian and French armies clashed on the Borodino battlefield, situated to the west of Moscow ...
Certified Charter Confirming the Election of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov as Tsar of Moscow State
This book, published in Moscow in 1906, contains a copy of the certified charter confirming the election of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov (1596−1645) as ruler of the Tsardom of Muscovy in 1613. The reproduction of the charter appears after page 96, following a lengthy introduction by Sergei A. Belokurov. Copies of the charter were made at Moscow University in 1904 by the Imperial Society of History and Antiquities of Russia to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the society. Belokurov, a historian of the Russian Orthodox Church and an active member ...
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920 is an early history of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The book was written by Anatolii Anishev, a researcher at the Tolmachev Military-Political Academy in Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg), and published in Leningrad in 1925. In his introduction, Anishev notes that archival sources relating to the war were in poor condition and that almost no monographs existed. This forced him to rely on articles in White Russian magazines and newspapers, which were biased and unreliable ...
Imperial House of Romanov
This publication was produced in 1913 to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. It contains an introduction, a genealogical sketch on the Romanov boyars, and a short history of the Romanovs in 17 chapters. The volume also includes biographies, portraits, and photographs of the members of the dynasty. In the introduction, “Three Centuries of the House of Romanov,” Elpidifor Barsov (1836−1917) provides a brief historical overview of the context of Romanov rule. He describes first “the time of troubles” preceding the election of Mikhail Fedorovich, the first ...
Album Commemorating the Tercentenary Anniversary of the Imperial House of Romanov
This book is one of many works published in Russia in connection with the celebration, in 1913, of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov. The author, Ivan Bazhenov, was a church historian, theologian, and local historian in Kostroma. In his introduction, Bazhenov states that the goal of the publication is “to give the readers an opportunity to understand and evaluate the great significance of this anniversary and at the same time to awaken their gratitude for the founder of the Romanov dynasty.” He begins by describing Russia before ...
Kuklin House (1790s; after 1817), Governor's Mansion, Study of Nicholas II, who Lived Here with his Family from August 1917 until mid April, 1918, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the study of Nicholas II at the Governor General's Mansion in Tobol'sk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 by the cossack leader Daniel Chulkov near the confluence of the Tobol' and Irtysh rivers. Thereafter, Tobol'sk became the main administrative center of Siberia until the mid-19th century. A factor in its decline was the routing of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maya Plisetskaya in the Role of The Great Barefoot
This photograph was taken in 1977 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) as part of the series "Great Dancers of the Twentieth Century. Isadora Duncan−Maya Plisetskaya." That year marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of American dancer Isadora Duncan (1877−1927), in honor of which French choreographer Maurice Béjart (1927−2007) created the ballet Isadora at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. By this time, the name and work of the “Great Barefoot,” the name given to Duncan by her contemporaries, had become almost a myth. Béjart's Isadora ...
Teacher and Student. Alexei Yermolaev and Vladimir Vasiliev
Photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) took this picture in 1971 at the Bolshoi Theater. Two legends of the world of ballet are seen in the rehearsal room: Alexei Yermolaev (1910−75), a teacher, and Vladimir Vasiliev (born 1940), a principal dancer of the Bolshoi company. A graduate of the school of dance in Leningrad, in 1926 Yermolaev became a leading dancer of the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theater (the Mariinsky Theater). He boldly challenged the supremacy of the ballerina and made men's dance more dramatic and virtuoso. He was ...
Birth of a Ballet "Béjart Style"
This photograph is from the series "The choreographer Maurice Béjart." It was taken in 1978 by Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) during the Moscow performances of Romeo and Juliet by the Brussels-based company, Ballet of the Twentieth Century. Set to music by Berlioz, the ballet was performed at the State Kremlin Palace of Congresses only twice. Ekaterina Maximova (1939−2009), a ballerina of the Bolshoi Theater, performed the role of Juliet at the invitation of choreographer Maurice Béjart (1927−2007). Romeo was danced once by Vladimir Vasiliev, a principal dancer of ...
Grigorovich Dancing
This picture, taken in 1973 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010), shows the choreographer Yuri Grigorovich (born 1927) during a rehearsal of the ballet Legend of Love at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. Grigorovich did not simply go through the movements; he performed them, showing the dancers their parts. Grigorovich was born in Leningrad (Saint Petersburg), graduated from the Leningrad Choreographic School, and joined the ballet company of the Kirov State Opera and Ballet Theater (now the Mariinsky Theater). He performed solo, character, and grotesque roles. He began working as ...
George Balanchine's Music
This photograph from the series "Choreographer George Balanchine" was taken in 1972 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010). When the New York City Ballet, led by George Balanchine (1904−1983), was on a tour in Moscow, the company visited the Moscow Academic Choreography School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as the Moscow State Academy of Choreography). Mr. B, as they called Balanchine, gave an open lesson with his dancers on the stage of the school theater. Balanchine was born Georgi Balanchivadze in Saint Petersburg, son of Georgian composer Meliton ...
Dancing Balanchine's Geometry
This photograph, from the collection "Stars of the Mariinsky Ballet of the 21st Century," was taken in Moscow in 2008 by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) during a tour by the Mariinsky Theater. It shows ballerina Ulyana Lopatkina (born 1973) and her partner Danila Korsuntsev (born 1974) rehearsing George Balanchine's ballet Symphony in C to the music of Georges Bizet. Balanchine (1904−83), born Georgi Balanchivadze, a Russian dancer and world-renowned choreographer of Georgian origin, began his dance career at the Mariinsky Theater. His ballets require not only refined ...
"Death of the Rose." Danced by Maya Plisetskaya and Alexander Godunov
This image is from the series “Variations on the Theme ‘Death of the Rose’.” It was taken by Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) in 1977 at the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow. For the first time, after decades of prohibition, the leading ballet troupe of the Soviet Union invited a foreign choreographer—Roland Petit (1924−2011) from France. An admirer of Maya Plisetskaya (born 1925), the prima ballerina of the Bolshoi Theater, Petit brought to the Moscow stage for her a fragment from his ballet La Rose Malade set to the music of ...
Mysterious Kasian Goleizovsky
This photograph is from a series about the choreographer Kasian Goleizovsky (1892–1970), by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010). It was taken during the staging of the ballet Layla and Majnun to music by Sergei Balasanyan. It shows Natalia Bessmertnova (1941–2008) and Goleizovsky in the rehearsal hall of the Bolshoi Theater. Bessmertnova joined the Bolshoi in 1961, where she remained as a prima ballerina for more than three decades. Goleizovsky was inspired by the innovative ideas of two outstanding choreographers, Alexander Gorsky and Michel Fokine, and his interests expanded ...
Ekaterina Maximova's "Mazurka"
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1968. It shows Ekaterina Maximova (1939–2009), a ballerina from the Bolshoi Theater, dancing Mazurka (from the ballet Skryabiniana) created by Kasian Goleizovsky (1892–1970). Choreographed specifically for Maximova, the dance was first performed in 1960 in a concert program. Maximova graduated in 1958 from the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography), where she was taught by Elizaveta Gerdt. She was accepted into the Bolshoi Theater. A year later, during a tour in ...
Mikhail Baryshnikov in the Role of Vestris
This photograph from the series "Diverse Baryshnikov" was taken by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) in 1969 at the First International Ballet Competition in Moscow. The miniature ballet Vestris by choreographer Leonid Yakobson (1904−75) became one of the most exciting surprises at the competition. Baryshnikov (born 1948) was able to render the life story of the most famous dancer of the 18th century. A braggart and schemer, Auguste Vestris called himself the King of the Dance and used to say: "Today, Europe knows three great men—Frederick the Great ...
Like a Shot from a Bow. Nina Sorokina and Yuri Vladimirov Dancing
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1965 at the Bolshoi Theater during a performance of The Rite of Spring danced by the Bolshoi Theater soloists Nina Sorokina (1942–2011) and Yuri Vladimirov (born 1942). The performances at the Bolshoi Theater that year were the first time that this ballet, choreographed by Natalia Kasatkina and Vladimir Vasiliev to Igor Stravinsky's music, was performed in the Soviet Union. Sorokina and Vladimirov, the most remarkable representatives of the Moscow school of dance during the 1960s and 1970s, danced the main ...
Maris Liepa's Main Role
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1971 during a performance of the ballet Spartacus at the Bolshoi Theater. Maris Liepa (1936–1989) danced the role of Crassus. Liepa’s professional dance career started in his native Riga, Latvia, but he completed his studies at the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) in 1955. He worked at the Opera and Ballet Theater in Riga and at the Stanislavski and Nemirovich-Danchenko Moscow Academic Music Theater. In 1960, he became a soloist ...
The Incomparable Marina Semenova
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph in 1958 during a lesson given by Marina Semenova (1908−2010) at the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow. Semenova was born in Saint Petersburg and graduated from the Leningrad Choreographic School, from the class of Agrippina Vaganova (1879−1951). Her talent manifested itself early. She became well known at the age of 13 after performing in the school production of The Magic Flute. In 1925 she was accepted into the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theater (before 1919 and after 1991 the Mariinsky Theater). Despite the ...
The Goddess of Dance. Galina Ulanova
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this photograph of Galina Ulanova (1910–98) in the ballet Les Sylphides at the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow, in 1961. Ulanova was born in Saint Petersburg. In 1928 she graduated from the class of Agrippina Vaganova (1879–1951) at the Leningrad Choreographic School. Ulanova exuded extraordinary magnetism. Forgoing fashionable virtuosity, her dancing was characterized by nuances and half tones. Ulanova was not only a great dancer; she was also a great tragic actress, perhaps the most significant in the history of ballet. Her dance career began ...
Dragonfly. Olga Lepeshinskaia
Leonid Zhdanov (1927–2010) took this picture of Olga Lepeshinskaia (1916–2008) in 1959. Lepeshinskaia, a star of the Bolshoi Theater, Moscow, from the 1930s through the 1950s, graduated from the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) in 1933 and immediately became a soloist, dancing lyrical roles in The Nutcracker, Coppelia, Sleeping Beauty, and Red Poppy. In 1940 she successfully danced the part of Kitri in Don Quixote, which became her signature role. Lepeshinskaia was not ideally built for classical ballet ...
First among Equals. Vladimir Vasiliev
Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) took this photograph of Vladimir Vasiliev (born 1940) in the role of Majnun in 1968 at the Bolshoi Theater during the rehearsals of the ballet Layla and Majnun choreographed by Kasian Goleizovsky (1889−1950). Vasiliev was born in Moscow and graduated from the Moscow Ballet School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) in 1958 in the class of Michael Gabovich. His first main role at the Bolshoi was that of Bacchus in Walpurgis Night. This was followed by the role ...
Giselle. Natalia Bessmertnova
This photograph was taken by Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) in 1975 during the filming of the ballet Giselle, directed by Vladimir Grave. The title role was performed by Natalia Bessmertnova (1941−2008). Bessmertnova graduated from the Moscow Academic Choreography School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) in 1961 and was admitted to the Bolshoi Theater. She made her debut in the ballet Les Sylphides choreographed by Fokine. A year later, her Giselle came as an artistic revelation to her contemporaries. Bessmertnova introduced a whole ...
"Narcissus." Nikolai Tsiskaridze
This photograph taken by Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) in 2008 is from his “Narcissus” series. It shows Nikolai Tsiskaridze, a leading dancer of the Bolshoi Theater, rehearsing the short ballet Narcissus by Kasian Goleizovsky (in Ulanova's interpretation). Tsiskaridze was born in Tbilisi, Georgia in 1973, went to Tbilisi School of Choreography, and in 1987 moved to Moscow to continue his studies in the class of Peter Pestov. He began dancing at the Bolshoi Theater in 1992. His teachers were Nikolai Simachev, Marina Semenova, Galina Ulanova, and Nicholas Fadeechev. Tsiskaridze ...
At the Dance Lesson
This photograph of students at the Moscow Academic Choreography School at the Bolshoi Theater (now known as Moscow State Academy of Choreography) was taken by photographer Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) during a dance class in 1972. The history of the Moscow school of dance goes back to the late 18th century. Empress Catherine the Great founded the school, which was named the Teaching House. The first teachers of dance came from Italy and France. Ballet was just starting to enter Russian culture, although it was already popular in Europe. The ...
Jorge Donn in the Ballet "The Rite of Spring"
Leonid Zhdanov (1927−2010) took this photograph in 1978 during the Moscow tour of the Brussels-based Ballet of the Twentieth Century when it performed at the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. It shows Jorge Donn (1947−1992) dancing the main role in the ballet The Rite of Spring, set to the music by Igor Stravinsky, and choreographed by Maurice Béjart (1927−2007). This ballet, first staged in 1959, played a crucial role in the career of the French choreographer. Its success encouraged him to found a new company and a contemporary ...
Trakai Castle Court Year Book for 1660–61
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Zemaitija Land Court Year Book for 1592
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Kaunas Municipal Acts Year Books for 1555–64
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Zemaitija Castle Court Year Book for 1646–47
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...
Zemaitija Land Court Year Book for 1596
At the height of its power in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and parts of Estonia, Moldova, Poland, and Russia. In the Union of Lublin of 1569, the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commonwealth had a highly developed legal and administrative system, based on local land courts that decided civil cases involving the gentry and castle courts that dealt with other local matters, including criminal cases. Courts ...