154 results in English
Dahomey
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Dahomey is Number 105 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Dahomey (present-day Benin) was an African kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century. It ...
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Upper Senegal and Niger
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Senegal and Niger is Number 107 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Senegal and Niger was a French colony, established in 1904 as part of the Government-General of ...
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Italian Libya
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Libya is Number 127 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It recounts how ...
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Italian Somaliland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Somaliland is Number 128 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Italian Somaliland (part of the present-day Republic of Somalia) came under Italian control in early 1889, when the sultan ...
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Ivory Coast
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Ivory Coast is Number 104 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Ivory Coast (the present day Republic of Côte d’Ivoire) was a French colony, the origins of which ...
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Kenya, Uganda and Zanzibar
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Kenya, Uganda, and Zanzibar is Number 96 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. As explained in an editorial note, in 1920 the British East Africa Protectorate became a colony and ...
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Liberia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Liberia is Number 130 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Liberia was originally founded by the American Colonization Society as a homeland for liberated slaves from the United States. It ...
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French Somaliland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Somaliland is Number 109 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. British Somaliland and Sokotra is Number 97 in the series; Italian Somaliland is Number 128. French Somaliland (present-day Djibouti ...
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Gold Coast
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Gold Coast is Number 93 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Gold Coast (present-day Ghana) was comprised of the Gold Coast Colony, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, and two ...
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Gambia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Gambia is Number 91 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Gambia (the present-day Republic of Gambia) was a British-controlled territory, located on the Atlantic Coast of Africa and completely surrounded ...
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Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is Number 98 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Encompassing the territories of the present-day Republic of the Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was ...
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Angola (Including Cabinda)
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Angola (Including Cabinda) is Number 120 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Angola (present-day Republic of Angola) was a Portuguese colony located on the west coast of Africa, first occupied ...
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Nyasaland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Nyasaland is Number 95 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Nyasaland (present-day Malawi) takes its name from Lake Nyasa. In September 1859 the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone became ...
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Partition of Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Partition of Africa is Number 89 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers the process by which, by the end of the 19th century, almost the whole of ...
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Nigeria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Nigeria is Number 94 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was a British-administered territory, created from the amalgamation of the Colony and Protectorate of ...
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Mozambique
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mozambique is Number 121 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Portuguese presence in this large territory along the east coast of Africa (also known as Portuguese East Africa) goes ...
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Mauretania
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mauretania is Number 106 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. France asserted control over ...
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Sierra Leone
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Sierra Leone is Number 92 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Sierra Leone was ...
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South-West Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. South-West Africa is Number 112 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. South-West Africa (present-day ...
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Spanish Guinea
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spanish Guinea is Number 125 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Spanish Guinea (present-day ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Spanish Morocco
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spanish Morocco is Number 122 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. At the time this study was written, Spanish Morocco was made up of two zones, a northern zone consisting ...
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Spanish Sahara
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spanish Sahara is Number 124 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Spanish Sahara was a Spanish protectorate, located on the Atlantic coast of Africa to the south of the French ...
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Tanganyika (German East Africa)
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Tanganyika (German East Africa) is Number 113 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The protectorate of German East Africa was established in 1889, as Germany belatedly began building its colonial ...
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Togoland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Togoland is Number 110 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Located on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa, Togoland was a German protectorate during the late 19th and early ...
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The Grand Monuments of the Ancients in the Nile Valley
Kitāb al-athar al-jalīl li-qudamāʼ Wādī al-Nīl (The grand monuments of the ancients in the Nile Valley) is a history of ancient Egyptian civilization by Ahmad Najib, an official of the Egyptian antiquities service under the direction of Jacques de Morgan (1857−1924). Najib published the work as a textbook on orders from education minister Ya’qub Artin (1842−1919) and claimed that it was the first effort by an Egyptian to instruct his countrymen on the historical wonders of their country. The book begins with general remarks on the Nile ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Thirty-two Years with Islam (1832-1864)
Trente-deux ans a travers l'Islam (1832-1864) (Thirty-two years with Islam [1832-1864]) is a memoir by French soldier and diplomat Léon Roches (1809−1901), covering his career in North Africa and other parts of the Middle East, including a brief sojourn in Mecca. It is based on his diary and on correspondence that he reviewed following his retirement from government service. Beginning with his first arrival in French Algeria in 1832, the author recounts his diplomatic and military assignments in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, and Arabia. His mastery of Arabic ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Instructions and Travel Diary that Governor Francisco Joze de Lacerda e Almeida Wrote about His Travel to the Center of Africa, Going to the River of Sena, in the Year of 1798
This manuscript diary by the Brazilian mathematician, geographer, and explorer Francisco José de Lacerda e Almeida (1750-98) describes Almeida’s journey into the interior of southern Africa in 1798. Almeida was born in Brazil, studied at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, and rose to the position of royal astronomer. In 1780, he returned to Brazil as part of a commission established to determine the borders between Spanish and Portuguese territories in South America under the recently concluded Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777). He spent ten years in Brazil, where ...
Armenian Women in Holiday Attire. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Armenian Woman in National Costume. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Harbor and Admiralty, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Algiers's harbor, which had been redesigned and greatly expanded by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Babel-Oued from Casbah, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Babel-Oued (Bab El Oued), a neighborhood of Algiers, as seen from the fortified citadel, or Casbah. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
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Harbor by Moonlight, II, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. Dating from 1899, it depicts a section of the harbor of Algiers. The harbor was first constructed in 1518 under the reign of the Turkish admiral, Khair-ed-in. For hundreds of years, Algerian pirates maintained and secured the harbor against the naval powers of Europe. When the French occupied Algeria in the 1830s, they made the harbor a center of commerce and naval power, and greatly expanded the port, which ...
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Government Place, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the 1905 catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Government Place in Algiers around 1899. This square was considered the heart of the city. According to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), it was “the noisiest place in the town, crowded with natives at all hours.” The white building is the Djemâa el-Djedid mosque, which Baedeker described as "curiously incongruous" for its mix of Byzantine, Italian, Andalusian, and Turkish architectural styles. Other buildings ...
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Cotton. In Sukhumi Botanical Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Likanskii Palace from the Kura River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Place de la Republique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Place de la république (Republic plaza) in the capital city of Algiers, circa 1899. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean spoke admiringly of “the spacious Place de la République, with the gardens of Square Bresson, adorned with bamboos and magnolias, the Théâtre Municipal, and the most showy cafés.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Great Mosque in the Marine Street, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Great Mosque (al-Djemaa al-Kabir), which Baedeker’s The Mediterranean described in 1911 as “the oldest and largest mosque in the town, founded in 1018 for believers in the Malekite ritual…. Both the mosque and its minaret, originally built by the Abdel-wadite Abû Tâkhfîn in 1322-3, have now been modernized. The entrance is by a portico in the Rue de la Marine, erected in 1837.” The Detroit Photographic ...
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Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, Usually Called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816
James Kingston Tuckey (1776-1816) was a British naval officer who, after service in the Caribbean, Asia, and Australia, was asked by the British government to command an expedition to explore the Congo River. He was to ascertain, in particular, whether the Congo was connected to the Niger River. Tuckey traveled 480 kilometers up the Congo, mapping the river and gathering ethnographic and geographic information. Before he could complete his mission, he died of fever (on October 4, 1816, near Moanda, in the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo). This work ...
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Sousse, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the seaside town of Sousse, Tunisia, which, according to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), followed Tunis and Sfax as the third most important seaport in Tunisia. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View from Paris Hotel, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the rooftops of the city of Tunis as seen from the Paris Hotel. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Souc-el-Trouk, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Souc-el-Trouk, or bazaar, in the city of Tunis. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process ...
Contributed by Library of Congress