32 results in English
Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama to India, 1497−1499
This manuscript is the only known copy of a journal believed to have been written on board ship during Vasco da Gama’s first voyage to India. The lost original of the journal most often has been attributed to Álvaro Velho, who accompanied Vasco da Gama to India in 1497−99, but who did not return to Portugal with the expedition but remained for eight years in Gambia and Guinea. The manuscript is anonymous and undated, but paleographic analysis dates it to the first half of the 16th century. The ...
West View of Madrid
Charles Clifford (1819−63) was one of the most important photographers to have worked in Spain in the 19th century and a crucial figure in the history of photography in the country. Clifford was born in the United Kingdom. It is unknown precisely when he went to Spain, but the first time that his name makes an appearance in Madrid is in 1850. By this time, the photographer already had a studio in the city, although most of his output, which consisted of depictions of a variety of localities around ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Los Caprichos
Los Caprichos (The caprices or whims) is the first of four large series of engravings done by Francisco de Goya (1746−1828), together with Los desastres de la guerra (The disasters of war), La tauromaquia (Bullfighting), and Los disparates (The follies). The scenes come in part from the drawings that the artist produced in Andalusia and Madrid in 1796–97, which are included in the Sanlúcar Album (Album A) and Madrid Album (Album B), as well as from his drawing series known as Sueños (Dreams). In the introductory text the ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
The Spanish Painted by Themselves
Los españoles pintados por sí mismos (The Spanish painted by themselves), produced in 1843−44 by the best writers of the day, resembles the French publication Les français peint par eux-mêmes (The French painted by themselves) of 1840−42. Ignacio Boix was a central figure in Madrid’s publishing world in the mid-19th century, and this work was one of the most important publications from his press. The work reflects the romantic tendencies that highlighted personality and cultural and national identities in art. It also reflects the revival of the ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Complutensian Polyglot Bible
The Complutensian Polyglot Bible is the first multilingual printed edition of the entire Bible. The project to produce the Bible was conceived, led, and financed by Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros (circa 1436−1517), who early in the 16th century spearheaded the revitalization of the old University of Alcalá de Henares (founded in 1293) with the establishment of a new university, the Universidad Complutense, in 1508. (Complutense refers to Complutum, the ancient Roman settlement at the site of Alcalá de Henares). With the aid of important figures, such as Antonio ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Codicil of Queen Isabel the Catholic, Executed at Medina del Campo, on November 23, 1504
On November 23, 1504, three days before her death, Queen Isabella of Spain signed, in Medina del Campo, a codicil before the same notary, Gaspar de Gricio, and five of the seven witnesses who had been present on October 12 for the signing of her last will and testament. In the testament, the queen addressed the fundamental aspects of government by the Catholic monarchs. In the codicil, besides reaffirming what she had stipulated in the testament, she addressed questions directly affecting peninsular government and showed her concern for Spanish policy ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Spain
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spain is Number 34 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This relatively brief study covers political history and social and political conditions. It traces the history of Spain from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Azores and Madeira
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Azores and Madeira is Number 116 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Azores and Madeira are both archipelagos in the Atlantic. Both were discovered by Portugal, Madeira in 1418 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Canary Islands
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Canary Islands is Number 123 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Canary archipelago is a group of seven main islands and six uninhabited islets located in the Atlantic Ocean ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Coruña Bay, Ferrol Bay, Spain
This English manuscript double chart, in pen and water colors, on vellum, shows the harbors of La Coruña and El Ferrol in Spain. The date, localities depicted, and provenance of the charts indicate that they were prepared for use in the Drake-Norris expedition of 1589. After the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588 by the English fleet and failed in its attempt to invade England and overthrow Queen Elizabeth I, the English organized a counter-expedition aimed at destroying the remaining ships of the Armada. These ships had taken refuge in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Fortunate Victory of Spain Against Forty Enemy Ships that Were on the Shore and Coast of the City of Valencia on April 4
Vitoria felicissima de Eʃpaña contra quarenta nauios de enemigos que andavan en la playa y Coʃta de la ciudad de Valencia a quatro de Abril (The fortunate victory of Spain against forty enemy ships that were on the shore and coast of the city of Valencia on April 4) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1618. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Truthful Report of a Letter Sent by Father Prior of the Order of Santo Domingo of the City of Ubeda to the Abbot of San Salvador of Granada
Relacion verdadera de vna carta qve embio el padre prior dela orden de ʃanto Domingo, de la ciudad de Vbeda, al Abad mayor de ʃan Saluador dela Ciudad de Granada (Truthful report of a letter sent by Father Prior of the order of Santo Domingo of the city of Ubeda to the abbot of San Salvador of Granada) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Report of the Feast Hosted by the Prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the Presence of Your Majesty and the Queen Our Lady
Relacion delas fiestas qve delante de sv magestad, y dela reyna nvestra señora hizo, y mantuuo el Principe del Piamonte en Valladolid (Report of the feast hosted by the prince of Piedmonte in Valladolid in the presence of  Your Majesty and the queen our lady) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1605. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Faithful and True Translation of a Brief Memoir of the Life and Miracles of the Saintly Brother Julian of Alcala
Fiel y Verdadero treslado de vn breve memorial de la vida y milagros del ʃancto Padre Fray Iulian de Alcala (Faithful and true translation of a brief memoir of the life and miracles of the saintly Brother Julian of Alcala) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1610. It is a short pamphlet, in Spanish, about the life of Brother Julian, who was born circa 1550 in Medinaceli and died in 1606 in Alcalá de Henares. He was beatified in 1825 as the Blessed Julian of Saint Augustine. The first printing ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Reapers
Els Segadors (The reapers) was declared in 1993 by the parliament of Catalonia, an autonomous region within Spain, to be the official anthem of the region. This hymn was not written for any particular purpose; rather, it was the product of the long historical evolution of a popular song. The words to the song go back to an historical event, the Reapers' War that began in 1640, when 1,000 laborers entered Barcelona on Corpus Christi Day, using their sickles as weapons. The revolt was a response to the abuses ...
Grievances of Guitart Isarn, Lord of Cabó
Dating from 1080, Greuges de Guitard Isarn, senyor de Caboet (Grievances of Guitart Isarn, Lord of Cabó) is believed to be the oldest surviving document in Catalan. The rancures were grievances that were written acts by means of which a lord asked for the restitution of damages caused by the breach of the feudal contract. In this document, Guitart Isarn, Lord of Cabó, recounts the humiliation he has suffered at the hands of his vassals, the castellans of Cabó, Guillem Arnall and his sons. Guitart Isarn repeatedly uses the ...
Provençal Songbook
Cançoner provençal (Provençal songbook) is a 14th century manuscript, written in Occitan, discovered in 1876 by the scholar Milà i Fontanals, and acquired in 1910 by a group of ten benefactors who wanted it given to the Biblioteca de Catalunya as a monument of Catalan medieval literature. Catalan, which originated in northeastern Spain, and Occitan (also called langue d’oc and less accurately Provençal), which developed in southern France and northern Spain, are both spoken and literary languages that reached maturity in the 12th−14th centuries. They share many linguistic ...
Maritime Regulations
Libre appellat Consolat de mar (Maritime regulations) is a collection of maritime and commercial ordinances and decrees of medieval origin that once had legal authority. The text comes from the ancient Costumes de la Mar, of Barcelona, written between 1260 and 1270. It integrates Catalan norms as well as those from other sources, including Pisan, Genoese, Venetian, and Marsilian. The definitive writing was done in the 14th century in Barcelona, with the addition of other legal texts. The work was widely circulated. Among the numerous editions printed in Catalan, two ...
Spiritual Chant
“Cant espiritual” (Spiritual chant) appeared in February 1911 in the book Seqüències (Sequences), published by Tipografia L’Avenç in Barcelona. The poem had great influence in Catalonia and is one of the best known and most studied of the works of Joan Maragall (1860−1911). It was composed in three periods: the first verses in November 1909 and the rest between January and February 1910. Written in the tradition of spiritual chants of many other great poets, the author poses questions to God and makes explicit his doubts, fears, and ...
Tango of the Car
“Tango del automóvil” (Tango of the car) is a 7-inch (17.78-centimeter) diameter disc, recorded on one side. On the back is the inscription "Reproduced in Hanover," where a large collection of Spanish master records by the Gramophone Company Limited was gathered. In his unpublished work The Gramophone Company Limited: His Master’s Voice: The Spanish Catalogue (Including Portuguese Recordings), Alan Kelly lists this disc as catalog number 2084 in the “Male solo voice records” category. According to Kelly, the recording was made by Charles Scheuplein, a professional associated with ...
January 13, 889. Consecration
In the ninth century, the castle of Tona, located on the plain of Vic in eastern Catalonia, guarded the surrounding territory and defended it from possible Saracen attacks during the struggle with the Muslims for control of Spain. The Church of Saint Andrew was built close to the castle by the village inhabitants. They provided it with ornaments, books, and liturgical objects, and supplied it with houses and lands for its upkeep. The bishop of Vic, called Gotmar, consecrated the church in 888 and gave to it a nearby house ...
Selections from "Suite Iberia"
Isaac Albéniz (1860−1909) was the first composer to value and promote Spanish music as universal music beyond the national sphere. Iberia, a set of 12 compositions for piano published in four books, is Albéniz’s most representative work. Its earlier title was Espagne, and it sometimes is called Suite Iberia, based on the fact that the orchestration of these pieces was gathered in four suites. The series for piano was composed in Paris and Nice, where the Albéniz family lived between December 1905 and January 1908. The work was ...
The Very Large Portuguese City of Lisbon, a Most Famous Market Town for the Whole East and West India
This panoramic view of Lisbon in 1619 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622-86). ‏The coat of arms of Portugal is in the upper-left corner; the coat of arms of Lisbon on the right. At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, printed in 16 columns, in French and in Latin. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s and early 1600s. The prints ...
Representation of Hispalis, Generally Known as Seville, World-Famous City and Renowned in Spain
This panoramic view of Seville in 1619 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, printed in 16 columns, in French. The print shows Seville from the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, with the Triana Bridge on the left, and the Spanish fleet below the Golden Tower on the right. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Collection consists of 187 engravings from ...
“Privilegio Rodado,” Confirming the Change of the Estate of Mejorada, in Terms of a Tax, for Vineyards in Valladolid, Made Between the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria, Valladolid, and Fernán Rodríguez, Chamberlain of Prince D. Pedro
The privilegio rodado is a late-medieval Spanish court document that takes its name from the great wheel that appears in the document and affirms its validity. It is the only type of royal document that bears the wheel for this purpose. The use of the wheel can be traced to the papal court of Leo IX, in the middle of the 11th century, and became prevalent from the 12th century. Already in Las Siete Partidas (seven-part statutory code, also referred to as Las Partidas), Alfonso X, King of Castile and ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, Enacted in Cádiz on March 19, 1812
On March 19, 1812, during the Spanish War of Independence (1808−14), the Cortes of Cádiz promulgated the Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, affectionately known as “La Pepa” for having been enacted on Saint Joseph’s day. The constitution had ten titles and 384 articles and was of a markedly liberal character. It was the first constitution in Spain that established national sovereignty and the division of powers. Its principal characteristic was its declared intention to introduce a thorough reorganization of the state based on liberal principles. King Fernando VII ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Princess Isabel, the Baroness of Muritiba and the Baroness of Loreto on the Veranda of the Princess’s Residence
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. The Brazilian nobility is well-represented in the collection. This 1866 photograph by Marc Ferrez, one of the most celebrated Brazilian portrait photographers, shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II, on ...
Geographical Description and Governmental Administration and Settlement of the Spanish Colonies in the Gulf of Guinea
This book is a detailed description of the African colony of Spanish Guinea (present-day Equatorial Guinea), by a Spanish colonial official, Luis Ramos-Izquierdo y Vivar. The Spanish territories in west Africa included the islands of Ferdinand Po, Coriseo, Elobey-Chico, Elobey-Grande, and Annobon, and the mainland African territory known as Rio Muni. The first part of the book covers the geography of the island and the mainland territories, including their climate, physical features, and populations. The second part of the book discusses the government and administration of the territories. Ramos-Izqueirdo y ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Letter Signed, to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, Giving Instructions in View of the Expected Intentions of the English Squadron Under Drake Reported to be then Attacking Cadiz
This letter from King Philip II (1527-98) of Spain to the Duke of Medina Sidonia (1550-1613), the future commander of the Spanish Armada that set out to conquer England in 1588, concerns the defense of Spain against raids by the English. The king reacts to the news that naval forces under Sir Francis Drake were trying to disrupt the Armada by entering Spanish harbors to attack it. The king states that he has received news of the damage done to his ships in Cadiz Bay, but also learned that Medina ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In Praise of the Most Serene Ferdinand, King of Spain, 'Baetic' and Ruler of Granada, Besieger, Victor, Triumphant: And On the Recently Discovered Islands in the Indian Sea
This book is a compilation of two texts, both relating to events in the momentous year of 1492. The first is a drama in Latin by an Italian author, Carlo Verardi (Carolus Verardus), written in a combination of verse and prose, which recounts the military campaign during the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to capture Granada, the last Moorish territory on the Iberian Peninsula. The annexation of Granada marked the end of eight centuries of Muslim rule in Spain and Portugal and concluded the long struggle known in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Two Quaint Republics, Andorra and San Marino
Andorra and San Marino are two of the world’s smallest – and oldest – countries. Andorra is located in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. An agreement of 1278 placed it under the joint suzerainty of the Spanish Bishop of Urgel and the French Count of Foix (whose rights later were transferred to the French crown and eventually the president of France). In 1993 Andorra adopted its own constitution and became self-governing. San Marino is located in the Appennine Mountains of northeastern Italy, totally surrounded by Italian territory. It is the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Breath of Perfumes
Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (1591–1632 AD, 992–1041 AH) was an Arab historian who wrote one of the oldest histories of Muslim Spain. He was born in Tlemcen, in present-day Algeria, and at times lived and worked in Morocco and in Egypt. His most important work, Nafh at-teeb (The breath of perfumes), consists of two parts. The first is a compilation from many authors on Andalusia and its history, including descriptions of the main Andalusian cities and the lifestyles of their peoples. The second part is a biography of the ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina