294 results in English
Irtysh River, Ferry Crossing at Bol'sherech'e, Russia
This photograph of the Irtysh River at Bol'sherech'e was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Irtysh, one of Siberia's mighty rivers, is in fact a tributary of the still greater Ob' River. The Irtysh originates in the extreme northwest part of China, near the Mongolian Altai Mountains. Over its length of 4,248 kilometers, it passes through Kazakhstan and western Siberia before its confluence with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Constantinople
This colored travel sketch of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) as seen from the eastern part of the town of Scutari (present-day Üsküdar) across the Bosporus Strait is by the Danish painter Martinus Rørbye (1803–48), a central figure in the "Golden Age" of Danish art (circa 1770–1900). After training at the Kunstakademiet, Rørbye travelled widely, to France, Italy, Greece, and Turkey. In 1833 he was one of the first artists to paint in Skagen, in the far north of Denmark, some 45 years before it became an artists’ haven. He ...
Afghanistan, 1879-80
Afghanistan, 1879-80 is an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80). The war began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British India. The first phase of the war ended in May 1879 with the Treaty of Gandamak, which permitted the Afghans to maintain internal sovereignty but forced them to cede control over their foreign policy to the British. Fighting resumed in September 1879 after an ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hygiene and Public Health in Japan, Chosen and Manchuria. Report on Conditions Met with During the Tour of the League of Nations Interchange of Health Officers
As part of its work in the area of international health, the League of Nations organized the “Interchange of Health Personnel” for the purpose of affording “opportunity to Health Officers of different countries for seeing the organization of and equipment of, and the methods employed by the health services of the country visited….” In October–December 1926, a delegation led by A.R. Wellington, senior health officer in the Federated Malay States (present-day Malaysia), undertook a tour of health facilities in Japan, Korea (then under Japanese rule and known as ...
Views of Great Tibet
These handwritten notes accompany a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society on August 2, 1904. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. The notes were written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated ...
Lhasa from the East
“Lhasa from the East” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the background and nearly in the center of this photograph is the "iron mountain" Ch'agpori (also seen as Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill in other sources) with the Man-ba Ta-ts'an (also seen as Man-bo-datsang or Vaidurya Ta-tsan), where Tibetan medicine was taught. On the right in the photograph is the hill Marpori with ...
Sera Monastery
This general view of Sera monastery from the south is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The monastery consists of very high buildings, with three gilded temples. The 1899 edition of The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism by L.A. Waddell states that it is called "Ser-ra, or the 'Merciful Hail.' It is said to have been so named out of rivalry to its neighbour, 'The rice-heap' (De-pung), as hail ...
Tibetan Manor
“Tibetan Manor” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the center of the photograph is a Tibetan manor, located near the Ch’agla pass. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by ...
Tibetan Women
“Tibetan Women” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photograph shows two Tibetan women of the lower class, walking barefoot, carrying loads on their backs. W.W. Rockhill, in his 1890 edition of Tibet, states: "Tibetan women are robust and the men weak, and one may frequently see women performing in the place of their husbands the socage services which the people owe. As a consequence (of the superior ...
Lhasa, Royal Monastery of Tengye-ling from Southeast
This view from the southeast of the Royal Monastery of Tan-gye-ling (also seen as Tangia Ling, Tangye-ling, or Tan gye Ling in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Tan-gye-ling was the monastic palace of Demu-khutuktu (also known as Demohutuktu), the late regent. In the distance are the “iron mountain,” Ch'agpori (also Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill) on the left and the Dalai Lama ...
Lhasa, Chagpori (Iron Mountain) from Northwest
This northwestern view of Ch'agpori, the “iron mountain” (also seen as Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Houses are visible along the ridge. In his 1890 edition of Tibet, W.W. Rockhill writes: “Houses in Tibet are generally several-storied stone buildings, all the rooms of a storey being of equal size, the largest ones on the middle ...
Lhasa, Amban's Yamen (Residence of Chinese Official) from Southeast
This view of the residence of the Amban (a Chinese official), seen from the southeast, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The duty of the Amban, according to J. Deniker in his 1903 article “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city,” was “to watch over the Dalai Lama, the latter being nominally under subjection to China.” Deniker notes that the “house is a very modest dwelling, surrounded by walls ...
Lhasa, Ruins of Donkar-jong Castle
This view of the ruins of Donkar-jong castle on a hillside is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the photographer’s notes, Donkar is a village on the route from Lhasa to Tashi-lhumpo (also seen as Tashi-lhunpo in other sources), about five miles (eight kilometers) to the west of Lhasa. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O ...
Lhasa, Chja shi tan, Fortified Chinese Camp
This view of Ch’ja shi tan, a fortified Chinese camp (also seen as Chja shi tan in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the photographer’s note, Ch’ja shi tan was a fortified camp of the Chinese garrison of Lhasa in the vicinity of the town Dabchi on A-K's plan of Lhasa. (“A-K” refers to Pandit Kishen Singh, a legendary explorer of ...
Lhasa, Kunduling Monastic Palace from Southeast
This southeastern view of the Kunde-ling monastic palace (also seen as Kunduling or Kontia Ling in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The abbot of this monastic palace was regent (gyel bo or gyal-tsab) at the time of the 1882 visit to Lhasa by Sarat Chandra Das, who described passing the residence of the regent in his 1902 edition of Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet: “. . . we ...
Yaks in the Pasture
This photograph, showing domesticated yaks in a Tibetan pasture with people nearby, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In his 1891 edition of The Land of Lamas, W.W. Rockhill writes of the Tibetans: "They are shrewd and enterprising traders, and able to hold their own even with the Chinese, to whom they sell large quantities of lambskins, wool, yak-hides, musk, furs (principally lynx and fox skins), rhubarb and ...
Samye Monastery
This southern view of the Samye monastery (also seen as Sam-ye or Sam-yai in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. G.Ts. Tsybikov wrote in his article “Journey to Lhasa” of 1904: “The Sam-yai monastery is on the left bank of the Brahmaputra, 67 miles south-east of Lhasa. It is the oldest in Tibet, having been founded in the ninth century. Its five-storied sume (temple), of which ...
Ruins of the De-chen jong Castle
This view of the ruins of the De-chen jong castle, seen atop a large hill (also called De-ch’on jong in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the photographer’s note, the castle ruins were on the way from Lhasa to the Gah-Idan monastery (also seen as Gah-Dan). The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe ...
Hermitage in Gechen
This photograph shows a view of a hermitage called Gechen (also seen as G'ech'en-ritod or Gechen-ritod in other sources). The hermitage is built into the top of a remote hillside located to the north of the Sera monastery. In his 1904 article “Journey to Lhasa,” G.Ts. Tsybikov wrote that the “Sera monastery is . . . renowned for its ascetics, who live isolated in their ritods, or cells, plunged into contemplation.” The photograph is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian ...
Yarba Ritod Hermitage
This photograph shows the scattered and secluded buildings of the Yarba Ritod hermitage, located along the route from Lhasa to the Gah-Idan (or Gah-Dan) monastery. The famous Buddhist teacher, philosopher, and guru Padma Sambhava is said to have lived in a cave at the hermitage for some time. In Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902), Sarat Chandra Das writes: “We reached the cell of Padma Sambhava, near which is a chapel called the Upper Lha-khandg of Shetag. The keeper led us to a heavy door under a huge rock ...
Lhasa, Chagpori (Iron Mountain) from Southeast
This photograph shows the “iron mountain” Chagpori (also seen as Ch’agpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill in other sources) in Lhasa, viewed from the southeast. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the 1903 article “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city,” by J. Deniker, “The building on the top of the Chagpori mountain is the Man-ba Ta-ts'an [Man-bo-datsang], a monastery where 'the ...
Monument near Gadan
This view of a monument near Gah-Idan (or Gadan) monastery is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the photographer’s note, the monument was erected by the living (thirteenth) Dalai Lama on the spot where he is supposed to have dedicated some relics of the Tibetan religious philosopher and teacher of Buddhism, Tson-kha-pa (also seen as Tsongkhapa, Tson-k'apa, or Tsongk'apa in other sources). In The Land ...
Kichu River West of Lhasa
This view of the Kichu River, west of Lhasa, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The Kichu River is also called Kyii ch'u, KyiI, and Kyi-chu in other sources. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for ...
Lhasa, Potala Palace from South-Southwest
This southwestern view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. This image was taken by G.Ts. Tsybikov during the festival he calls Ts'og Ch'od (also seen as Tsog Chod in other sources and called Sung ch'o in Tibetan) celebrated on the 29th day of the second moon of the Tibetan year. Two huge pictures hang on ...
Gyantse Jong (Gyangze), General View of Town
This photograph showing the town of Gyantse (also seen as Gyangze, Gangtse, or Gyangtse in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In his 1904 article “Journey to Lhasa,” G.Ts. Tsybikov wrote: “[I]n the valley of the Nian-chu, stands one of the oldest towns of Tibet, Gyangtse, advantageously situated for trade with India. Carpets and cloth are made in this spot, widely renowned for its immense ...
View of Town of Tsetan (Zetang)
This view of the town of Tsetan (also seen as Chetan, Chethang, Tse-tang, or Zetang in other sources), viewed here from the west, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In his 1904 article “Journey to Lhasa,” G.Ts. Tsybikov wrote: “The town of Tsetan stands 20 miles east of the [the Sam-ye monastery], on the right bank of the Brahmaputra, at its junction with the fertile valley of the ...
Sera Monastery
This photograph showing the principal shrines of the Sera monastery, seen from the east, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell writes: “The temples and houses of Sera stand on a slope of the mountain-spur, planted with hollies and cypresses. At a distance these buildings, ranged in the form of an amphitheatre, one above the other, and standing out ...
Lhasa, Residence of the State Sorcerer
This photograph of Na-ch'un, the residence of the state sorcerer in Lhasa, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society.  On the left side of the photograph is the Drepung monastery. In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell writes: “Every orthodox monastery in Tibet, even of the most reformed sects, keeps or patronizes a sorcerer, and consults him and follows his dictates upon most matters; and ...
Lhasa, Gadan Kansar Palace, the Old Palace
This view of the Gadan Kansar Palace in Lhasa (also seen as Gadan-Khangsar in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the article “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city” (1903), J. Deniker writes: “Among other curious buildings in Lhasa, Norzunof was able to photograph the ancient palace of the kings of Tibet. This is falling into ruin, but is still occupied by private persons. The eastern ...
Lhasa, Marpori (Red Mountain) and Potala from the South-Southeast
This photograph shows Marpori (red mountain) and Potala, the palace of the Dalai Lama, in Lhasa, viewed from the south-southeast. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the 1901 article “Lhasa,” T.H. Holdich writes: “Potala derives its chief interest from the fact that it is the residence of the head of all the great Buddhist hierarchy, the Dalai lama, who is represented in the flesh by a ...
Purba Chog Monastery
This view of the Purba Chog monastery (also seen as P'urba'-Ch'og or Purbuchok Hermitage in other sources), set atop a hillside, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Purba Chog was a monastery located to the north of Sera. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying ...
Purba Chog Monastery from Southeast
This southeastern view of the Purba Chog monastery (also seen as P'urba'-Ch'og or Purbuchok Hermitage in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Purba Chog was located to the north of Sera. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set ...
Lhasa, Norbu linga Palace, Summer Residence of Dalai Lamas
This photograph shows the main entrance to the park of the Norbu Linga palace (the summer residence of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa, viewed from the east. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Norbu Linga is also seen as Nurbu Linga, Norbu Lingka, Norbulingka, Nerbuling K'ang, and Nor-bu Ling in other sources. In Tibet (1890), W.W. Rockhill writes: “S.W. of Potala is the Nerbuling k ...
Lhasa, Bar Chorten, the Western Gate or Pargo Kaling Gateway
This photograph shows the Bar Chorten, or Western Gate, located between the Ch'agpori and Marpori mountains. The photograph was taken on the way from Lhasa. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Bar Chorten is also seen in other sources as Barkokani, Bakokani, and the Gateway of Pargo-Kaling. In The Land of Lamas (1891), W.W. Rockhill writes that the word “chorten” means “offering holder.” Rockhill adds: “Great ...
Lhasa, Yu-tog zamba, a Bridge at the Entrance to Lhasa
This photograph showing the Yu-tog zamba, a stone bridge at the entrance to Lhasa, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The bridge (which is called Yutok jampa and the Bridge Yu-tok in other sources) is located on the way from Lhasa to Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama). It is covered with glassed blue tiles, but the name means the “turquoise roof bridge.” In Journey to Lhasa and ...
Lhasa, Potala Palace from the East
This eastern view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism (1899), L.A. Waddell writes of the origins of Potala: “In order to consolidate his new-found rule, and that of his church in the priest-kinship, this prelate [Nag-wan Lo-zan, head of De-pung monastery], as we have seen, posed as the deity Avalokita-in-the-flesh, and ...
Lhasa, Potala Palace from West-Northwest
This photograph shows a view of Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama) in Lhasa, seen from the west-northwest. The photograph was taken on the route to Drepung monastery (also seen as De-Pung, De-p’ung, Debang, Drabung, Dabung, Brebung, or Brasbung in other sources). It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photographer, Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, notes: “the birds seen on the ground are but cocks, brought thither ...
Samye Monastery
This photograph shows a close view of the Samye monastery (also seen as Sam-ye or Sam-yai in other sources), and particularly, the Tsug-la-k'an (also seen as Tsug-lha-khang), or golden-top house, the principal temple of the monastery. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 ...
Gyantse Jong (Gyangze), Chorten Goman
This view of the Chorten Goman in the town of Gyantse (also seen as Gyangze, Gangtse, or Gyangtse in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In The Land of Lamas (1891), W.W. Rockhill writes that the word “chorten” means “offering holder.” Rockhill adds: “Great numbers are built in the vicinity of lamaseries, and serve to point out the roads leading to them. They are also something ...
Obo
This view of an obo is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to W.W. Rockhill in The Land of Lamas (1891): “Obo is a Mongolized Tibetan word, do bong, 'pile of stones' or do bum, 'ten myriad stones'. They are found all over Mongolia and Tibet. In many countries shepherds put up small ones as guides to take their flocks to water, or to go to camp.” The ...
Gadan Monastery
This panoramic view of the Gah-Idan monastery (also seen as Gadan or Ganden in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The mountain on the right is the Brog ri and the mountain on the left is the Wan-kur-ri (also seen as Wangbur). The Tibetan religious philosopher and teacher of Buddhism, Tson-kha-pa (also seen as Tsongkhapa, Tson-k'apa, or Tsongk'apa in other sources) was the founder of ...
Tashi-lhunpo Monastery
This photograph shows the Tashi-lhunpo monastery (also seen as Tashi-lhumpo in other sources). Specifically, the photograph shows a rear view of the (gilded) roof over the tomb of the fourth Pan-ch'en (or Panchen) Lama. It is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902), Sarat Chandra Das writes: “We entered the monastery of Tashilhunpo by the little western gate, in front of which ...