133 results in English
Dahomey
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Dahomey is Number 105 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Dahomey (present-day Benin) was an African kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century. It ...
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Upper Senegal and Niger
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Senegal and Niger is Number 107 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Senegal and Niger was a French colony, established in 1904 as part of the Government-General of ...
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Italian Libya
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Libya is Number 127 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It recounts how ...
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Italian Somaliland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Somaliland is Number 128 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Italian Somaliland (part of the present-day Republic of Somalia) came under Italian control in early 1889, when the sultan ...
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Ivory Coast
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Ivory Coast is Number 104 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Ivory Coast (the present day Republic of Côte d’Ivoire) was a French colony, the origins of which ...
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Instructions and Travel Diary that Governor Francisco Joze de Lacerda e Almeida Wrote about His Travel to the Center of Africa, Going to the River of Sena, in the Year of 1798
This manuscript diary by the Brazilian mathematician, geographer, and explorer Francisco José de Lacerda e Almeida (1750-98) describes Almeida’s journey into the interior of southern Africa in 1798. Almeida was born in Brazil, studied at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, and rose to the position of royal astronomer. In 1780, he returned to Brazil as part of a commission established to determine the borders between Spanish and Portuguese territories in South America under the recently concluded Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777). He spent ten years in Brazil, where ...
Armenian Women in Holiday Attire. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Armenian Woman in National Costume. Artvin
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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The Harbor and Admiralty, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Algiers's harbor, which had been redesigned and greatly expanded by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into ...
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Babel-Oued from Casbah, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Babel-Oued (Bab El Oued), a neighborhood of Algiers, as seen from the fortified citadel, or Casbah. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
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Harbor by Moonlight, II, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. Dating from 1899, it depicts a section of the harbor of Algiers. The harbor was first constructed in 1518 under the reign of the Turkish admiral, Khair-ed-in. For hundreds of years, Algerian pirates maintained and secured the harbor against the naval powers of Europe. When the French occupied Algeria in the 1830s, they made the harbor a center of commerce and naval power, and greatly expanded the port, which ...
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Government Place, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the 1905 catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts Government Place in Algiers around 1899. This square was considered the heart of the city. According to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), it was “the noisiest place in the town, crowded with natives at all hours.” The white building is the Djemâa el-Djedid mosque, which Baedeker described as "curiously incongruous" for its mix of Byzantine, Italian, Andalusian, and Turkish architectural styles. Other buildings ...
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Cotton. In Sukhumi Botanical Garden
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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General View of the Likanskii Palace from the Kura River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Place de la Republique, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Place de la république (Republic plaza) in the capital city of Algiers, circa 1899. Baedeker’s 1911 The Mediterranean spoke admiringly of “the spacious Place de la République, with the gardens of Square Bresson, adorned with bamboos and magnolias, the Théâtre Municipal, and the most showy cafés.” The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher ...
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Great Mosque in the Marine Street, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print is from “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Great Mosque (al-Djemaa al-Kabir), which Baedeker’s The Mediterranean described in 1911 as “the oldest and largest mosque in the town, founded in 1018 for believers in the Malekite ritual…. Both the mosque and its minaret, originally built by the Abdel-wadite Abû Tâkhfîn in 1322-3, have now been modernized. The entrance is by a portico in the Rue de la Marine, erected in 1837.” The Detroit Photographic ...
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Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, Usually Called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816
James Kingston Tuckey (1776-1816) was a British naval officer who, after service in the Caribbean, Asia, and Australia, was asked by the British government to command an expedition to explore the Congo River. He was to ascertain, in particular, whether the Congo was connected to the Niger River. Tuckey traveled 480 kilometers up the Congo, mapping the river and gathering ethnographic and geographic information. Before he could complete his mission, he died of fever (on October 4, 1816, near Moanda, in the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo). This work ...
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Sousse, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the seaside town of Sousse, Tunisia, which, according to Baedeker’s The Mediterranean: Handbook for Travelers (1911), followed Tunis and Sfax as the third most important seaport in Tunisia. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights ...
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General View from Paris Hotel, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the rooftops of the city of Tunis as seen from the Paris Hotel. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them ...
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Souc-el-Trouk, Tunis, Tunisia
This photochrome print from around 1899 is from “Views of Architecture and People in Tunisia” in the catalog of the Detroit Photographic Company. It depicts the Souc-el-Trouk, or bazaar, in the city of Tunis. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William A. Livingstone, Jr. and photographer and photo-publisher Edwin H. Husher. They obtained the exclusive rights to use the Swiss "Photochrom" process for converting black-and-white photographs into color images and printing them by photolithography. This process ...
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Dahomey and the Dahomans: Being the Journals of Two Missions to the King of Dahomey, and Residence at His Capital, in the Year 1849 and 1850
Frederick E. Forbes was a British naval officer who, in 1849-50, undertook two missions to the court of the King of Dahomey in an unsuccessful attempt to convince him to end involvement in the slave trade. Dahomey was a warlike kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century and came to dominate its neighbors through its army, which included both men and women and was based on strict military discipline. This two-volume work reproduces Forbes’ journal and his account of his conversations with King Gezo ...
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Cairo to Kisumu: Egypt-Sudan-Kenya Colony
Cairo to Kisumu: Egypt-Sudan-Kenya Colony was the fifth in a series of books known as Carpenter’s World Travels, written by Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) in the 1920s and published by the Garden City, New York, firm of Doubleday, Page & Company. Carpenter was an American author of books on travel and world geography whose geographical readers were popular in American schools in the early 20th century. Cairo to Kisumu is not an account of a single journey, but a composite based on the notes Carpenter made on several trips ...
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New Journey into the Land of the Negroes, Followed by Studies on the Colony of Senegal, and Historical, Geographical, and Scientific Documents
Anne-Jean-Baptiste Raffenel (1809–58) was a French colonial official, who in 1846 was commissioned by the French navy to undertake a voyage of exploration to the interior of Africa. Raffenel left France in mid-May 1846 and returned in June 1848. Volume one of this two-volume work is an account of Raffenel’s fourth-month journey from France to Senegal and his travel throughout the colony, which included visits to many Senegalese towns and regions, such as Saint-Louis (Ndar), Bakel, Bambouk, and Makana. Raffenel described the governing structure of the colony, the ...
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Togo: The Hugues Le Roux Mission
Robert Charles Henri Le Roux (1860–1925), better known by his pen name of Hugues Le Roux, was a French writer and journalist who specialized in travel literature and books about the French colonies. Close to French official circles, he helped to build support in France for the idea that France had a unique civilizing mission (mission civilisatrice) in the less-developed parts of the world. In 1918–19, Le Roux produced for the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs a series of small books on the French colonies in Africa, as ...
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Memoir and Notice Explanatory of a Chart of Madagascar and the North-Eastern Archipelago of Mauritius
Robert Townsend Farquhar (1776–1830) entered the service of the British East India Company at a young age, served at various posts in India and the Moluccas (in present-day Indonesia), and in 1810 became governor of Mauritius, which Britain had conquered from France in the Napoleonic Wars. He commissioned a detailed map of Mauritius and neighboring Madagascar, with the objective of promoting British trade in the region. The map is the work of Jean-Baptiste Lislet-Geoffroy (1755–1836), the son of a French father, an engineer employed by the Compagnie des ...
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Voyage to Madagascar and the Comoros Islands, 1823-1830
Madagascar is an island nation located in the Indian Ocean about 380 kilometers off the coast of Africa. Its population is predominantly of mixed Asian and African origin, owing to migrations to the island from Southeast Asia, the mainland of Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. In the early 1800s, the Merina Kingdom established its dominance over the whole of the island. Radama I became king in 1810 and was succeeded by Queen Ranavalona I in 1828. B.F. Leguével de Lacombe was a French traveler who, in the 1820s, spent ...
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Journey to Ethiopia, Eastern Sudan, and Nigritia
Pierre Trémaux (1818-95) was a French architect, traveler, photographer, and amateur scientist who, in 1847-48, voyaged up the Nile to Nubia, Ethiopia, and eastern Sudan. Trémaux described the geology, flora and fauna, architectural monuments, and people of these countries in several works published in France in the 1850s and early 1860s. Some scholars consider his descriptions and sketches of Lower Nubia to be especially valuable, since much of this area now is covered by Lake Nubia, the extension into Sudan of Lake Nasser, created when the Aswan High Dam was ...
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Voyages and Travels in India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia, and Egypt, in the Years 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806
George Annesley, second Earl of Mountnorris (1770-1844), was a British aristocrat who, in 1802-06, undertook an extensive tour of parts of Asia and Africa. He was accompanied by Henry Salt (1780-1827), a trained artist who served as his secretary and draftsman. Mountnorris published this three-volume account of his travels upon his return to Britain, under the name Viscount Valentia, the title by which he was known in his younger years. The work includes engravings based on paintings and drawings made on the voyage by Salt, as well as two very ...
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Explorations in Africa, By Dr. David Livingstone, and Others, Giving a Full Account of the Stanley-Livingstone Expedition of Search, under the Patronage of the New York Herald, as Furnished by Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Stanley
David Livingstone (1813-73) was a Scottish missionary and medical doctor who explored much of the interior of Africa. In a remarkable journey in 1853-56, he became the first European to cross the African continent. Starting on the Zambezi River, he traveled north and west across Angola to reach the Atlantic at Luanda. On his return journey he followed the Zambezi to its mouth on the Indian Ocean in present-day Mozambique. Livingstone’s most famous expedition was in 1866-73, when he explored central Africa in an attempt to find the source ...
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The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa. From Eighteen Hundred and Sixty-five to his Death. Continued by a Narrative of his Last Moments and Sufferings, Obtained from his Faithful Servants, Chuma and Susi, by Horace Waller, F.R.G.S., Rector of Twywell, Northhampton
David Livingstone (1813–73) was a Scottish missionary and medical doctor who explored much of the interior of Africa. Livingstone’s most famous expedition was in 1866–73, when he traversed much of central Africa in an attempt to find the source of the Nile. This book contains the daily journals that Livingstone kept on this expedition, from his first entry on January 28, 1866, when he arrived at Zanzibar (in present-day Tanzania), to his last on April 27, 1873, four days before he died from malaria and dysentery in ...
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Tanganyika: Eleven Years in Central Africa
This book is an account of the Central African Mission of 1877–88 to Ujiji by Edward C. Hore, a British master mariner who was one of the six original members of the mission. In 1876-77 the London Missionary Society decided to establish the mission, which left Zanzibar for Ujiji on July 21, 1877. Ujiji is a town in the eastern part of present-day Tanzania, but also the designation for the surrounding region, defined by Hore as “a large tribal territory, bordered west and south by the Tanganyika Lake, north ...
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The Tanganyika Territory (Formerly German East Africa), Characteristics and Potentialities
When war broke out in Europe in 1914, the fighting quickly extended to the colonial possessions of the European powers. In 1916 British forces operating from South Africa set out to conquer German East Africa (present-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda). They were assisted by Belgian and Congolese troops operating from the Belgian Congo. The allies never subdued the German army led by Colonel (later General) Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, but they captured the German rail line and occupied much of the territory of German East Africa. At the conclusion of ...
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Travels in South Africa in the Years 1849 to 1857
László Magyar (1814-64) was a Hungarian explorer who lived for 17 years in Angola and made important contributions to the study of the geography and ethnography of equatorial Africa. He was trained as a naval officer and served in the naval forces of Austria and Argentina. In 1846, he undertook his first expedition in Africa, a voyage up the Congo River. Magyar subsequently married a daughter of the King of Bihé and used his family connections to gain access to interior regions of the continent. Accompanied by a royal guard ...
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László Magyar's Travels in Southern Africa Between 1849 and 1857
László Magyar (1814-64) was a Hungarian explorer who lived for 17 years in Angola and made important contributions to the study of the geography and ethnography of equatorial Africa. He was trained as a naval officer and served in the naval forces of Austria and Argentina. In 1846, he undertook his first expedition in Africa, a voyage up the Congo River. Magyar subsequently married a daughter of the King of Bihé and used his family connections to gain access to interior regions of the continent. Accompanied by a royal guard ...
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Persian Tatars. Saatly. Mugan Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Mugan. Hut of a Settler from Kharkov Province. Grafovka
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Mugan. Inn in Petropavlovskoe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Sketches Representing the Native Tribes, Animals, and Scenery of Southern Africa: From Drawings Made by the Late Mr. Samuel Daniell
Samuel Daniell (1775–1811) was an English painter and draughtsman who arrived in South Africa in December 1799. He was appointed secretary and artist for the expedition of 1801–2 from the Cape of Good Hope to Bechuanaland led by P.J. Truter and William Somerville. On his return to England, Daniell published, with the assistance of his uncle, the painter Thomas Daniell, and his brother, the painter and engraver William Daniell, African Scenery and Animals (1804–5). He later moved to Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka), where he made sketches ...
Travel Views of Morocco
Arnold Genthe (1869-1942) was a German-born immigrant to America whose work included notable and historically important photographs of San Francisco’s Chinatown and its residents, portraits of presidents and society figures, and images of Anna Pavlova and other dancers. Genthe traveled to Morocco in 1904 to attend to the affairs of his brother Siegfried, who had been murdered there. Although he wrote at the time that he “was not in a frame of mind to appreciate the rich possibilities this North African country offered to [his] camera,” he managed to ...
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Girls from Madagascar
This photograph of a scene in Madagascar is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives ...
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Young Jewish Girls. Tunis
This photograph of two Jewish girls on a beach in Tunis, Tunisia is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7 ...
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